40 CFR 146.13 - Operating, monitoring and reporting requirements.
(a) Operating requirements. Operating requirements shall at a minimum, specify that:
(1) Except during stimulation injection pressure at the wellhead shall not exceed a maximum which shall be calculated so as to assure that the pressure in the injection zone during injection does not initiate new fractures or propagate existing fractures in the injection zone. In no case shall injection pressure initiate fractures in the confining zone or cause the movement of injection or formation fluids into an underground source of drinking water.
(2) Injection between the outermost casing protecting underground sources of drinking water and the well bore is prohibited.
(3) Unless an alternative to a packer has been approved under § 146.12(c), the annulus between the tubing and the long string of casings shall be filled with a fluid approved by the Director and a pressure, also approved by the Director, shall be maintained on the annulus.
(b) Monitoring requirements. Monitoring requirements shall, at a minimum, include:
(1) The analysis of the injected fluids with sufficient frequency to yield representative data of their characteristics;
(2) Installation and use of continuous recording devices to monitor injection pressure, flow rate and volume, and the pressure on the annulus between the tubing and the long string of casing;
(3) A demonstration of mechanical integrity pursuant to § 146.8 at least once every five years during the life of the well; and
(4) The type, number and location of wells within the area of review to be used to monitor any migration of fluids into and pressure in the underground sources of drinking water, the parameters to be measured and the frequency of monitoring.
(c) Reporting requirements. Reporting requirements shall, at a minimum, include:
(1) Quarterly reports to the Director on:
(i) The physical, chemical and other relevant characteristics of injection fluids;
(ii) Monthly average, maximum and minimum values for injection pressure, flow rate and volume, and annular pressure; and
(iii) The results of monitoring prescribed under paragraph (b)(4) of this section.
(2) Reporting the results, with the first quarterly report after the completion, of:
(i) Periodic tests of mechanical integrity;
(ii) Any other test of the injection well conducted by the permittee if required by the Director; and
(iii) Any well work over.
(d) Ambient monitoring.
(1) Based on a site-specific assessment of the potential for fluid movement from the well or injection zone and on the potential value of monitoring wells to detect such movement, the Director shall require the owner or operator to develop a monitoring program. At a minimum, the Director shall require monitoring of the pressure buildup in the injection zone annually, including at a minimum, a shut down of the well for a time sufficient to conduct a valid observation of the pressure fall-off curve.
(2) When prescribing a monitoring system the Director may also require:
(i) Continuous monitoring for pressure changes in the first aquifer overlying the confining zone. When such a well is installed, the owner or operator shall, on a quarterly basis, sample the aquifer and analyze for constituents specified by the Director;
(ii) The use of indirect, geophysical techniques to determine the position of the waste front, the water quality in a formation designated by the Director, or to provide other site specific data;
(iii) Periodic monitoring of the ground water quality in the first aquifer overlying the injection zone;
(iv) Periodic monitoring of the ground water quality in the lowermost USDW; and
(v) Any additional monitoring necessary to determine whether fluids are moving into or between USDWs.