40 CFR § 205.54-2 - Sound data acquisition system.
(a) Systems employing tape recorders and graphic level recorders may be established as equivalent to a Type I - ANSI S1.4-1971 sound level meter for use in determining compliance with this regulation by meeting the requirements of this section (§ 205.54-2(b)). This sound data acquisition system qualification procedure is based primarily on ANSI S6.1-1973.
(1) Performance requirements -
(i) System frequency response. It is required that the overall steady-state frequency response of the data acquisition system shall be within the tolerances prescribed in Table 205.1 when measured in accordance with section (2). The tolerances in Table 205.1 are applicable to either flat or A-weighted response. (See paragraph (a)(3)(iii) of this section.)
(ii) Detector response. To ensure that a (true) rms indication is provided, the difference between the level indicated for a 1000 Hz sinusoidal signal equivalent to a sound level of 86 dB (rms) and the level indicated for an octave band of random noise of equal energy as the sinusoidal signal centered at 1000 Hz shall be no greater than 0.5 dB. A true rms voltmeter shall be used to determine equivalence of two input signals.
(iii) Indicating meter. If an indicating meter is used to obtain sound levels or band pressure levels, it must meet the requirements of paragraphs (a)(1)(ii) and (vi)(B) of this section and the following.
Table 205.1 - System Response Data
|Freq. (hertz)||A-weighted response (Re-1000 Hz, dB)||Tolerance (decibels)|
|Plus -||Minus -|
(A) The scale shall be graduated in 1 dB steps.
(B) No scale indication shall be more than 0.2 dB different from the true value of the signal when an input signal equivalent to 86 dB sound level indicates correctly.
(C) Maximum indication for an input signal of 1000 Hz tone burst of 0.2 sec duration shall be within the range of −2 to 0 dB with respect to the steady-state indication for a 1000 Hz tone equivalent to 86 dB sound level.
(iv) Microphone. If microphone is used which has not been provided as a component of a precision sound level meter, it must be determined to meet the microphone characteristics described in IEC Publication 179, Precision Sound Level Meters.
(v) Magnetic tape recorders. No requirements are described in this document pertaining to tape recorders, except for frequency response. Generally, recorders of adequate quality to provide the frequency response performance required will also meet other minimum requirements for distortion, signal-to-noise ratio, etc.
(vi) Graphic level recorder dynamic response. When using a graphic level recorder, it is necessary to select pen response settings such that the readings obtained are statistically equivalent to those obtained by directly reading a meter which meets the “fast” dynamic requirement of a precision sound level meter indicating meter system for the range of vehicles to be tested. To ensure statistical equivalence, at least 30 comparative observations of real test data shall be made and the average of the absolute value of the differences observed shall be less than 0.5 dB. The settings described in this paragraph likely assure appropriate dynamic response; however, different settings may be selected on the basis of the above requirement.
(A) Use a pen writing speed of nominally 60-100 dB/sec. If adjustable, low frequency response should be limited to about 20 Hz.
(B) Indicated overshoot for a suddenly applied 1000 Hz sinusoidal signal equivalent to 86 dB sound level shall be no more than 1.1 dB and no less than 0.1 dB.
(2) Frequency response qualification procedure.
(i) Typical noise measurement and analysis configurations are shown in Figures 205.2 through 205.4. The qualification procedure described herein duplicates these configurations, but with the microphone replaced by an electronic sinewave oscillator. Caution should be exercised when connecting an oscillator to the input of a sound level meter to ensure, perhaps by using a resistive voltage divider network, that the input is not overloaded (see § 205.54-2(a)(2)(ii)).
(ii) Calibrate the oscillator to be used by measuring its output relative to the voltage which is equivalent to 86 dB sound level at each of the 27 frequencies listed in Table 205.1 using an electronic voltmeter of known calibration. Record the result in voltage level in dB re voltage corresponding to 86 dB sound level at 1000 Hz. This will describe the frequency response characteristics of the oscillator.
(iii) If a graphic level recorder is to be used, connect it to the oscillator output. If the oscillator and graphic level recorder can be synchronized, slowly sweep the frequency over the range of 31.5 to 12,500 Hz, recording the oscillator output. If they cannot be synchronized, record oscillator output for signals at the 27 frequencies given in Table 205.1. The differences between the combined response thus obtained and the oscillator response obtained previously will describe the frequency response of the graphic level recorder.
(iv) If visual observation of an indicating meter is to be used for obtaining data, the oscillator should be connected to the indicating meter input (such as the microphone input of a sound level meter) and the meter reading observed for a fixed oscillator output voltage setting for signals at the 27 frequencies given in Table 205.1.
(v) To check a tape recorder, connect the instruments as shown in Figure 205.4. Using a 1000 Hz tone, adjust the oscillator output level to obtain a reading 15 dB below maximum record level. If the synchronized oscillator/graphic level recorder system is to be used for analysis, record an oscillator sweep over the range of 31.5 to 12,500 Hz, using an appropriate tape recorder input attenuator setting. Alternatively, tape-record frequency tones at the 27 frequencies given in Table 205.1. Replay the tape recordings using the setup shown in Figure 205.3. Record the data on a graphic level recorder or through visual observation of the indicating meter. Subtract the oscillator frequency response in paragraph (b)(2) of this section from the response obtained through the record-playback sequence to obtain the record/reproduce frequency response of the system except for the microphone.
(vi) To obtain the overall system frequency response, add the manufacturer's microphone calibration data to the response just obtained. This may be the frequency response for the specific microphone to be used, including calibration tolerances. Alternatively, use the manufacturer's “typical” microphone response plus and minus the maximum deviation expected from “typical” including calibration tolerances. Use the microphone response curve which corresponds to the manner in which it is used in the field. It may be required to add a correction to the response curves provided to obtain field response; refer to the manufacturer's manual.
(vii) Adjustment or repair of equipment may be required to obtain response within the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section. After any adjustments, the system shall be requalified according to paragraph (b) of this section.
(3) General comments.
(i) Calibrate tape recorders using the brand and type of magnetic tape used for actual data acquisition. Differences in tape can cause an appreciable variation in the recorder/reproduce frequency response characteristics of tape recorder.
(ii) It shall be ensured that the instrumentation used will perform within specifications and applicable tolerances over the temperature, humidity, and other environmental variation ranges which may be encountered in vehicle noise measurement works.
(iii) Qualification tests shall be performed using equipment (including cables) and recording and playback techniques identical with those used while recording vehicle noise. For example, if weighted sound level data are normally recorded use similar weighting and apply the tolerances of Table 205.1 to the weighting curve for comparison with record-playback curves. Precautions should also be taken to ensure that source and load impedances are appropriate to the device being tested. Other data acquisition systems may use any combination of microphones, sound level meters, amplifiers, tape recorders, graphic level recorders, or indicating meters. The same approach to qualifying such a system shall be taken as described in this document for the systems depicted in Figures 205.2, 205.3 and 205.4.
(b) Systems other than those specified in §§ 205.54-1(a) and 205.54-2(a) may be used for establishing compliance with this regulation. In each case the system must yield sound levels which are equivalent to those produced by a sound level meter Type 1 ANSI S1.4-1971. The manufacturer bears the burden of demonstrating such equivalence.