40 CFR 227.29 - Initial mixing.
(a) Initial mixing is defined to be that dispersion or diffusion of liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a waste which occurs within four hours after dumping. The limiting permissible concentration shall not be exceeded beyond the boundaries of the disposal site during initial mixing, and shall not be exceeded at any point in the marine environment after initial mixing. The maximum concentration of the liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a dumped material after initial mixing shall be estimated by one of these methods, in order of preference:
(1) When field data on the proposed dumping are adequate to predict initial dispersion and diffusion of the waste, these shall be used, if necessary, in conjunction with an appropriate mathematical model acceptable to EPA or the District Engineer, as appropriate.
(2) When field data on the dispersion and diffusion of a waste of characteristics similar to that proposed for discharge are available, these shall be used in conjunction with an appropriate mathematical model acceptable to EPA or the District Engineer, as appropriate.
(3) When no field data are available, theoretical oceanic turbulent diffusion relationships may be applied to known characteristics of the waste and the disposal site.
(b) When no other means of estimation are feasible.
(1) The liquid and suspended particulate phases of the dumped waste may be assumed to be evenly distributed after four hours over a column of water bounded on the surface by the release zone and extending to the ocean floor, thermocline, or halocline if one exists, or to a depth of 20 meters, whichever is shallower, and
(2) The solid phase of a dumped waste may be assumed to settle rapidly to the ocean bottom and to be distributed evenly over the ocean bottom in an area equal to that of the release zone as defined in § 227.28.
(c) When there is reasonable scientific evidence to demonstrate that other methods of estimating a reasonable allowance for initial mixing are appropriate for a specific material, such methods may be used with the concurrence of EPA after appropriate scientific review.