40 CFR § 233.41 - Requirements for enforcement authority.
(1) To restrain immediately and effectively any person from engaging in any unauthorized activity;
(2) To sue to enjoin any threatened or continuing violation of any program requirement;
(3) To assess or sue to recover civil penalties and to seek criminal remedies, as follows:
(i) The agency shall have the authority to assess or recover civil penalties for discharges of dredged or fill material without a required permit or in violation of any section 404 permit condition in an amount of at least $5,000 per day of such violation.
(ii) The agency shall have the authority to seek criminal fines against any person who willfully or with criminal negligence discharges dredged or fill material without a required permit or violates any permit condition issued under section 404 in the amount of at least $10,000 per day of such violation.
(iii) The agency shall have the authority to seek criminal fines against any person who knowingly makes false statements, representation, or certification in any application, record, report, plan, or other document filed or required to be maintained under the Act, these regulations or the approved State program, or who falsifies, tampers with, or knowingly renders inaccurate any monitoring device or method required to be maintained under the permit, in an amount of at least $5,000 for each instance of violation.
(1) The approved maximum civil penalty or criminal fine shall be assessable for each violation and, if the violation is continuous, shall be assessable in that maximum amount for each day of violation.
(2) The burden of proof and degree of knowledge or intent required under State law for establishing violations under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, shall be no greater than the burden of proof or degree of knowledge or intent EPA must bear when it brings an action under the Act.
(c) The civil penalty assessed, sought, or agreed upon by the Director under paragraph (a)(3) of this section shall be appropriate to the violation.
To the extent that State judgments or settlements provide penalties in amounts which EPA believes to be substantially inadequate in comparison to the amounts which EPA would require under similar facts, EPA may, when authorized by section 309 of the Act, commence separate action for penalties.
(1) The Regional Administrator may approve a State program where the State lacks authority to recover penalties of the levels required under paragraphs (a)(3)(i)-(iii) of this section only if the Regional Administrator determines, after evaluating a record of at least one year for an alternative enforcement program, that the State has an alternate, demonstrably effective method of ensuring compliance which has both punitive and deterrence effects.
(2) States whose programs were approved via waiver of monetary penalties shall keep the Regional Administrator informed of all enforcement actions taken under any alternative method approved pursuant to paragraph (d)(1) of this section. The manner of reporting will be established in the Memorandum of Agreement with the Regional Administrator (§ 233.13).
(1) Authority which allows intervention of right in any civil or administrative action to obtain remedies specified in paragraph (a)(3) of this section by any citizen having an interest which is or may be adversely affected, or
(2) Assurance that the State agency or enforcement authority will:
(i) Investigate and provide written responses to all citizen complaints submitted pursuant to State procedures;
(ii) Not oppose intervention by any citizen when permissive intervention may be authorized by statute, rule, or regulation; and
(f) Provision for Tribal criminal enforcement authority. To the extent that an Indian Tribe does not assert or is precluded from asserting criminal enforcement authority (§ 233.41(a)(3) (ii) and (iii)), the Federal government will continue to exercise primary criminal enforcement responsibility. The Tribe, with the EPA Region and Corps District(s) with jurisdiction, shall develop a system where the Tribal agency will refer such a violation to the Regional Administrator or the District Engineer(s), as agreed to by the parties, in an appropriate and timely manner. This agreement shall be incorporated into joint or separate Memorandum of Agreement with the EPA Region and the Corps District(s), as appropriate.