40 CFR 233.41 - Requirements for enforcement authority.

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§ 233.41 Requirements for enforcement authority.

(a) Any State agency administering a program shall have authority:

(1) To restrain immediately and effectively any person from engaging in any unauthorized activity;

(2) To sue to enjoin any threatened or continuing violation of any program requirement;

(3) To assess or sue to recover civil penalties and to seek criminal remedies, as follows:

(i) The agency shall have the authority to assess or recover civil penalties for discharges of dredged or fill material without a required permit or in violation of any section 404 permit condition in an amount of at least $5,000 per day of such violation.

(ii) The agency shall have the authority to seek criminal fines against any person who willfully or with criminal negligence discharges dredged or fill material without a required permit or violates any permit condition issued under section 404 in the amount of at least $10,000 per day of such violation.

(iii) The agency shall have the authority to seek criminal fines against any person who knowingly makes false statements, representation, or certification in any application, record, report, plan, or other document filed or required to be maintained under the Act, these regulations or the approved State program, or who falsifies, tampers with, or knowingly renders inaccurate any monitoring device or method required to be maintained under the permit, in an amount of at least $5,000 for each instance of violation.


(1) The approved maximum civil penalty or criminal fine shall be assessable for each violation and, if the violation is continuous, shall be assessable in that maximum amount for each day of violation.

(2) The burden of proof and degree of knowledge or intent required under State law for establishing violations under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, shall be no greater than the burden of proof or degree of knowledge or intent EPA must bear when it brings an action under the Act.

(c) The civil penalty assessed, sought, or agreed upon by the Director under paragraph (a)(3) of this section shall be appropriate to the violation.


To the extent that State judgments or settlements provide penalties in amounts which EPA believes to be substantially inadequate in comparison to the amounts which EPA would require under similar facts, EPA may, when authorized by section 309 of the Act, commence separate action for penalties.


(1) The Regional Administrator may approve a State program where the State lacks authority to recover penalties of the levels required under paragraphs (a)(3)(i)-(iii) of this section only if the Regional Administrator determines, after evaluating a record of at least one year for an alternative enforcement program, that the State has an alternate, demonstrably effective method of ensuring compliance which has both punitive and deterrence effects.

(2) States whose programs were approved via waiver of monetary penalties shall keep the Regional Administrator informed of all enforcement actions taken under any alternative method approved pursuant to paragraph (d)(1) of this section. The manner of reporting will be established in the Memorandum of Agreement with the Regional Administrator (§ 233.13).

(e) Any State administering a program shall provide for public participation in the State enforcement process by providing either:

(1) Authority which allows intervention of right in any civil or administrative action to obtain remedies specified in paragraph (a)(3) of this section by any citizen having an interest which is or may be adversely affected, or

(2) Assurance that the State agency or enforcement authority will:

(i) Investigate and provide written responses to all citizen complaints submitted pursuant to State procedures;

(ii) Not oppose intervention by any citizen when permissive intervention may be authorized by statute, rule, or regulation; and

(iii) Publish notice of and provide at least 30 days for public comment on any proposed settlement of a State enforcement action.

(f)Provision for Tribal criminal enforcement authority. To the extent that an Indian Tribe does not assert or is precluded from asserting criminal enforcement authority ( § 233.41(a)(3) (ii) and (iii)), the Federal government will continue to exercise primary criminal enforcement responsibility. The Tribe, with the EPA Region and Corps District(s) with jurisdiction, shall develop a system where the Tribal agency will refer such a violation to the Regional Administrator or the District Engineer(s), as agreed to by the parties, in an appropriate and timely manner. This agreement shall be incorporated into joint or separate Memorandum of Agreement with the EPA Region and the Corps District(s), as appropriate.

[ 53 FR 20776, June 1, 1988, as amended at 58 FR 8183, Feb. 11, 1993]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.

United States Code

§ 1251 - Congressional declaration of goals and policy

§ 1252 - Comprehensive programs for water pollution control

§ 1252a - Reservoir projects, water storage; modification; storage for other than for water quality, opinion of Federal agency, committee resolutions of approval;...prescribed water quality benefits in relation to total project benefits

§ 1253 - Interstate cooperation and uniform laws

§ 1254 - Research, investigations, training, and information

§ 1254a - Research on effects of pollutants

§ 1255 - Grants for research and development

§ 1256 - Grants for pollution control programs

§ 1257 - Mine water pollution control demonstrations

§ 1257a - State demonstration programs for cleanup of abandoned mines for use as waste disposal sites; authorization of appropriations

§ 1258 - Pollution control in the Great Lakes

§ 1259 - Training grants and contracts

§ 1260 - Applications; allocation

§ 1261 - Scholarships

§ 1262 - Definitions and authorizations

§ 1263 - Alaska village demonstration projects

§ 1263a - Grants to Alaska to improve sanitation in rural and Native villages

§ 1264 - Omitted

§ 1265 - In-place toxic pollutants

§ 1266 - Hudson River reclamation demonstration proj­ect

§ 1267 - Chesapeake Bay

§ 1268 - Great Lakes

§ 1269 - Long Island Sound

§ 1270 - Lake Champlain Basin Program

§ 1271 - Sediment survey and monitoring

§ 1271a - Research and development program

§ 1272 - Environmental dredging

§ 1273 - Lake Pontchartrain Basin

§ 1274 - Watershed pilot projects

§ 1344 - Permits for dredged or fill material


§ 300f - Definitions

§ 6901 - Congressional findings

§ 6901a - Congressional findings: used oil recycling

§ 6902 - Objectives and national policy

§ 6903 - Definitions

§ 6904 - Governmental cooperation

§ 6905 - Application of chapter and integration with other Acts

§ 6906 - Financial disclosure

§ 6907 - Solid waste management information and guidelines

§ 6908 - Small town environmental planning

§ 6908a - Agreements with Indian tribes

§ 7401 - Congressional findings and declaration of purpose

§ 7402 - Cooperative activities

§ 7403 - Research, investigation, training, and other activities

§ 7404 - Research relating to fuels and vehicles

§ 7405 - Grants for support of air pollution planning and control programs

§ 7406 - Interstate air quality agencies; program cost limitations

§ 7407 - Air quality control regions

§ 7408 - Air quality criteria and control techniques

§ 7409 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7410 - State implementation plans for national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7411 - Standards of performance for new stationary sources

§ 7412 - Hazardous air pollutants

§ 7413 - Federal enforcement

§ 7414 - Recordkeeping, inspections, monitoring, and entry

§ 7415 - International air pollution

§ 7416 - Retention of State authority

§ 7417 - Advisory committees

§ 7418 - Control of pollution from Federal facilities

§ 7419 - Primary nonferrous smelter orders

§ 7420 - Noncompliance penalty

§ 7421 - Consultation

§ 7422 - Listing of certain unregulated pollutants

§ 7423 - Stack heights

§ 7424 - Assurance of adequacy of State plans

§ 7425 - Measures to prevent economic disruption or unemployment

§ 7426 - Interstate pollution abatement

§ 7427 - Public notification

§ 7428 - State boards

§ 7429 - Solid waste combustion

§ 7430 - Emission factors

§ 7431 - Land use authority

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