40 CFR 240.101 - Definitions.
As used in these guidelines:
(a) Air: Overfire air means air, under control as to quantity and direction, introduced above or beyond a fuel bed by induced or forced draft. “Underfire air” means any forced or induced air, under control as to quantity and direction, that is supplied from beneath and which passes through the solid wastes fuel bed.
(b) Bottom ash means the solid material that remains on a hearth or falls off the grate after thermal processing is complete.
(c) Combustibles means materials that can be ignited at a specific temperature in the presence of air to release heat energy.
(d) Design capacity means the weight of solid waste of a specified gross calorific value that a thermal processing facility is designed to process in 24 hours of continuous operation; usually expressed in tons per day.
(e) Discharge means water-borne pollutants released to a receiving stream directly or indirectly or to a sewerage system.
(f) Emission means gas-borne pollutants released to the atmosphere.
(h) Fly ash means suspended particles, charred paper, dust, soot, and other partially oxidized matter carried in the products of combustion.
(i) Free moisture means liquid that will drain freely by gravity from solid materials.
(j) Furnace means the chambers of the combustion train where drying, ignition, and combustion of waste material and evolved gases occur.
(k) Grate siftings means the materials that fall from the solid waste fuel bed through the grate openings.
(l) Gross calorific value means heat liberated when waste is burned completely and the products of combustion are cooled to the initial temperature of the waste. Usually expressed in British thermal units per pound.
(m) Hazardous waste means any waste or combination of wastes which pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or living organisms because such wastes are nondegradable or persistent in nature or because they can be biologically magnified, or because they can be lethal, or because they may otherwise cause or tend to cause detrimental cumulative effects.
(n) Incineration means the controlled process which combustible solid, liquid, or gaseous wastes are burned and changed into noncombustible gases.
(p) Infectious waste means: (1) Equipment, instruments, utensils, and fomites of a disposable nature from the rooms of patients who are suspected to have or have been diagnosed as having a communicable disease and must, therefore, be isolated as required by public health agencies; (2) laboratory wastes such as pathological specimens (e.g., all tissues, specimens of blood elements, excreta, and secretions obtained from patients or laboratory animals) and disposable fomites (any substance that may harbor or transmit pathogenic organisms) attendant thereto; (3) surgical operating room pathologic specimens and disposable fomites attendant thereto and similar disposable materials from outpatient areas and emergency rooms.
(s) Open dump means a land disposal site at which solid wastes are disposed of in a manner that does not protect the environment, are susceptible to open burning, and are exposed to the elements, vectors, and scavengers.
(v) Responsible agency means the organizational element that has the legal duty to ensure that owners, operators, or users of facilities comply with these guidelines.
(w) Sanitary landfill means a land disposal site employing an engineered method of disposing of solid wastes on land in a manner that minimizes environmental hazards by spreading the solid wastes in thin layers, compacting the solid wastes to the smallest practical volume, and applying and compacting cover material at the end of each operating day.
(x) Sludge means the accumulated semiliquid suspension of settled solids deposited from wastewaters or other fluids in tanks or basins. It does not include solids or dissolved material in domestic sewage or other significant pollutants in water resources, such as silt, dissolved or suspended solids in industrial wastewater effluents, dissolved materials in irrigation return flows or other common water pollutants.
(y) Solid wastes means garbage, refuse, sludges, and other discarded solid materials resulting from industrial and commercial operations and from community activities. It does not include solids or dissolved material in domestic sewage or other significant pollutants in water resources, such as silt, dissolved or suspended solids in industrial wastewater effluents, dissolved materials in irrigation return flows or other common water pollutants.
(aa) Thermal processing means processing of waste material by means of heat.
(bb) Vector means a carrier, usually an arthropod, that is capable of transmitting a pathogen from one organism to another.