40 CFR § 257.24 - Detection monitoring program.
(a) Detection monitoring is required at facilities identified in § 257.5(a) at all ground-water monitoring wells defined under §§ 257.22 (a)(1) and (a)(2). At a minimum, a detection monitoring program must include the monitoring for the constituents listed in appendix I of 40 CFR part 258.
(1) The Director of an approved State may delete any of the appendix I (Appendix I of 40 CFR part 258) monitoring parameters for a unit if it can be shown that the removed constituents are not reasonably expected to be contained in or derived from the waste contained in the unit.
(2) The Director of an approved State may establish an alternative list of indicator parameters for a unit, in lieu of some or all of the constituents in appendix I to 40 CFR part 258, if the alternative parameters provide a reliable indication of releases from the unit to the ground water. In determining alternative parameters, the Director shall consider the following factors:
(i) The types, quantities, and concentrations of constituents in waste managed at the unit;
(ii) The mobility, stability, and persistence of waste constituents or their reaction products in the unsaturated zone beneath the unit;
(iv) The concentration or values and coefficients of variation of monitoring parameters or constituents in the groundwater background.
(b) The monitoring frequency for all constituents listed in appendix I to 40 CFR part 258, or in the alternative list approved in accordance with paragraph (a)(2) of this section, shall be at least semiannual during the active life of the unit plus 30 years. A minimum of four independent samples from each well (background and downgradient) must be collected and analyzed for the appendix I (Appendix I of 40 CFR part 258) constituents, or the alternative list approved in accordance with paragraph (a)(2) of this section, during the first semiannual sampling event. At least one sample from each well (background and downgradient) must be collected and analyzed during subsequent semiannual sampling events. The Director of an approved State may specify an appropriate alternative frequency for repeated sampling and analysis for appendix I (Appendix I of 40 CFR part 258) constituents, or the alternative list approved in accordance with paragraph (a)(2) of this section, during the active life plus 30 years. The alternative frequency during the active life shall be no less than annual. The alternative frequency shall be based on consideration of the following factors:
(1) Lithology of the aquifer and unsaturated zone;
(2) Hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer and unsaturated zone;
(3) Ground-water flow rates;
(4) Minimum distance between upgradient edge of the unit and downgradient monitoring well screen (minimum distance of travel); and
(5) Resource value of the aquifer.
(c) If the owner or operator determines, pursuant to § 257.23(g), that there is a statistically significant increase over background for one or more of the constituents listed in appendix I to 40 CFR part 258, or in the alternative list approved in accordance with paragraph (a)(2) of this section, at any monitoring well at the boundary specified under § 257.22(a)(2), the owner or operator:
(1) Must, within 14 days of this finding, place a notice in the operating record indicating which constituents have shown statistically significant changes from background levels, and notify the State Director that this notice was placed in the operating record; and
(3) The owner/operator may demonstrate that a source other than the unit caused the contamination or that the statistically significant increase resulted from error in sampling, analysis, statistical evaluation, or natural variation in ground-water quality. A report documenting this demonstration must be certified by a qualified ground-water scientist or approved by the Director of an approved State and be placed in the operating record. If a successful demonstration is made and documented, the owner or operator may continue detection monitoring as specified in this section. If, after 90 days, a successful demonstration is not made, the owner or operator must initiate an assessment monitoring program as required in § 257.25.