40 CFR § 266.104 - Standards to control organic emissions.
(a) DRE standard -
(1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(3) of this section, a boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste must achieve a destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of 99.99% for all organic hazardous constituents in the waste feed. To demonstrate conformance with this requirement, 99.99% DRE must be demonstrated during a trial burn for each principal organic hazardous constituent (POHC) designated (under paragraph (a)(2) of this section) in its permit for each waste feed. DRE is determined for each POHC from the following equation:
(2) Designation of POHCs. Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs) are those compounds for which compliance with the DRE requirements of this section shall be demonstrated in a trial burn in conformance with procedures prescribed in § 270.66 of this chapter. One or more POHCs shall be designated by the Director for each waste feed to be burned. POHCs shall be designated based on the degree of difficulty of destruction of the organic constituents in the waste and on their concentrations or mass in the waste feed considering the results of waste analyses submitted with part B of the permit application. POHCs are most likely to be selected from among those compounds listed in part 261, appendix VIII of this chapter that are also present in the normal waste feed. However, if the applicant demonstrates to the Regional Administrator's satisfaction that a compound not listed in appendix VIII or not present in the normal waste feed is a suitable indicator of compliance with the DRE requirements of this section, that compound may be designated as a POHC. Such POHCs need not be toxic or organic compounds.
(3) Dioxin-listed waste. A boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste containing (or derived from) EPA Hazardous Wastes Nos. F020, F021, F022, F023, F026, or F027 must achieve a destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of 99.9999% for each POHC designated (under paragraph (a)(2) of this section) in its permit. This performance must be demonstrated on POHCs that are more difficult to burn than tetra-, penta-, and hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. DRE is determined for each POHC from the equation in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. In addition, the owner or operator of the boiler or industrial furnace must notify the Director of intent to burn EPA Hazardous Waste Nos. F020, F021, F022, F023, F026, or F027.
(4) Automatic waiver of DRE trial burn. Owners and operators of boilers operated under the special operating requirements provided by § 266.110 are considered to be in compliance with the DRE standard of paragraph (a)(1) of this section and are exempt from the DRE trial burn.
(5) Low risk waste. Owners and operators of boilers or industrial furnaces that burn hazardous waste in compliance with the requirements of § 266.109(a) are considered to be in compliance with the DRE standard of paragraph (a)(1) of this section and are exempt from the DRE trial burn.
(b) Carbon monoxide standard.
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, the stack gas concentration of carbon monoxide (CO) from a boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste cannot exceed 100 ppmv on an hourly rolling average basis (i.e., over any 60 minute period), continuously corrected to 7 percent oxygen, dry gas basis.
(2) CO and oxygen shall be continuously monitored in conformance with “Performance Specifications for Continuous Emission Monitoring of Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen for Incinerators, Boilers, and Industrial Furnaces Burning Hazardous Waste” in appendix IX of this part.
(3) Compliance with the 100 ppmv CO limit must be demonstrated during the trial burn (for new facilities or an interim status facility applying for a permit) or the compliance test (for interim status facilities). To demonstrate compliance, the highest hourly rolling average CO level during any valid run of the trial burn or compliance test must not exceed 100 ppmv.
(c) Alternative carbon monoxide standard.
(1) The stack gas concentration of carbon monoxide (CO) from a boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste may exceed the 100 ppmv limit provided that stack gas concentrations of hydrocarbons (HC) do not exceed 20 ppmv, except as provided by paragraph (f) of this section for certain industrial furnaces.
(2) HC limits must be established under this section on an hourly rolling average basis (i.e., over any 60 minute period), reported as propane, and continuously corrected to 7 percent oxygen, dry gas basis.
(3) HC shall be continuously monitored in conformance with “Performance Specifications for Continuous Emission Monitoring of Hydrocarbons for Incinerators, Boilers, and Industrial Furnaces Burning Hazardous Waste” in appendix IX of this part. CO and oxygen shall be continuously monitored in conformance with paragraph (b)(2) of this section.
(4) The alternative CO standard is established based on CO data during the trial burn (for a new facility) and the compliance test (for an interim status facility). The alternative CO standard is the average over all valid runs of the highest hourly average CO level for each run. The CO limit is implemented on an hourly rolling average basis, and continuously corrected to 7 percent oxygen, dry gas basis.
(d) Special requirements for furnaces. Owners and operators of industrial furnaces (e.g., kilns, cupolas) that feed hazardous waste for a purpose other than solely as an ingredient (see § 266.103(a)(5)(ii)) at any location other than the end where products are normally discharged and where fuels are normally fired must comply with the hydrocarbon limits provided by paragraphs (c) or (f) of this section irrespective of whether stack gas CO concentrations meet the 100 ppmv limit of paragraph (b) of this section.
(e) Controls for dioxins and furans. Owners and operators of boilers and industrial furnaces that are equipped with a dry particulate matter control device that operates within the temperature range of 450-750 °F, and industrial furnaces operating under an alternative hydrocarbon limit established under paragraph (f) of this section must conduct a site-specific risk assessment as follows to demonstrate that emissions of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans do not result in an increased lifetime cancer risk to the hypothetical maximum exposed individual (MEI) exceeding 1 in 100,000:
(1) During the trial burn (for new facilities or an interim status facility applying for a permit) or compliance test (for interim status facilities), determine emission rates of the tetra-octa congeners of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (CDDs/CDFs) using Method 0023A, Sampling Method for Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans Emissions from Stationary Sources, EPA Publication SW-846, as incorporated by reference in § 260.11 of this chapter.
(2) Estimate the 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxicity equivalence of the tetra-octa CDDs/CDFs congeners using “Procedures for Estimating the Toxicity Equivalence of Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxin and Dibenzofuran Congeners” in appendix IX of this part. Multiply the emission rates of CDD/CDF congeners with a toxicity equivalence greater than zero (see the procedure) by the calculated toxicity equivalence factor to estimate the equivalent emission rate of 2,3,7,8-TCDD;
(3) Conduct dispersion modeling using methods recommended in appendix W of part 51 of this chapter (“Guideline on Air Quality Models (Revised)” (1986) and its supplements), the “Hazardous Waste Combustion Air Quality Screening Procedure”, provided in appendix IX of this part, or in Screening Procedures for Estimating the Air Quality Impact of Stationary Sources, Revised (incorporated by reference in § 260.11) to predict the maximum annual average off-site ground level concentration of 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents determined under paragraph (e)(2) of this section. The maximum annual average concentration must be used when a person resides on-site; and
(4) The ratio of the predicted maximum annual average ground level concentration of 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents to the risk-specific dose for 2,3,7,8-TCDD provided in appendix V of this part (2.2 × 10−7) shall not exceed 1.0.
(f) Monitoring CO and HC in the by-pass duct of a cement kiln. Cement kilns may comply with the carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon limits provided by paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section by monitoring in the by-pass duct provided that:
(1) Hazardous waste is fired only into the kiln and not at any location downstream from the kiln exit relative to the direction of gas flow; and
(2) The by-pass duct diverts a minimum of 10% of kiln off-gas into the duct.
(g) Use of emissions test data to demonstrate compliance and establish operating limits. Compliance with the requirements of this section must be demonstrated simultaneously by emissions testing or during separate runs under identical operating conditions. Further, data to demonstrate compliance with the CO and HC limits of this section or to establish alternative CO or HC limits under this section must be obtained during the time that DRE testing, and where applicable, CDD/CDF testing under paragraph (e) of this section and comprehensive organic emissions testing under paragraph (f) is conducted.
(h) Enforcement. For the purposes of permit enforcement, compliance with the operating requirements specified in the permit (under § 266.102) will be regarded as compliance with this section. However, evidence that compliance with those permit conditions is insufficient to ensure compliance with the requirements of this section may be “information” justifying modification or revocation and re-issuance of a permit under § 270.41 of this chapter.
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