40 CFR § 268.4 - Treatment surface impoundment exemption.
(a) Wastes which are otherwise prohibited from land disposal under this part may be treated in a surface impoundment or series of impoundments provided that:
(1) Treatment of such wastes occurs in the impoundments;
(2) The following conditions are met:
(i) Sampling and testing. For wastes with treatment standards in subpart D of this part and/or prohibition levels in subpart C of this part or RCRA section 3004(d), the residues from treatment are analyzed, as specified in § 268.7 or § 268.32, to determine if they meet the applicable treatment standards or where no treatment standards have been established for the waste, the applicable prohibition levels. The sampling method, specified in the waste analysis plan under § 264.13 or § 265.13, must be designed such that representative samples of the sludge and the supernatant are tested separately rather than mixed to form homogeneous samples.
(ii) Removal. The following treatment residues (including any liquid waste) must be removed at least annually; residues which do not meet the treatment standards promulgated under subpart D of this part; residues which do not meet the prohibition levels established under subpart C of this part or imposed by statute (where no treatment standards have been established); residues which are from the treatment of wastes prohibited from land disposal under subpart C of this part (where no treatment standards have been established and no prohibition levels apply); or residues from managing listed wastes which are not delisted under § 260.22 of this chapter. If the volume of liquid flowing through the impoundment or series of impoundments annually is greater than the volume of the impoundment or impoundments, this flow-through constitutes removal of the supernatant for the purpose of this requirement.
(iii) Subsequent management. Treatment residues may not be placed in any other surface impoundment for subsequent management.
(iv) Recordkeeping. Sampling and testing and recordkeeping provisions of §§ 264.13 and 265.13 of this chapter apply.
(3) The impoundment meets the design requirements of § 264.221(c) or § 265.221(a) of this chapter, regardless that the unit may not be new, expanded, or a replacement, and be in compliance with applicable ground water monitoring requirements of subpart F of part 264 or part 265 of this chapter unless:
(i) Exempted pursuant to § 264.221 (d) or (e) of this chapter, or to § 265.221 (c) or (d) of this chapter; or,
(ii) Upon application by the owner or operator, the Administrator, after notice and an opportunity to comment, has granted a waiver of the requirements on the basis that the surface impoundment:
(A) Has at least one liner, for which there is no evidence that such liner is leaking;
(B) Is located more than one-quarter mile from an underground source of drinking water; and
(C) Is in compliance with generally applicable ground water monitoring requirements for facilities with permits; or,
(iii) Upon application by the owner or operator, the Administrator, after notice and an opportunity to comment, has granted a modification to the requirements on the basis of a demonstration that the surface impoundment is located, designed, and operated so as to assure that there will be no migration of any hazardous constituent into ground water or surface water at any future time.
(4) The owner or operator submits to the Regional Administrator a written certification that the requirements of § 268.4(a)(3) have been met. The following certification is required:
I certify under penalty of law that the requirements of 40 CFR 268.4(a)(3) have been met for all surface impoundments being used to treat restricted wastes. I believe that the submitted information is true, accurate, and complete. I am aware that there are significant penalties for submitting false information, including the possibility of fine and imprisonment.
(b) Evaporation of hazardous constituents as the principal means of treatment is not considered to be treatment for purposes of an exemption under this section.