40 CFR 300.310 - Phase III - Containment, countermeasures, cleanup, and disposal.
(a) Defensive actions shall begin as soon as possible to prevent, minimize, or mitigate threat(s) to the public health or welfare of the United States or the environment. Actions may include but are not limited to: Analyzing water samples to determine the source and spread of the oil; controlling the source of discharge; measuring and sampling; source and spread control or salvage operations; placement of physical barriers to deter the spread of the oil and to protect natural resources and sensitive ecosystems; control of the water discharged from upstream impoundment; and the use of chemicals and other materials in accordance with subpart J of this part to restrain the spread of the oil and mitigate its effects. The ACP prepared under § 300.210(c) should be consulted for procedures to be followed for obtaining an expedited decision regarding the use of dispersants and other products listed on the NCP Product Schedule.
(b) As appropriate, actions shall be taken to recover the oil or mitigate its effects. Of the numerous chemical or physical methods that may be used, the chosen methods shall be the most consistent with protecting public health and welfare and the environment. Sinking agents shall not be used.
(c) Oil and contaminated materials recovered in cleanup operations shall be disposed of in accordance with the RCP, ACP, and any applicable laws, regulations, or requirements. RRT and Area Committee guidelines may identify the disposal options available during an oil spill response and may describe what disposal requirements are mandatory or may not be waived by the OSC. ACP guidelines should address: the sampling, testing, and classifying of recovered oil and oiled debris; the segregation, temporary storage, and stockpiling of recovered oil and oiled debris; prior state disposal approvals and permits; and the routes; methods (e.g. recycle/reuse, on-site burning, incineration, landfilling, etc.); and sites for the disposal of collected oil, oiled debris, and animal carcasses; and procedures for obtaining waivers, exemptions, or authorizations associated with handling or transporting waste materials. The ACPs may identify a hierarchy of preferences for disposal alternatives, with recycling (reprocessing) being the most preferred, and other alternatives preferred based on priorities for health or the environment.