40 CFR § 35.2005 - Definitions.
(b) As used in this subpart, the following words and terms mean:
(2) Ad valorem tax. A tax based upon the value of real property.
(4) Alternative technology. Proven wastewater treatment processes and techniques which provide for the reclaiming and reuse of water, productively recycle wastewater constitutuents or otherwise eliminate the discharge of pollutants, or recover energy. Specifically, alternative technolgy includes land application of effluent and sludge; aquifer recharge; aquaculture; direct reuse (non-potable); horticulture; revegetation of disturbed land; containment ponds; sludge composting and drying prior to land application; self-sustaining incineration; and methane recovery.
(5) Alternative to conventional treatment works for a small community. For purposes of §§ 35.2020 and 35.2032, alternative technology used by treatment works in small communities include alternative technologies defined in paragraph (b)(4), as well as, individual and onsite systems; small diameter gravity, pressure or vacuum sewers conveying treated or partially treated wastewater. These systems can also include small diameter gravity sewers carrying raw wastewater to cluster systems.
(6) Architectural or engineering services. Consultation, investigations, reports, or services for design-type projects within the scope of the practice of architecture or professional engineering as defined by the laws of the State or territory in which the grantee is located.
(7) Best Practicable Waste Treatment Technology (BPWTT). The cost-effective technology that can treat wastewater, combined sewer overflows and nonexcessive infiltration and inflow in publicly owned or individual wastewater treatment works, to meet the applicable provisions of:
(ii) 40 CFR part 125, subpart G - marine discharge waivers;
(iv) 41 FR 6190 (February 11, 1976) - Alternative Waste Management Techniques for Best Practicable Waste Treatment (treatment and discharge, land application techniques and utilization practices, and reuse).
(8) Building. The erection, acquisition, alteration, remodeling, improvement or extension of treatment works.
(10) Collector sewer. The common lateral sewers, within a publicly owned treatment system, which are primarily installed to receive wastewaters directly from facilities which convey wastewater from individual systems, or from private property, and which include service “Y” connections designed for connection with those facilities including:
(i) Crossover sewers connecting more than one property on one side of a major street, road, or highway to a lateral sewer on the other side when more cost effective than parallel sewers; and
(ii) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(10)(iii) of this section, pumping units and pressurized lines serving individual structures or groups of structures when such units are cost effective and are owned and maintained by the grantee.
(iii) This definition excludes other facilities which convey wastewater from individual structures, from private property to the public lateral sewer, or its equivalent and also excludes facilities associated with alternatives to conventional treatment works in small communities.
(12) Complete waste treatment system. A complete waste treatment system consists of all the treatment works necessary to meet the requirements of title III of the Act, involving: (i) The transport of wastewater from individual homes or buildings to a plant or facility where treatment of the wastewater is accomplished; (ii) the treatment of the wastewater to remove pollutants; and (iii) the ultimate disposal, including recycling or reuse, of the treated wastewater and residues which result from the treatment process.
(13) Construction. Any one or more of the following: Preliminary planning to determine the feasibility of treatment works, engineering, architectural, legal, fiscal, or economic investigations or studies, surveys, designs, plans, working drawings, specifications, procedures, field testing of innovative or alternative wastewater treatment processes and techniques (excluding operation and maintenance) meeting guidelines promulgated under section 304(d)(3) of the Act, or other necessary actions, erection, building, acquisition, alteration, remodeling, improvement, or extension of treatment works, or the inspection or supervision of any of the foregoing items.
(14) Conventional technology. Wastewater treatment processes and techniques involving the treatment of wastewater at a centralized treatment plant by means of biological or physical/chemical unit processes followed by direct point source discharge to surface waters.
(15) Enforceable requirements of the Act. Those conditions or limitations of section 402 or 404 permits which, if violated, could result in the issuance of a compliance order or initiation of a civil or criminal action under section 309 of the Act or applicable State laws. If a permit has not been issued, the term shall include any requirement which, in the Regional Administrator's judgment, would be included in the permit when issued. Where no permit applies, the term shall include any requirement which the Regional Administrator determines is necessary for the best practicable waste treatment technology to meet applicable criteria.
(16) Excessive infiltration/inflow. The quantities of infiltration/inflow which can be economically eliminated from a sewer system as determined in a cost-effectiveness analysis that compares the costs for correcting the infiltration/inflow conditions to the total costs for transportation and treatment of the infiltration/inflow. (See §§ 35.2005(b) (28) and (29) and 35.2120.)
(17) Field testing. Practical and generally small-scale testing of innovative or alternative technologies directed to verifying performance and/or refining design parameters not sufficiently tested to resolve technical uncertainties which prevent the funding of a promising improvement in innovative or alternative treatment technology.
(18) Individual systems. Privately owned alternative wastewater treatment works (including dual waterless/gray water systems) serving one or more principal residences, or small commercial establishments. Normally these are onsite systems with localized treatment and disposal of wastewater, but may be systems utilizing small diameter gravity, pressure or vacuum sewers conveying treated or partially treated wastewater. These systems can also include small diameter gravity sewers carrying raw wastewater to cluster systems.
(19) Industrial user. Any nongovernmental, nonresidential user of a publicly owned treatment works which is identified in the Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1972, Office of Management and Budget, as amended and supplemented, under one of the following divisions:
(20) Infiltration. Water other than wastewater that enters a sewer system (including sewer service connections and foundation drains) from the ground through such means as defective pipes, pipe joints, connections, or manholes. Infiltration does not include, and is distinguished from, inflow.
(21) Inflow. Water other than wastewater that enters a sewer system (including sewer service connections) from sources such as, but not limited to, roof leaders, cellar drains, yard drains, area drains, drains from springs and swampy areas, manhole covers, cross connections between storm sewers and sanitary sewers, catch basins, cooling towers, storm waters, surface runoff, street wash waters, or drainage. Inflow does not include, and is distinguished from, infiltration.
(23) Innovative technology. Developed wastewater treatment processes and techniques which have not been fully proven under the circumstances of their contemplated use and which represent a significant advancement over the state of the art in terms of significant reduction in life cycle cost or significant environmental benefits through the reclaiming and reuse of water, otherwise eliminating the discharge of pollutants, utilizing recycling techniques such as land treatment, more efficient use of energy and resources, improved or new methods of waste treatment management for combined municipal and industrial systems, or the confined disposal of pollutants so that they will not migrate to cause water or other environmental pollution.
(24) Interceptor sewer. A sewer which is designed for one or more of the following purposes:
(iv) To intercept an existing major discharge of raw or inadequately treated wastewater for transport directly to another interceptor or to a treatment plant.
(25) Interstate agency. An agency of two or more States established under an agreement or compact approved by the Congress, or any other agency of two or more States, having substantial powers or duties pertaining to the control of water pollution.
(26) Marine bays and estuaries. Semi-enclosed coastal waters which have a free connection to the territorial sea.
(27) Municipality. A city, town, borough, county, parish, district, association, or other public body (including an intermunicipal agency of two or more of the foregoing entities) created under State law, or an Indian tribe or an authorized Indian tribal organization, having jurisdiction over disposal of sewage, industrial wastes, or other waste, or a designated and approved management agency under section 208 of the Act.
(i) This definition includes a special district created under State law such as a water district, sewer district, sanitary district, utility district, drainage district or similar entity or an integrated waste management facility, as defined in section 201(e) of the Act, which has as one of its principal responsibilities the treatment, transport, or disposal of domestic wastewater in a particular geographic area.
(ii) This definition excludes the following:
(A) Any revenue producing entity which has as its principal responsibility an activity other than providing wastewater treatment services to the general public, such as an airport, turnpike, port facility or other municipal utility.
(B) Any special district (such as school district or a park district) which has the responsibility to provide wastewater treatment services in support of its principal activity at specific facilities, unless the special district has the responsibility under State law to provide wastewater treatment services to the community surrounding the special district's facility and no other municipality, with concurrent jurisdiction to serve the community, serves or intends to serve the special district's facility or the surrounding community.
(28) Nonexcessive infiltration. The quantity of flow which is less than 120 gallons per capita per day (domestic base flow and infiltration) or the quantity of infiltration which cannot be economically and effectively eliminated from a sewer system as determined in a cost-effectiveness analysis. (See §§ 35.2005(b)(16) and 35.2120.)
(29) Nonexcessive inflow. The maximum total flow rate during storm events which does not result in chronic operational problems related to hydraulic overloading of the treatment works or which does not result in a total flow of more than 275 gallons per capita per day (domestic base flow plus infiltration plus inflow). Chronic operational problems may include surcharging, backups, bypasses, and overflows. (See §§ 35.2005(b)(16) and 35.2120).
(30) Operation and Maintenance. Activities required to assure the dependable and economical function of treatment works.
(i) Maintenance: Preservation of functional integrity and efficiency of equipment and structures. This includes preventive maintenance, corrective maintenance and replacement of equipment (See § 35.2005(b)(36)) as needed.)
(ii) Operation: Control of the unit processes and equipment which make up the treatment works. This includes financial and personnel management; records, laboratory control, process control, safety and emergency operation planning.
(31) Principal residence. For the purposes of § 35.2034, the habitation of a family or household for at least 51 percent of the year. Second homes, vacation or recreation residences are not included in this definition.
(32) Project. The activities or tasks the Regional Administrator identifies in the grant agreement for which the grantee may expend, obligate or commit funds.
(33) Project performance standards. The performance and operations requirements applicable to a project including the enforceable requirements of the Act and the specifications, including the quantity of excessive infiltration and inflow proposed to be eliminated, which the project is planned and designed to meet.
(34) Priority water quality areas. For the purposes of § 35.2015, specific stream segments or bodies of water, as determined by the State, where municipal discharges have resulted in the impairment of a designated use or significant public health risks, and where the reduction of pollution from such discharges will substantially restore surface or groundwater uses.
(35) Project schedule. A timetable specifying the dates of key project events including public notices of proposed procurement actions, subagreement awards, issuance of notice to proceed with building, key milestones in the building schedule, completion of building, initiation of operation and certification of the project.
(36) Replacement. Obtaining and installing equipment, accessories, or appurtenances which are necessary during the design or useful life, whichever is longer, of the treatment works to maintain the capacity and performance for which such works were designed and constructed.
(37) Sanitary sewer. A conduit intended to carry liquid and water-carried wastes from residences, commercial buildings, industrial plants and institutions together with minor quantities of ground, storm and surface waters that are not admitted intentionally.
(38) Services. A contractor's labor, time or efforts which do not involve the delivery of a specific end item, other than documents (e.g., reports, design drawings, specifications). This term does not include employment agreements or collective bargaining agreements.
(39) Small commercial establishments. For purposes of § 35.2034 private establishments such as restaurants, hotels, stores, filling stations, or recreational facilities and private, nonprofit entities such as churches, schools, hospitals, or charitable organizations with dry weather wastewater flows less than 25,000 gallons per day.
(40) Small Community. For purposes of §§ 35.2020(b) and 35.2032, any municipality with a population of 3,500 or less or highly dispersed sections of larger municipalities, as determined by the Regional Administrator.
(41) State. A State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas. For the purposes of applying for a grant under section 201(g)(1) of the act, a State (including its agencies) is subject to the limitations on revenue producing entities and special districts contained in § 35.2005(b)(27)(ii).
(43) Step 1. Facilities planning.
(44) Step 2. Preparation of design drawings and specifications.
(48) Storm sewer. A sewer designed to carry only storm waters, surface run-off, street wash waters, and drainage.
(49) Treatment works. Any devices and systems for the storage, treatment, recycling, and reclamation of municipal sewage, domestic sewage, or liquid industrial wastes used to implement section 201 of the Act, or necessary to recycle or reuse water at the most economical cost over the design life of the works. These include intercepting sewers, outfall sewers, sewage collection systems, individual systems, pumping, power, and other equipment and their appurtenances; extensions, improvement, remodeling, additions, and alterations thereof; elements essential to provide a reliable recycled supply such as standby treatment units and clear well facilities; and any works, including acquisition of the land that will be an integral part of the treatment process or is used for ultimate disposal of residues resulting from such treatment (including land for composting sludge, temporary storage of such compost and land used for the storage of treated wastewater in land treatment systems before land application); or any other method or system for preventing, abating, reducing, storing, treating, separating, or disposing of municipal waste or industrial waste, including waste in combined storm water and sanitary sewer systems.
(50) Treatment works phase or segment. A treatment works phase or segment may be any substantial portion of a facility and its interceptors described in a facilities plan under § 35.2030, which can be identified as a subagreement or discrete subitem. Multiple subagreements under a project shall not be considered to be segments or phases. Completion of building of a treatment works phase or segment may, but need not in and of itself, result in an operable treatment works.
(52) User charge. A charge levied on users of a treatment works, or that portion of the ad valorem taxes paid by a user, for the user's proportionate share of the cost of operation and maintenance (including replacement) of such works under sections 204(b)(1)(A) and 201(h)(2) of the Act and this subpart.
(53) Value engineering. A specialized cost control technique which uses a systematic and creative approach to identify and to focus on unnecessarily high cost in a project in order to arrive at a cost saving without sacrificing the reliability or efficiency of the project.