40 CFR § 423.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT).

§ 423.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT).

Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this part must achieve the following effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT).

(a) There shall be no discharge of polychlorinated biphenyl compounds such as those commonly used for transformer fluid.

(b)

(1) For any plant with a total rated electric generating capacity of 25 or more megawatts, the quantity of pollutants discharged in once through cooling water from each discharge point shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of once through cooling water from each discharge point times the concentration listed in the following table:

Pollutant or pollutant property BAT Effluent Limitations
Maximum concentration (mg/l)
Total residual chlorine 0.20

(2) Total residual chlorine may not be discharged from any single generating unit for more than two hours per day unless the discharger demonstrates to the permitting authority that discharge for more than two hours is required for macroinvertebrate control. Simultaneous multi-unit chlorination is permitted.

(c)

(1) For any plant with a total rated generating capacity of less than 25 megawatts, the quantity of pollutants discharged in once through cooling water shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of once through cooling water sources times the concentration listed in the following table:

Pollutant or pollutant property BAT effluent limitations
Maximum concentration (mg/l) Average concentration (mg/l)
Free available chlorine 0.5 0.2

(2) Neither free available chlorine nor total residual chlorine may be discharged from any unit for more than two hours in any one day and not more than one unit in any plant may discharge free available or total residual chlorine at any one time unless the utility can demonstrate to the Regional Administrator or State, if the State has NPDES permit issuing authority, that the units in a particular location cannot operate at or below this level of chlorination.

(d)

(1) The quantity of pollutants discharged in cooling tower blowdown shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of cooling tower blowdown times the concentration listed below:

Pollutant or pollutant property BAT effluent limitations
Maximum concentration (mg/l) Average concentration (mg/l)
Free available chlorine 0.5 0.2
Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day −(mg/l) Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed = (mg/l)
The 126 priority pollutants (Appendix A) contained in chemicals added for cooling tower maintenance, except: ( 1) ( 1)
Chromium, total 0.2 0.2
Zinc, total 1.0 1.0

1 No detectable amount.

(2) Neither free available chlorine nor total residual chlorine may be discharged from any unit for more than two hours in any one day and not more than one unit in any plant may discharge free available or total residual chlorine at any one time unless the utility can demonstrate to the Regional Administrator or State, if the State has NPDES permit issuing authority, that the units in a particular location cannot operate at or below this level of chlorination.

(3) At the permitting authority's discretion, instead of the monitoring specified in 40 CFR 122.11(b) compliance with the limitations for the 126 priority pollutants in paragraph (d)(1) of this section may be determined by engineering calculations which demonstrate that the regulated pollutants are not detectable in the final discharge by the analytical methods in 40 CFR part 136.

(e) The quantity of pollutants discharged in chemical metal cleaning wastes shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of chemical metal cleaning wastes times the concentration listed in the following table:

Pollutant or pollutant property BAT effluent limitations
Maximum for any 1 day (mg/l) Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed −(mg/l)
Copper, total 1.0 1.0
Iron, total 1.0 1.0

(f) [Reserved - Nonchemical Metal Cleaning Wastes].

(g)

(1)

(i) FGD wastewater. Except for those discharges to which paragraph (g)(2) or (g)(3) of this section applies, the quantity of pollutants in FGD wastewater shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of FGD wastewater times the concentration listed in the table 1 following this paragraph (g)(1)(i). Dischargers must meet the effluent limitations for FGD wastewater in this paragraph by a date determined by the permitting authority that is as soon as possible beginning October 13, 2021, but no later than December 31, 2025. These effluent limitations apply to the discharge of FGD wastewater generated on and after the date determined by the permitting authority for meeting the effluent limitations, as specified in this paragraph.

Table 5 to Paragraph (g)(1)(i)

Pollutant or pollutant property BAT effluent limitations
Maximum for any 1 day Average of
daily values
for 30
consecutive
days shall
not exceed
Arsenic, total (ug/L) 18 8
Mercury, total (ng/L) 103 34
Selenium, total (ug/L) 70 29
Nitrate/nitrite as N (mg/L) 4 3

(ii) For FGD wastewater generated before the date determined by the permitting authority, as specified in paragraph (g)(1)(i), the quantity of pollutants discharged in FGD wastewater shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of FGD wastewater times the concentration listed for TSS in § 423.12(b)(11).

(2)

(i) For any electric generating unit with a total nameplate capacity of less than or equal to 50 megawatts, that is an oil-fired unit, or for which the owner has submitted a certification pursuant to § 423.19(f), the quantity of pollutants discharged in FGD wastewater shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of FGD wastewater times the concentration listed for TSS in § 423.12(b)(11).

(ii) For FGD wastewater discharges from a high FGD flow facility, the quantity of pollutants in FGD wastewater shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of FGD wastewater times the concentration listed in the table following this paragraph (g)(2)(ii). Dischargers must meet the effluent limitations for FGD wastewater in this paragraph by a date determined by the permitting authority that is as soon as possible beginning October 13, 2021, but no later than December 31, 2023. These effluent limitations apply to the discharge of FGD wastewater generated on and after the date determined by the permitting authority for meeting the effluent limitations, as specified in this paragraph.

Table 6 to Paragraph (g)(2)(ii)

Pollutant or pollutant property BAT effluent limitations
Maximum for any 1 day Average of
daily values
for 30
consecutive
days shall
not exceed
Arsenic, total (ug/L) 11 8
Mercury, total (ng/L) 788 356

(iii) For FGD wastewater discharges from a low utilization electric generating unit, the quantity of pollutants in FGD wastewater shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of FGD wastewater times the concentration listed in the table following paragraph (g)(2)(ii). Dischargers must meet the effluent limitations for FGD wastewater in this paragraph by a date determined by the permitting authority that is as soon as possible beginning October 13, 2021, but no later than December 31, 2023. These effluent limitations apply to the discharge of FGD wastewater generated on and after the date determined by the permitting authority for meeting the effluent limitations, as specified in this paragraph.

(3)

(i) For dischargers who voluntarily choose to meet the effluent limitations for FGD wastewater in this paragraph, the quantity of pollutants in FGD wastewater shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of FGD wastewater times the concentration listed in the table following this paragraph (g)(3)(i). Dischargers who choose to meet the effluent limitations for FGD wastewater in this paragraph must meet such limitations by December 31, 2028. These effluent limitations apply to the discharge of FGD wastewater generated on and after December 31, 2028.

Table 7 of Paragraph (g)(3)(i)

Pollutant or pollutant property BAT effluent limitations
Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30
consecutive
days shall
not exceed
Arsenic, total (ug/L) 5 NA
Mercury, total (ng/L) 23 10
Selenium, total (ug/L) 10 NA
Nitrate/Nitrite (mg/L) 2.0 1.2
Bromide (mg/L) 0.2 NA
TDS (mg/L) 306 149

(ii) For discharges of FGD wastewater generated before December 31, 2023, the quantity of pollutants discharged in FGD wastewater shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of FGD wastewater times the concentration listed for TSS in § 423.12(b)(11).

(h)

(1)

(i) Fly ash transport water. Except for those discharges to which paragraph (h)(2) of this section applies, or when the fly ash transport water is used in the FGD scrubber, there shall be no discharge of pollutants in fly ash transport water. Dischargers must meet the discharge limitation in this paragraph by a date determined by the permitting authority that is as soon as possible beginning November 1, 2018, but no later than December 31, 2023. This limitation applies to the discharge of fly ash transport water generated on and after the date determined by the permitting authority for meeting the discharge limitation, as specified in this paragraph. Whenever fly ash transport water is used in any other plant process or is sent to a treatment system at the plant (except when it is used in the FGD scrubber), the resulting effluent must comply with the discharge limitation in this paragraph. When the fly ash transport water is used in the FGD scrubber, the quantity of pollutants in fly ash transport water shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of fly ash transport water times the concentration listed in the table in paragraph (g)(1)(i) of this section.

(ii) For discharges of fly ash transport water generated before the date determined by the permitting authority, as specified in paragraph (h)(1)(i) of this section, the quantity of pollutants discharged in fly ash transport water shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of fly ash transport water times the concentration listed for TSS in § 423.12(b)(4).

(2) For any electric generating unit with a total nameplate generating capacity of less than or equal to 50 megawatts or that is an oil-fired unit, the quantity of pollutants discharged in fly ash transport water shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of fly ash transport water times the concentration listed for TSS in § 423.12(b)(4).

(i)

(1)

(i) Flue gas mercury control wastewater. Except for those discharges to which paragraph (i)(2) of this section applies, there shall be no discharge of pollutants in flue gas mercury control wastewater. Dischargers must meet the discharge limitation in this paragraph by a date determined by the permitting authority that is as soon as possible beginning November 1, 2018, but no later than December 31, 2023. This limitation applies to the discharge of flue gas mercury control wastewater generated on and after the date determined by the permitting authority for meeting the discharge limitation, as specified in this paragraph. Whenever flue gas mercury control wastewater is used in any other plant process or is sent to a treatment system at the plant, the resulting effluent must comply with the discharge limitation in this paragraph.

(ii) For discharges of flue gas mercury control wastewater generated before the date determined by the permitting authority, as specified in paragraph (i)(1)(i) of this section, the quantity of pollutants discharged in flue gas mercury control wastewater shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of flue gas mercury control wastewater times the concentration for TSS listed in § 423.12(b)(11).

(2) For any electric generating unit with a total nameplate generating capacity of less than or equal to 50 megawatts or that is an oil-fired unit, the quantity of pollutants discharged in flue gas mercury control wastewater shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of flue gas mercury control wastewater times the concentration for TSS listed in § 423.12(b)(11).

(j)

(1)

(i) Gasification wastewater. Except for those discharges to which paragraph (j)(2) of this section applies, the quantity of pollutants in gasification wastewater shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of gasification wastewater times the concentration listed in the table following this paragraph (j)(1)(i). Dischargers must meet the effluent limitations in this paragraph by a date determined by the permitting authority that is as soon as possible beginning November 1, 2018, but no later than December 31, 2023. These effluent limitations apply to the discharge of gasification wastewater generated on and after the date determined by the permitting authority for meeting the effluent limitations, as specified in this paragraph.

Pollutant or pollutant property BAT Effluent limitations
Maximum for
any 1 day
Average of daily
values for 30
consecutive days
shall not exceed
Arsenic, total (ug/L) 4
Mercury, total (ng/L) 1.8 1.3
Selenium, total (ug/L) 453 227
Total dissolved solids (mg/L) 38 22

(ii) For discharges of gasification wastewater generated before the date determined by the permitting authority, as specified in paragraph (j)(1)(i) of this section, the quantity of pollutants discharged in gasification wastewater shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of gasification wastewater times the concentration for TSS listed in § 423.12(b)(11).

(2) For any electric generating unit with a total nameplate generating capacity of less than or equal to 50 megawatts or that is an oil-fired unit, the quantity of pollutants discharged in gasification wastewater shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of gasification wastewater times the concentration listed for TSS in § 423.12(b)(11).

(k)

(1)

(i) Bottom ash transport water. Except for those discharges to which paragraph (k)(2) of this section applies, or when the bottom ash transport water is used in the FGD scrubber, there shall be no discharge of pollutants in bottom ash transport water. Dischargers must meet the discharge limitation in this paragraph by a date determined by the permitting authority that is as soon as possible beginning October 13, 2021, but no later than December 31, 2025. This limitation applies to the discharge of bottom ash transport water generated on and after the date determined by the permitting authority for meeting the discharge limitation, as specified in this paragraph. Except for those discharges to which paragraph (k)(2) of this section applies, whenever bottom ash transport water is used in any other plant process or is sent to a treatment system at the plant (except when it is used in the FGD scrubber), the resulting effluent must comply with the discharge limitation in this paragraph. When the bottom ash transport water is used in the FGD scrubber, it ceases to be bottom ash transport water, and instead is FGD wastewater, which must meet the requirements in paragraph (g) of this section.

(ii) For discharges of bottom ash transport water generated before the date determined by the permitting authority, as specified in paragraph (k)(1)(i) of this section, the quantity of pollutants discharged in bottom ash transport water shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of bottom ash transport water times the concentration for TSS listed in § 423.12(b)(4).

(2)

(i)

(A) The discharge of pollutants in bottom ash transport water from a properly installed, operated, and maintained bottom ash system is authorized under the following conditions:

(1) To maintain system water balance when precipitation-related inflows are generated from storm events exceeding a 10-year storm event of 24-hour or longer duration (e.g., 30-day storm event) and cannot be managed by installed spares, redundancies, maintenance tanks, and other secondary bottom ash system equipment; or

(2) To maintain system water balance when regular inflows from wastestreams other than bottom ash transport water exceed the ability of the bottom ash system to accept recycled water and segregating these other wastestreams is not feasible; or

(3) To maintain system water chemistry where installed equipment at the facility is unable to manage pH, corrosive substances, substances or conditions causing scaling, or fine particulates to below levels which impact system operation or maintenance; or

(4) To conduct maintenance not otherwise included in paragraphs (k)(2)(i)(A) (1), (2), or (3) of this section and not exempted from the definition of transport water in § 423.11(p), and when water volumes cannot be managed by installed spares, redundancies, maintenance tanks, and other secondary bottom ash system equipment.

(B) The total volume that may be discharged for the above activities shall be reduced or eliminated to the extent achievable using control measures (including best management practices) that are technologically available and economically achievable in light of best industry practice. The total volume of the discharge authorized in this subsection shall be determined on a case-by-case basis by the permitting authority and in no event shall such discharge exceed a 30-day rolling average of ten percent of the primary active wetted bottom ash system volume. The volume of daily discharges used to calculate the 30-day rolling average shall be calculated using measurements from flow monitors.

(ii) For any electric generating unit with a total nameplate generating capacity of less than or equal to 50 megawatts, that is an oil-fired unit, or for which the owner has certified to the permitting authority that it will cease combustion of coal pursuant to § 423.19(f), the quantity of pollutants discharged in bottom ash transport water shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of the applicable wastewater times the concentration for TSS listed in § 423.12(b)(4).

(iii) For bottom ash transport water generated by a low utilization electric generating unit, the quantity of pollutants discharged in bottom ash transport water shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of the applicable wastewater times the concentration for TSS listed in § 423.12(b)(4), and shall incorporate the elements of a best management practices plan as described in (k)(3) of this section.

(3) Where required in paragraph (k)(2)(iii) of this section, the discharger shall prepare, implement, review, and update a best management practices plan for the recycle of bottom ash transport water, and must include:

(i) Identification of the low utilization coal-fired generating units that contribute bottom ash to the bottom ash transport system.

(ii) A description of the existing bottom ash handling system and a list of system components (e.g., remote mechanical drag system, tanks, impoundments, chemical addition). Where multiple generating units share a bottom ash transport system, the plan shall specify which components are associated with low utilization generating units.

(iii) A detailed water balance, based on measurements, or estimates where measurements are not feasible, specifying the volume and frequency of water additions and removals from the bottom ash transport system, including:

(A) Water removed from the BA transport system:

(1) To the discharge outfall.

(2) To the FGD scrubber system.

(3) Through evaporation

(4) Entrained with any removed ash

(5) To any other mechanisms not specified above.

(B) Water entering or recycled to the BA transport system:

(1) Makeup water added to the BA transport water system.

(2) Bottom ash transport water recycled back to the system in lieu of makeup water.

(3) Any other mechanisms not specified above.

(iv) Measures to be employed by all facilities:

(A) Implementation of a comprehensive preventive maintenance program to identify, repair and replace equipment prior to failures that result in the release of bottom ash transport water.

(B) Daily or more frequent inspections of the entire bottom ash transport water system, including valves, pipe flanges and piping, to identify leaks, spills and other unintended bottom ash transport water escaping from the system, and timely repair of such conditions.

(C) Documentation of preventive and corrective maintenance performed.

(v) Evaluation of options and feasibility, accounting for the associated costs, for eliminating or minimizing discharges of bottom ash transport water, including:

(A) Segregation of bottom ash transport water from other process water.

(B) Minimization of the introduction of stormwater by diverting (e.g., curbing, using covers) storm water to a segregated collection system.

(C) Recycling bottom ash transport water back to the bottom ash transport water system.

(D) Recycling bottom ash transport water for use in the FGD scrubber.

(E) Optimization of existing equipment (e.g., pumps, pipes, tanks) and installing new equipment where practicable to achieve the maximum amount of recycle.

(F) Utilization of “in-line” treatment of transport water (e.g., pH control, fines removal) where needed to facilitate recycle.

(vi) Description of the bottom ash recycle system, including all technologies, measures, and practices that will be used to minimize discharge.

(vii) A schedule showing the sequence of implementing any changes necessary to achieve the minimized discharge of bottom ash transport water, including the following:

(A) The anticipated initiation and completion dates of construction and installation associated with the technology components or process modifications specified in the plan.

(B) The anticipated dates that the discharger expects the technologies and process modifications to be fully implemented on a full-scale basis, which in no case shall be later than December 31, 2023.

(C) The anticipated change in discharge volume and effluent quality associated with implementation of the plan.

(viii) Description establishing a method for documenting and demonstrating to the permitting/control authority that the recycle system is well operated and maintained.

(ix) Performance of weekly flow monitoring for the following:

(A) Make up water to the bottom ash transport water system.

(B) Bottom ash transport water sluice flow rate (e.g., to the surface impoundment(s), dewatering bins(s), tank(s), remote mechanical drag system).

(C) Bottom ash transport water discharge to surface water or POTW.

(D) Bottom ash transport water recycle back to the bottom ash system or FGD scrubber.

(l) Combustion residual leachate. The quantity of pollutants discharged in combustion residual leachate shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of combustion residual leachate times the concentration for TSS listed in § 423.12(b)(11).

(m) At the permitting authority's discretion, the quantity of pollutant allowed to be discharged may be expressed as a concentration limitation instead of any mass based limitations specified in paragraphs (b) through (l) of this section. Concentration limitations shall be those concentrations specified in this section.

(n) In the event that wastestreams from various sources are combined for treatment or discharge, the quantity of each pollutant or pollutant property controlled in paragraphs (a) through (m) of this section attributable to each controlled waste source shall not exceed the specified limitation for that waste source.

(o)

(1) Transfer between applicable limitations in a permit. Where, in the permit, the permitting authority has included alternative limits subject to eligibility requirements, upon timely notification to the permitting authority under § 423.19(i), a facility can become subject to the alternative limits under the following circumstances:

(i) On or before December 31, 2023 a facility may convert:

(A) From limitations for electric generating units permanently ceasing coal combustion under paragraphs (g)(2)(i) or (k)(2)(ii) of this section to limitations for low utilization electric generating units under paragraphs (g)(2)(iii) or (k)(2)(iii) of this section; or

(B) From voluntary incentives program limitations under paragraph (g)(3)(i) of this section or generally applicable limitations under paragraph (k)(1)(i) of this section to limitations for low utilization electric generating units under paragraphs (g)(2)(iii) or (k)(2)(iii) of this section.

(ii) On or before December 31, 2025 a facility may convert

(A) From voluntary incentives program limitations under paragraph (g)(3)(i) of this section to limitations for electric generating units permanently ceasing coal combustion under paragraph (g)(2)(i) of this section; or

(B) From limitations for electric generating units permanently ceasing coal combustion under paragraphs (g)(2)(i) or (k)(2)(ii) of this section to voluntary incentives program limitations under paragraphs (g)(3)(i) of this section or generally applicable limitations under (k)(1)(i) of this section; or

(C) From limitations for low utilization electric generating units under paragraphs (g)(2)(iii) or (k)(2)(iii) of this section to generally applicable limitations under paragraphs (g)(1)(i) or (k)(1)(i) of this section; or

(D) From limitations for low utilization electric generating units under paragraphs (g)(2)(iii) or (k)(2)(iii) of this section to voluntary incentives program limitations under paragraphs (g)(3)(i) of this section or generally applicable limitations under paragraph (k)(1)(i) of this section; or

(E) From limitations for low utilization electric generating units under paragraphs (g)(2)(iii) or (k)(2)(iii) of this section to limitations for electric generating units permanently ceasing coal combustion under paragraphs (g)(2)(i) and (k)(2)(ii) of this section.

(2) A facility must be in compliance with all of its currently applicable requirements to be eligible to file a notice under § 423.19(i) and to become subject to a different set of applicable requirements under paragraph (o)(1) of this section.

(3) Where a facility seeking a transfer under paragraph (o)(1)(ii) of this section is currently subject to more stringent limitations than the limitations being sought, the facility must continue to meet those more stringent limitations.

(The information collection requirements contained in paragraphs (c)(2) and (d)(2) were approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 2040-0040. The information collection requirements contained in paragraph (d)(3) were approved under control number 2040-0033)
[47 FR 52304, Nov. 19, 1982, as amended at 48 FR 31404, July 8, 1983; 80 FR 67894, Nov. 3, 2015; 82 FR 43500, Sept. 18, 2017; 85 FR 64716, Oct. 13, 2020]

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