# 40 CFR § 52.1183 - Visibility protection.

§ 52.1183 Visibility protection.

(a) [Reserved]

(b) Regulation for visibility monitoring and new source review. The provisions of § 52.28 are hereby incorporated and made a part of the applicable plan for the State of Michigan.

(c) [Reserved]

(d) Regional Haze. The requirements of section 169A of the Clean Air Act are not met because the regional haze plan submitted by Michigan on November 5, 2010, does not include fully approvable measures for meeting the requirements of 40 CFR 51.308(d)(3) and 51.308(e) with respect to emissions of NOX and SO2 from electric generating units. EPA has given limited approval and limited disapproval to the plan provisions addressing these requirements.

(e) Measures Addressing Limited Disapproval Associated With NOX. The deficiencies associated with NOX identified in EPA's limited disapproval of the regional haze plan submitted by Michigan on November 5, 2010, are satisfied by § 52.1186.

(f) Measures Addressing Limited Disapproval Associated With SO2. The deficiencies associated with SO2 identified in EPA's limited disapproval of the regional haze plan submitted by Michigan on November 5, 2010, are satisfied by § 52.1187.

(g) The requirements of section 169A of the Clean Air Act are not met because the regional haze plan submitted on November 5, 2010, does not meet the best available retrofit technology requirements of 40 CFR 51.308(e) with respect to emissions of NOX and SO2 from Saint Marys Cement in Charlevoix and NOX from Escanaba Paper Company in Escanaba. These requirements for these two facilities are satisfied by 40 CFR 52.1183(h) and 40 CFR 52.1183(i), respectively.

(h)

(1) For the 30-day period beginning January 1, 2017, and thereafter, Saint Marys Cement, or any subsequent owner or operator of the Saint Marys Cement facility located in Charlevoix, Michigan, shall not cause or permit the emission of oxides of nitrogen (expressed as NO2) to exceed 2.80 lb per ton of clinker as a 30-day rolling average.

(2) For the 12-month period beginning January 1, 2017, and thereafter, Saint Marys Cement, or any subsequent owner or operator of the Saint Marys Cement facility located in Charlevoix, Michigan, shall not cause or permit the emission of NOX (expressed as NO2) to exceed 2.40 lb per ton of clinker as a 12-month average.

(3) Saint Marys Cement, or any subsequent owner or operator of the Saint Marys Cement facility located in Charlevoix, Michigan, shall not cause or permit the emission of SO2 to exceed 7.50 lb per ton of clinker as a 12-month average.

(4) Saint Marys Cement, or any subsequent owner or operator of the Saint Marys Cement facility located in Charlevoix, Michigan, shall operate continuous emission monitoring systems to measure NOX and SO2 emissions from its kiln system in conformance with 40 CFR part 60 appendix F procedure 1.

(5) The reference test method for assessing compliance with the limit in paragraph (h)(1) of this section shall be use of a continuous emission monitoring system operated in conformance with 40 CFR part 60, appendix F, procedure 1. A new 30-day average shall be computed at the end of each calendar day in which the kiln operates, based on the following procedure: First, sum the total pounds of NOX (expressed as NO2) emitted during the operating day and the previous twenty-nine operating days, second, sum the total tons of clinker produced during the same period, and third, divide the total number of pounds by the total clinker produced during the thirty operating days.

(6) The reference test method for assessing compliance with the limit in paragraphs (h)(2) and (h)(3) of this section shall be use of a continuous emission monitoring system operated in conformance with 40 CFR part 60, appendix F, procedure 1. A new 12-month average shall be computed at the end of each calendar month, based on the following procedure: First, sum the total pounds of NOX or SO2, as applicable, emitted from the unit during the month and the previous eleven calendar months, second, sum the total tons of clinker production during the same period, and third, divide the total number of pounds of emissions of NOX or SO2, as applicable, by the total clinker production during the twelve calendar months.

(7) Recordkeeping. The owner/operator shall maintain the following records for at least five years:

(i) All CEMS data, including the date, place, and time of sampling or measurement; parameters sampled or measured; and results.

(ii) All records of clinker production, which shall be monitored in accordance with 40 CFR 60.63.

(iii) Records of quality assurance and quality control activities for emissions measuring systems including, but not limited to, any records required by 40 CFR part 60, appendix F, Procedure 1.

(iv) Records of all major maintenance activities conducted on emission units, air pollution control equipment, CEMS and clinker production measurement devices.

(v) Any other records required by 40 CFR part 60, subpart F, or 40 CFR part 60, appendix F, procedure 1.

(8) Reporting. All reports under this section shall be submitted to Chief, Air Enforcement and Compliance Assurance Branch, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 5, Mail Code AE-17J, 77 W. Jackson Blvd., Chicago, IL 60604-3590.

(i) The owner/operator shall submit quarterly excess emissions reports for SO2 and NOX BART limits no later than the 30th day following the end of each calendar quarter. Excess emissions means emissions that exceed the emissions limits specified in paragraph (h)(1), (h)(2), and (h)(3) of this section. The reports shall include the magnitude, date(s), and duration of each period of excess emissions, specific identification of each period of excess emissions that occurs during startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions of the unit, the nature and cause of any malfunction (if known), and the corrective action taken or preventative measures adopted.

(ii) Owner/operator of each unit shall submit quarterly CEMS performance reports, to include dates and duration of each period during which the CEMS was inoperative (except for zero and span adjustments and calibration checks), reason(s) why the CEMS was inoperative and steps taken to prevent recurrence, and any CEMS repairs or adjustments.

(iii) The owner/operator shall also submit results of any CEMS performance tests required by 40 CFR part 60, appendix F, Procedure 1 (Relative Accuracy Test Audits, Relative Accuracy Audits, and Cylinder Gas Audits).

(iv) When no excess emissions have occurred or the CEMS has not been inoperative, repaired, or adjusted during the reporting period, such information shall be stated in the quarterly reports required by paragraphs (h)(7)(i) and (ii) of this section.

(i) Escanaba Paper Company, or any subsequent owner or operator of the Escanaba Paper Company facility in Escanaba, Michigan, shall meet the following requirements and shall not cause or permit the emission of NOX (expressed as NOX) to exceed the following limits:

(1) For Boiler 8, designated as EU8B13, a rolling 30-day average limit of 0.35 lb per MMBTU.

(2) A continuous emission monitoring system shall be operated to measure NOX emissions from Boiler 8 in conformance with 40 CFR part 60, appendix F.

(3) The reference test method for assessing compliance with the limit in paragraph (i)(1) of this section shall be a continuous emission monitoring system operated in conformance with 40 CFR part 60, appendix F. A new 30-day average shall be computed at the end of each calendar day in which the boiler operated, based on the following procedure: first, sum the total pounds of NOX emitted from the unit during the operating day and the previous twenty-nine operating days, second sum the total heat input to the unit in MMBTU during the same period, and third, divide the total number of pounds of NOX emitted by the total heat input during the thirty operating days.

(4) For Boiler 9, also identified as EU9B03, a limit of 0.27 lb per MMBTU.

(5) The reference test method for assessing compliance with the limit in paragraph (i)(4) of this section shall be a test conducted in accordance with 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, Method 7.

(6) Recordkeeping. The owner/operator shall maintain the following records regarding Boiler 8 and Boiler 9 for at least five years:

(i) All CEMS data, including the date, place, and time of sampling or measurement; parameters sampled or measured; and results.

(ii) All stack test results.

(iii) Daily records of fuel usage, heat input, and data used to determine heat content.

(iv) Records of quality assurance and quality control activities for emissions measuring systems including, but not limited to, any records required by 40 CFR part 60, appendix F, Procedure 1.

(v) Records of all major maintenance activities conducted on emission units, air pollution control equipment, and CEMS.

(vi) Any other records identified in 40 CFR 60.49b(g) or 40 CFR part 60, appendix F, Procedure 1.

(7) Reporting. All reports under this section shall be submitted to the Chief, Air Enforcement and Compliance Assurance Branch, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 5, Mail Code AE-17J, 77 W. Jackson Blvd., Chicago, IL 60604-3590.

(i) Owner/operator of Boiler 8 shall submit quarterly excess emissions reports for the limit in paragraph (i)(1) no later than the 30th day following the end of each calendar quarter. Excess emissions means emissions that exceed the emissions limit specified in paragraph (i)(1) of this section. The reports shall include the magnitude, date(s), and duration of each period of excess emissions, specific identification of each period of excess emissions that occurs during startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions of the unit, the nature and cause of any malfunction (if known), and the corrective action taken or preventative measures adopted.

(ii) Owner/operator of Boiler 8 shall submit quarterly CEMS performance reports, to include dates and duration of each period during which the CEMS was inoperative (except for zero and span adjustments and calibration checks or when Boiler 8 is not operating), reason(s) why the CEMS was inoperative and steps taken to prevent recurrence, and any CEMS repairs or adjustments.

(iii) Owner/operator of Boiler 8 shall also submit results of any CEMS performance tests required by 40 CFR part 60, appendix F, procedure 1 (Relative Accuracy Test Audits, Relative Accuracy Audits, and Cylinder Gas Audits).

(iv) When no excess emissions have occurred or the CEMS has not been inoperative, repaired, or adjusted during the reporting period, such information shall be stated in the quarterly reports required by paragraph (i)(7) of this section.

(v) Owner/operator of Boiler 9 shall submit reports of any compliance test measuring NOX emissions from Boiler 9 within 60 days of the last day of the test. If owner/operator commences operation of a continuous NOX emission monitoring system for Boiler 9, owner/operator shall submit reports for Boiler 9 as specified for Boiler 8 in paragraphs (i)(7)(i) to (i)(7)(iv) of this section.

(j) [Reserved]

(k) Tilden Mining Company, or any subsequent owner/operator of the Tilden Mining Company facility in Ishpeming, Michigan, shall meet the following requirements:

(1) NOXEmission Limits.

(i) An emission limit of 2.8 lbs NOX/MMBTU, based on a 720-hour rolling average, shall apply to Tilden Grate Kiln Line 1 when burning natural gas, and an emission limit of 1.5 lbs NOX/MMBTU, based on a 720-hour rolling average, shall apply to Tilden Grate Kiln Line 1 when burning coal or a mixture of coal and natural gas. These emission limits will become enforceable 60 months after May 12, 2016 and only after EPA's confirmation or modification of the emission limit in accordance with the procedures set forth in paragraphs (k)(1)(ii) through (viii) of this section.

(ii) Compliance with these emission limits shall be demonstrated with data collected by a continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMS) for NOX. The owner or operator must start collecting CEMS data for NOX upon May 12, 2016 and submit the data to EPA no later than 30 days from the end of each calendar quarter. Any remaining data through the end of the 57th month from May 12, 2016, that does not fall within a calendar quarter, must be submitted to EPA no later than 30 days from the end of the 57th month. Although CEMS data must continue to be collected, it does not need to be submitted to EPA starting 57 months after May 12, 2016.

(iii) No later than 48 months from May 12, 2016, the owner or operator must submit to EPA a report, including any final report(s) completed by the selected NOX reduction technology supplier and furnace retrofit engineer, containing a detailed engineering analysis and modeling of the NOX reduction control technology being installed on Tilden Grate Kiln Line 1. This report must include a list of all variables that can reasonably be expected to have an impact on NOX emission control technology performance, as well as a description of how these variables can be adjusted to reduce NOX emissions to meet the NOX design emission limit. This NOX reduction control technology must be designed to meet emission limits of 2.8 lbs NOX/MMBTU when burning natural gas and 1.5 lbs NOX/MMBTU when burning coal or a mixture of coal and natural gas.

(iv) The NOX reduction control technology shall be installed on Tilden Grate Kiln Line 1 furnace no later than 50 months from May 12, 2016.

(v) Commencing on the earlier of: Six months from the installation of the NOX reduction control technology or 50 months from May 12, 2016, the owner or operator must provide to EPA the results from pellet quality analyses. The owner or operator shall provide the results from pellet quality analyses no later than 30 days from the end of each calendar quarter up until 57 months after May 12, 2016. Any remaining results through the end of the 57th month that do not fall within a calendar quarter must be submitted to EPA no later than 30 days from the end of the 57th month. The pellet quality analyses shall include results for the following factors: Compression, reducibility, before tumble, after tumble, and low temperature disintegration. For each of the pellet quality analysis factors the owner or operator must explain the pellet quality analysis factor as well as the defined acceptable range for each factor using the applicable product quality standards based upon customers' pellet specifications that are contained in Tilden's ISO 9001 quality management system. The owner or operator shall provide pellet quality analysis testing results that state the date and time of the analysis and, in order to define the time period when pellets were produced outside of the defined acceptable range for the pellet quality factors listed, provide copies of the production logs that document the starting and ending times for such periods. The owner or operator shall provide an explanation of causes for pellet samples that fail to meet the acceptable range for any pellet quality analysis factor. Pellet quality information and data may be submitted to EPA as Confidential Business Information.

(vi) No later than 57 months after May 12, 2016, the owner or operator may submit to EPA a report to either confirm or modify the NOX limits for Tilden Grate Kiln Line 1 within the upper and lower bounds described below. EPA will review the report and either confirm or modify the NOX limits. If the CEMS data collected during operating periods between months 50 and 57 that both meet pellet quality specifications and proper furnace/burner operation is normally distributed, the limit adjustment determination shall be based on the appropriate (depending upon whether data are statistically independent or dependent) 95% upper predictive limit (UPL) equations in paragraph (p) of this section. If the CEMS data collected during operating periods between months 50 and 57 that both meet pellet quality specifications and proper furnace/burner operation are not normally distributed, the limit adjustment determination shall be based on the non-parametric equation provided in paragraph (p) of this section. The data set for the determination shall exclude periods when pellet quality did not fall within the defined acceptable ranges of the pellet quality factors identified pursuant to paragraph (k)(1)(v) of this section and for any subsequent period when production had been reduced in response to pellet quality concerns consistent with Tilden's ISO 9001 operating standards. Any excluded period will commence at the time documented on the production log demonstrating pellet quality did not fall within the defined acceptable range and shall end when pellet quality within the defined acceptable range has been re-established at planned production levels, which will be presumed to be the level that existed immediately prior to the reduction in production due to pellet quality concerns. EPA may also exclude data where operations are inconsistent with the reported design parameters of the NOX reduction control technology that were installed.

(vii) EPA will take final agency action by publishing its final confirmation or modification of the NOX limits in the Federal Register no later than 60 months after May 12, 2016. The confirmed or modified NOX limit for Tilden Grate Kiln Line 1 when burning only natural gas may be no lower than 2.8 lbs NOX/MMBTU, based on a 720-hour rolling average, and may not exceed 3.0 lbs NOX/MMBTU, based on a 720-hour rolling average. The confirmed or modified NOX limit for Tilden Grate Kiln Line 1 when burning coal or a mixture of coal and natural gas may be no lower than 1.5 lbs NOX/MMBTU, based on a 720-hour rolling average, and may not exceed 2.5 lbs NOX/MMBTU, based on a 720-hour rolling average.

(viii) If the owner or operator submits a report proposing a single NOX limit for all fuels, EPA may approve the proposed NOX limit for all fuels based on a 30-day rolling average. The confirmed or modified limit will be established and enforceable within 60 months from May 12, 2016.

(2) SO2Emission Limits. A fuel sulfur content limit of no greater than 1.20 percent sulfur content by weight shall apply to fuel combusted in Process Boiler #1 (EUBOILER1) and Process Boiler #2 (EUBOILER2) beginning three months from March 8, 2013. A fuel sulfur content limit of no greater than 1.50 percent sulfur content by weight shall apply to fuel combusted in the Line 1 Dryer (EUDRYER1) beginning 3 months from March 8, 2013. The sampling and calculation methodology for determining the sulfur content of fuel must be described in the monitoring plan required at paragraph (n)(8)(x) of this section.

(3) The owner or operator of the Tilden Grate Kiln Line 1 furnace shall meet an emission limit of 500 lbs SO2/hr based on a 30-day rolling average beginning six months after May 12, 2016. Compliance with these emission limits shall be demonstrated with data collected by a continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMS) for SO2. The owner or operator must start collecting CEMS data for SO2 beginning six months after May 12, 2016 and submit the data to EPA no later than 30 days from the end of each calendar quarter. The Tilden Grate Kiln Line 1 furnace shall not be limited to natural gas fuel. Beginning six months after May 12, 2016, any coal burned on Tilden Grate Kiln Line 1 shall have no more than 0.60 percent sulfur by weight based on a monthly block average. The sampling and calculation methodology for determining the sulfur content of coal must be described in the monitoring plan required for this furnace. The owner or operator must calculate an SO2 limit based on 12 continuous months of CEMS emissions data and submit such limit, calculations, and CEMS data to EPA no later than 36 months after May 12, 2016. If the submitted CEMS SO2 hourly data are normally distributed, the SO2 lbs/hr emission rate shall be based on the appropriate (depending upon whether data are statistically independent or dependent) 99% upper predictive limit (UPL) equation. If the submitted CEMS SO2 hourly data are not normally distributed, the SO2 lbs/hr emission rate shall be based on the non-parametric equation provided in paragraph (p) of this section. Compliance with the SO2 lbs/hr emission rate shall be determined on a 30-day rolling average basis. EPA will take final agency action by publishing a confirmation or modification of the SO2 limit in the Federal Register no later than 39 months after May 12, 2016. EPA may adjust the 500 lbs SO2/hr limit downward to reflect the calculated SO2 emission rate; however, EPA will not increase the SO2 limit above 500 lbs SO2/hr.

(4) Starting 26 months from May 12, 2016, records shall be kept for any day during which fuel oil is burned as fuel (either alone or blended with other fuels) in Grate Kiln Line 1. These records must include, at a minimum, the gallons of fuel oil burned per hour, the sulfur content of the fuel oil, and the SO2 emissions in pounds per hour.

(5) Starting 26 months from May 12, 2016, the SO2 limit for Grate Kiln Line 1 does not apply for any hour in which it is documented that there is a natural gas curtailment beyond Cliffs' control necessitating that the supply of natural gas to Tilden's Line 1 indurating furnace is restricted or eliminated. Records must be kept of the cause of the curtailment and duration of such curtailment. During such curtailment, the use of backup coal is restricted to coal with no greater than 0.60 percent sulfur by weight.

(l) Testing and monitoring.

(1) The owner or operator shall install, certify, calibrate, maintain, and operate a CEMS for NOX on Tilden Grate Kiln Line 1. Compliance with the emission limits for NOX shall be determined using data from the CEMS.

(2) The owner or operator shall install, certify, calibrate, maintain, and operate a CEMS for SO2 on Tilden Grate Kiln Line 1. Compliance with the emission standard selected for SO2 shall be determined using data from the CEMS.

(3) The owner or operator shall install, certify, calibrate, maintain, and operate one or more continuous diluent monitor(s) (O2 or CO2) and continuous flow rate monitor(s) on Tilden Grate Kiln Line 1 to allow conversion of the NOX and SO2 concentrations to units of the standard (lbs/MMBTU and lbs/hr, respectively) unless a demonstration is made that a diluent monitor and continuous flow rate monitor are not needed for the owner or operator to demonstrate compliance with applicable emission limits in units of the standards.

(4) For purposes of this section, all CEMS required by this section must meet the requirements of paragraphs (l)(4)(i) through (xiv) of this section.

(i) All CEMS must be installed, certified, calibrated, maintained, and operated in accordance with 40 CFR part 60, appendix B, Performance Specification 2 (PS-2) and appendix F, Procedure 1.

(ii) All CEMS associated with monitoring NOX (including the NOX monitor and necessary diluent and flow rate monitors) must be installed and operational upon May 12, 2016. All CEMS associated with monitoring SO2 must be installed and operational no later than six months after May 12, 2016. Verification of the CEMS operational status shall, as a minimum, include completion of the manufacturer's written requirements or recommendations for installation, operation, and calibration of the devices.

(iii) The owner or operator must conduct a performance evaluation of each CEMS in accordance with 40 CFR part 60, appendix B, PS-2. The performance evaluations must be completed no later than 60 days after the respective CEMS installation.

(iv) The owner or operator of each CEMS must conduct periodic Quality Assurance, Quality Control (QA/QC) checks of each CEMS in accordance with 40 CFR part 60, appendix F, Procedure 1. The first CEMS accuracy test will be a relative accuracy test audit (RATA) and must be completed no later than 60 days after the respective CEMS installation.

(v) The owner or operator of each CEMS must furnish the Regional Administrator two, or upon request, more copies of a written report of the results of each performance evaluation and QA/QC check within 60 days of completion.

(vi) The owner or operator of each CEMS must check, record, and quantify the zero and span calibration drifts at least once daily (every 24 hours) in accordance with 40 CFR part 60, appendix F, Procedure 1, Section 4.

(vii) Except for CEMS breakdowns, repairs, calibration checks, and zero and span adjustments, all CEMS required by this section shall be in continuous operation during all periods of process operation of the indurating furnaces, including periods of process unit startup, shutdown, and malfunction.

(viii) All CEMS required by this section must meet the minimum data requirements at paragraphs (l)(4)(viii)(A) through (C) of this section.

(A) Complete a minimum of one cycle of operation (sampling, analyzing, and data recording) for each successive 15-minute quadrant of an hour.

(B) Sample, analyze, and record emissions data for all periods of process operation except as described in paragraph (l)(4)(viii)(C) of this section.

(C) When emission data from CEMS are not available due to continuous monitoring system breakdowns, repairs, calibration checks, or zero and span adjustments, emission data must be obtained using other monitoring systems or emission estimation methods approved by the EPA. The other monitoring systems or emission estimation methods to be used must be incorporated into the monitoring plan required by this section and provide information such that emissions data are available for a minimum of 18 hours in each 24-hour period and at least 22 out of 30 successive unit operating days.

(ix) Owners or operators of each CEMS required by this section must reduce all data to 1-hour averages. Hourly averages shall be computed using all valid data obtained within the hour but no less than one data point in each 15-minute quadrant of an hour. Notwithstanding this requirement, an hourly average may be computed from at least two data points separated by a minimum of 15 minutes (where the unit operates for more than one quadrant in an hour) if data are unavailable as a result of performance of calibration, quality assurance, preventive maintenance activities, or backups of data from data acquisition and handling systems and recertification events.

(x) The 30-day rolling average emission rate determined from data derived from the CEMS required by this section (in lbs/MMBTU or lbs/hr depending on the emission standard selected) must be calculated in accordance with paragraphs (l)(4)(x)(A) through (F) of this section.

(A) Sum the total pounds of the pollutant in question emitted from the unit during an operating day and the previous 29 operating days.

(B) Sum the total heat input to the unit (in MMBTU) or the total actual hours of operation (in hours) during an operating day and the previous 29 operating days.

(C) Divide the total number of pounds of the pollutant in question emitted during the 30 operating days by the total heat input (or actual hours of operation depending on the emission limit selected) during the 30 operating days.

(D) For purposes of this calculation, an operating day is any day during which fuel is combusted in the BART affected unit regardless of whether pellets are produced. Actual hours of operation are the total hours a unit is firing fuel regardless of whether a complete 24-hour operational cycle occurs (i.e., if the furnace is firing fuel for only five hours during a 24-hour period, then the actual operating hours for that day are five. Similarly, total number of pounds of the pollutant in question for that day is determined only from the CEMS data for the five hours during which fuel is combusted.)

(E) If the owner or operator of the CEMS required by this section uses an alternative method to determine 30-day rolling averages, that method must be described in detail in the monitoring plan required by this section. The alternative method will only be applicable if the final monitoring plan and the alternative method are approved by EPA.

(F) A new 30-day rolling average emission rate must be calculated for the period ending each new operating day.

(xi) The 720-hour rolling average emission rate determined from data derived from the CEMS required by this section (in lbs/MMBTU) must be calculated in accordance with paragraphs (l)(4)(xi)(A) through (C) of this section.

(A) Sum the total pounds of NOX emitted from the unit every hour and the previous (not necessarily consecutive) 719 hours for which that type of fuel (either natural gas or mixed coal and natural gas) was used.

(B) Sum the total heat input to the unit (in MMBTU) every hour and the previous (not necessarily consecutive) 719 hours for which that type of fuel (either natural gas or mixed coal and natural gas) was used.

(C) Divide the total number of pounds of NOX emitted during the 720 hours, as defined above, by the total heat input during the same 720-hour period. This calculation must be done separately for each fuel type (either for natural gas or mixed coal and natural gas).

(xii) Data substitution must not be used for purposes of determining compliance under this regulation.

(xiii) All CEMS data shall be reduced and reported in units of the applicable standard.

(xiv) A Quality Control Program must be developed and implemented for all CEMS required by this section in accordance with 40 CFR part 60, appendix F, Procedure 1, Section 3. The program will include, at a minimum, written procedures and operations for calibration checks, calibration drift adjustments, preventative maintenance, data collection, recording and reporting, accuracy audits/procedures, periodic performance evaluations, and a corrective action program for malfunctioning CEMS.

(m) Recordkeeping requirements. (1)(i) Records required by this section must be kept in a form suitable and readily available for expeditious review.

(ii) Records required by this section must be kept for a minimum of five years following the date of creation.

(iii) Records must be kept on site for at least two years following the date of creation and may be kept offsite, but readily accessible, for the remaining three years.

(2) The owner or operator of the BART affected unit must maintain the records identified in paragraphs (m)(2)(i) through (xi) of this section.

(i) A copy of each notification and report developed for and submitted to comply with this section including all documentation supporting any initial notification or notification of compliance status submitted, according to the requirements of this section.

(ii) Records of the occurrence and duration of each startup, shutdown, and malfunction of the BART affected unit, air pollution control equipment, and CEMS required by this section.

(iii) Records of activities taken during each startup, shutdown, and malfunction of the BART affected unit, air pollution control equipment, and CEMS required by this section.

(iv) Records of the occurrence and duration of all major maintenance conducted on the BART affected unit, air pollution control equipment, and CEMS required by this section.

(v) Records of each excess emission report, including all documentation supporting the reports, dates and times when excess emissions occurred, investigations into the causes of excess emissions, actions taken to minimize or eliminate the excess emissions, and preventative measures to avoid the cause of excess emissions from occurring again.

(vi) Records of all CEMS data including, as a minimum, the date, location, and time of sampling or measurement, parameters sampled or measured, and results.

(vii) All records associated with quality assurance and quality control activities on each CEMS as well as other records required by 40 CFR part 60, appendix F, Procedure 1 including, but not limited to, the quality control program, audit results, and reports submitted as required by this section.

(viii) Records of the NOX emissions during all periods of BART affected unit operation, including startup, shutdown, and malfunction, in the units of the standard. The owner or operator shall convert the monitored data into the appropriate unit of the emission limitation using appropriate conversion factors and F-factors. F-factors used for purposes of this section shall be documented in the monitoring plan and developed in accordance with 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, Method 19. The owner or operator may use an alternate method to calculate the NOX emissions upon written approval from EPA.

(ix) Records of the SO2 emissions or records of the removal efficiency (based on CEMS data), depending on the emission standard selected, during all periods of operation, including periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction, in the units of the standard.

(x) Records associated with the CEMS unit including type of CEMS, CEMS model number, CEMS serial number, and initial certification of each CEMS conducted in accordance with 40 CFR part 60, appendix B, Performance Specification 2 must be kept for the life of the CEMS unit.

(xi) Records of all periods of fuel oil usage as required in paragraph (k)(4) of this section.

(n) Reporting requirements.

(1) All requests, reports, submittals, notifications, and other communications to the Regional Administrator required by this section shall be submitted, unless instructed otherwise, to the Air and Radiation Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 5 (A-18J) at 77 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, Illinois 60604. References in this section to the Regional Administrator shall mean the EPA Regional Administrator for Region 5.

(2) The owner or operator of each BART affected unit identified in this section and CEMS required by this section must provide to the Regional Administrator the written notifications, reports, and plans identified at paragraphs (n)(2)(i) through (viii) of this section. If acceptable to both the Regional Administrator and the owner or operator of each BART affected unit identified in this section and CEMS required by this section the owner or operator may provide electronic notifications, reports, and plans.

(i) A notification of the date construction of control devices and installation of burners required by this section commences postmarked no later than 30 days after the commencement date.

(ii) A notification of the date the installation of each CEMS required by this section commences postmarked no later than 30 days after the commencement date.

(iii) A notification of the date the construction of control devices and installation of burners required by this section is complete postmarked no later than 30 days after the completion date.

(iv) A notification of the date the installation of each CEMS required by this section is complete postmarked no later than 30 days after the completion date.

(v) A notification of the date control devices and burners installed by this section startup postmarked no later than 30 days after the startup date.

(vi) A notification of the date CEMS required by this section postmarked no later than 30 days after the startup date.

(vii) A notification of the date upon which the initial CEMS performance evaluations are planned. This notification must be submitted at least 60 days before the performance evaluation is scheduled to begin.

(viii) A notification of initial compliance signed by the responsible official, who shall certify its accuracy, attesting to whether the source has complied with the requirements of this section, including, but not limited to, applicable emission standards, control device and burner installations, and CEMS installation and certification. This notification must be submitted before the close of business on the 60th calendar day following the completion of the compliance demonstration and must include, at a minimum, the information in paragraphs (n)(2)(viii)(A) through (F) of this section.

(A) The methods used to determine compliance.

(B) The results of any CEMS performance evaluations and other monitoring procedures or methods that were conducted.

(C) The methods that will be used for determining continuing compliance, including a description of monitoring and reporting requirements and test methods.

(D) The type and quantity of air pollutants emitted by the source, reported in units of the standard.

(E) A description of the air pollution control equipment and burners installed as required by this section for each emission point.

(F) A statement by the owner or operator as to whether the source has complied with the relevant standards and other requirements.

(3) The owner or operator must develop and implement a written startup, shutdown, and malfunction plan for NOX and SO2. The plan must include, at a minimum, procedures for operating and maintaining the source during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction and a program of corrective action for a malfunctioning process and air pollution control and monitoring equipment used to comply with the relevant standard. The plan must ensure that, at all times, the owner or operator operates and maintains each affected source, including associated air pollution control and monitoring equipment, in a manner which satisfies the general duty to minimize or eliminate emissions using good air pollution control practices. The plan must ensure that owners or operators are prepared to correct malfunctions as soon as practicable after their occurrence.

(4) The written reports of the results of each performance evaluation and QA/QC check in accordance with and as required in paragraph (l)(4)(v) of this section.

(5) Compliance reports. The owner or operator of each BART affected unit must submit semiannual compliance reports. The semiannual compliance reports must be submitted in accordance with paragraphs (n)(5)(i) through (iv) of this section, unless the Regional Administrator has approved a different schedule.

(i) The first compliance report must cover the period beginning on the compliance date that is specified for the affected source through June 30 or December 31, whichever date comes first after the compliance date that is specified for the affected source.

(ii) The first compliance report must be postmarked no later than 30 calendar days after the reporting period covered by that report (July 30 or January 30), whichever comes first.

(iii) Each subsequent compliance report must cover the semiannual reporting period from January 1 through June 30 or the semiannual reporting period from July 1 through December 31.

(iv) Each subsequent compliance report must be postmarked no later than 30 calendar days after the reporting period covered by that report (July 30 or January 30).

(6) Compliance report contents. Each compliance report must include the information in paragraphs (n)(6)(i) through (vi) of this section.

(ii) Statement by a responsible official, with the official's name, title, and signature, certifying the truth, accuracy, and completeness of the content of the report.

(iii) Date of report and beginning and ending dates of the reporting period.

(iv) Identification of the process unit, control devices, and CEMS covered by the compliance report.

(v) A record of each period of a startup, shutdown, or malfunction during the reporting period and a description of the actions the owner or operator took to minimize or eliminate emissions arising as a result of the startup, shutdown, or malfunction and whether those actions were or were not consistent with the source's startup, shutdown, and malfunction plan.

(vi) A statement identifying whether there were or were not any deviations from the requirements of this section during the reporting period. If there were deviations from the requirements of this section during the reporting period, then the compliance report must describe in detail the deviations which occurred, the causes of the deviations, actions taken to address the deviations, and procedures put in place to avoid such deviations in the future. If there were no deviations from the requirements of this section during the reporting period, then the compliance report must include a statement that there were no deviations. For purposes of this section, deviations include, but are not limited to, emissions in excess of applicable emission standards established by this section, failure to continuously operate an air pollution control device in accordance with operating requirements designed to assure compliance with emission standards, failure to continuously operate CEMS required by this section, and failure to maintain records or submit reports required by this section.

(7) Each owner or operator of a CEMS required by this section must submit quarterly excess emissions and monitoring system performance reports to the Regional Administrator for each pollutant monitored for each BART affected unit monitored. All reports must be postmarked by the 30th day following the end of each 3-month period of a calendar year (January-March, April-June, July-September, October-December) and must include, at a minimum, the requirements of paragraphs (n)(7)(i) through (xv) of this section.

(ii) Identification and description of the process unit being monitored.

(iii) The dates covered by the reporting period.

(iv) Total source operating hours for the reporting period.

(v) Monitor manufacturer, monitor model number, and monitor serial number.

(vi) Pollutant monitored.

(vii) Emission limitation for the monitored pollutant.

(viii) Date of latest CEMS certification or audit.

(ix) A description of any changes in continuous monitoring systems, processes, or controls since the last reporting period.

(x) A table summarizing the total duration of excess emissions, as defined in paragraphs (n)(7)(x)(A) through (B) of this section, for the reporting period broken down by the cause of those excess emissions (startup/shutdown, control equipment problems, process problems, other known causes, unknown causes), and the total percent of excess emissions (for all causes) for the reporting period calculated as described in paragraph (n)(7)(x)(C) of this section.

(A) For purposes of this section, an excess emission is defined as any 30-day or 720-hour rolling average period, including periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction, during which the 30-day or 720-hour (as appropriate) rolling average emissions of either regulated pollutant (SO2 and NOX), as measured by a CEMS, exceeds the applicable emission standards in this section.

(B)(1) For purposes of this section, if a facility calculates a 30-day rolling average emission rate in accordance with this section which exceeds the applicable emission standards of this section, then it will be considered 30 days of excess emissions. If the following 30-day rolling average emission rate is calculated and found to exceed the applicable emission standards of this section as well, then it will add one more day to the total days of excess emissions (i.e. 31 days). Similarly, if an excess emission is calculated for a 30-day rolling average period and no additional excess emissions are calculated until 15 days after the first, then that new excess emission will add 15 days to the total days of excess emissions (i.e. 30 + 15 = 45). For purposes of this section, if an excess emission is calculated for any period of time within a reporting period, there will be no fewer than 30 days of excess emissions but there should be no more than 121 days of excess emissions for a reporting period.

(2) For purposes of this section, if a facility calculates a 720-hour rolling average emission rate in accordance with this section which exceeds the applicable emission standards of this section, then it will be considered 30 days of excess emissions. If the 24th following 720-hour rolling average emission rate is calculated and found to exceed the applicable emission standards of the rule as well, then it will add one more day to the total days of excess emissions (i.e. 31 days). Similarly, if an excess emission is calculated for a 720-hour rolling average period and no additional excess emissions are calculated until 360 hours after the first, then that new excess emission will add 15 days to the total days of excess emissions (i.e. 30+15 = 45). For purposes of this section, if an excess emission is calculated for any period of time with a reporting period, there will be no fewer than 30 days of excess emissions but there should be no more than 121 days of excess emissions for a reporting period.

(C) For purposes of this section, the total percent of excess emissions will be determined by summing all periods of excess emissions (in days) for the reporting period, dividing that number by the total BART affected unit operating days for the reporting period, and then multiplying by 100 to get the total percent of excess emissions for the reporting period. An operating day, as defined previously, is any day during which fuel is fired in the BART affected unit for any period of time. Because of the possible overlap of 30-day rolling average excess emissions across quarters, there are some situations where the total percent of excess emissions could exceed 100 percent. This extreme situation would only result from serious excess emissions problems where excess emissions occur for nearly every day during a reporting period.

(xi) A table summarizing the total duration of monitor downtime, as defined in paragraph (n)(7)(xi)(A) of this section, for the reporting period broken down by the cause of the monitor downtime (monitor equipment malfunctions, non-monitor equipment malfunctions, quality assurance calibration, other known causes, unknown causes), and the total percent of monitor downtime (for all causes) for the reporting period calculated as described in paragraph (n)(7)(xi)(B) of this section.

(A) For purposes of this section, monitor downtime is defined as any period of time (in hours) during which the required monitoring system was not measuring emissions from the BART affected unit. This includes any period of CEMS QA/QC, daily zero and span checks, and similar activities.

(B) For purposes of this section, the total percent of monitor downtime will be determined by summing all periods of monitor downtime (in hours) for the reporting period, dividing that number by the total number of BART affected unit operating hours for the reporting period, and then multiplying by 100 to get the total percent of excess emissions for the reporting period.

(xii) A table which identifies each period of excess emissions for the reporting period and includes, at a minimum, the information in paragraphs (n)(7)(xii)(A) through (F) of this section.

(A) The date of each excess emission.

(B) The beginning and end time of each excess emission.

(C) The pollutant for which an excess emission occurred.

(D) The magnitude of the excess emission.

(E) The cause of the excess emission.

(F) The corrective action taken or preventative measures adopted to minimize or eliminate the excess emissions and prevent such excess emission from occurring again.

(xiii) A table which identifies each period of monitor downtime for the reporting period and includes, at a minimum, the information in paragraphs (n)(7)(xiii)(A) through (D) of this section.

(A) The date of each period of monitor downtime.

(B) The beginning and end time of each period of monitor downtime.

(C) The cause of the period of monitor downtime.

(D) The corrective action taken or preventative measures adopted for system repairs or adjustments to minimize or eliminate monitor downtime and prevent such downtime from occurring again.

(xiv) If there were no periods of excess emissions during the reporting period, then the excess emission report must include a statement which says there were no periods of excess emissions during this reporting period.

(xv) If there were no periods of monitor downtime, except for daily zero and span checks, during the reporting period, then the excess emission report must include a statement which says there were no periods of monitor downtime during this reporting period except for the daily zero and span checks.

(8) The owner or operator of each CEMS required by this section must develop and submit for review and approval by the Regional Administrator a site specific monitoring plan. The purpose of this monitoring plan is to establish procedures and practices which will be implemented by the owner or operator in its effort to comply with the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements of this section. The monitoring plan must include, at a minimum, the information in paragraphs (n)(8)(i) through (x) of this section.

(i) Site specific information including the company name, address, and contact information.

(ii) The objectives of the monitoring program implemented and information describing how those objectives will be met.

(iii) Information on any emission factors used in conjunction with the CEMS required by this section to calculate emission rates and a description of how those emission factors were determined.

(iv) A description of methods to be used to calculate emission rates when CEMS data are not available due to downtime associated with QA/QC events.

(v) A description of the QA/QC program to be implemented by the owner or operator of CEMS required by this section. This can be the QA/QC program developed in accordance with 40 CFR part 60, appendix F, Procedure 1, Section 3.

(vi) A list of spare parts for CEMS maintained on site for system maintenance and repairs.

(vii) A description of the procedures to be used to calculate 30-day rolling averages and 720-hour rolling averages and example calculations which show the algorithms used by the CEMS to calculate 30-day rolling averages and 720-hour rolling averages.

(viii) A sample of the document to be used for the quarterly excess emission reports required by this section.

(ix) A description of the procedures to be implemented to investigate root causes of excess emissions and monitor downtime and the proposed corrective actions to address potential root causes of excess emissions and monitor downtime.

(x) A description of the sampling and calculation methodology for determining the percent sulfur by weight as a monthly block average for coal used during that month.

(o) The requirements of section 169A of the Clean Air Act are not met because the regional haze plan submitted by the state on November 5, 2010, does not meet the requirements of 40 CFR 51.308(e) with respect to NOX and SO2 emissions from Tilden Mining Company L.C. of Ishpeming, Michigan. The requirements for this facility are satisfied by complying with § 52.1183(k-n)

(p) Equations for establishing the upper predictive limit -

(1) Equation for normal distribution and statistically independent data.

$UPL=\stackrel{—}{x}+{t}_{\left[\left(n-1\right),\left(0.95\right)\right]}\sqrt{{s}^{2}\left(\frac{1}{n}+\frac{1}{m}\right)}$

Where:
x = average or mean of hourly test run data;
t[(n−1),(0.95)] = t score, the one-tailed t value of the Student's t distribution for a specific degree of freedom (n−1) and a confidence level (0.95; 0.99 for Tilden SO2)
s2 = variance of the hourly data set;
n = number of values (e.g. 5,760 if 8 months of valid lbs NOX/MMBTU hourly values)
m = number of values used to calculate the test average (m = 720 as per averaging time)

(i) To determine if statistically independent, use the Rank von Neumann Test on p. 137 of data Quality Assessment: Statistical Methods for Practitioners EPA QA/G-9S.

(ii) Alternative to Rank von Neumann test to determine if data are dependent, data are dependent if t test value is greater than t critical value, where:

$t\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\text{test}=\frac{\rho }{\sqrt{\frac{1-{\rho }^{2}}{n-2}}}$

ρ = correlation between data points
t critical = t[(n−2),(0.95)] = t score, the two-tailed t value of the Student's t distribution for a specific degree of freedom (n−2) and a confidence level (0.95)

(iii) The Anderson-Darling normality test is used to establish whether the data are normally distributed. That is, a distribution is considered to be normally distributed when p > 0.05.

(2) Non-parametric equation for data not normally distributed and normally distributed but not statistically independent.

m = (n + 1) * α
m = the rank of the ordered data point, when data are sorted smallest to largest. The data points are 720-hour averages for establishing NOX limits.
n = number of data points (e.g., 5040 720-hourly averages for eight months of valid NOX lbs/MMBTU values)
α = 0.95, to reflect the 95th percentile

If m is a whole number, then the limit, UPL, shall be computed as:

UPL = Xm
Where:
Xm = value of the m th data point in terms of lbs SO2/hr or lbs NOX/MMBTU, when the data are sorted smallest to largest.

If m is not a whole number, the limit shall be computed by linear interpolation according to the following equation.

UPL = xm = xmi·md = xmi + 0.md (xmi+1xmi)
Where:
mi = the integer portion of m, i.e.,m truncated at zero decimal places, and
md = the decimal portion of m
[50 FR 28553, July 12, 1985, as amended at 52 FR 45137, Nov. 24, 1987; 77 FR 33657, June 7, 2012; 77 FR 71550, Dec. 3, 2012; 78 FR 8733, Feb. 6, 2013; 78 FR 59839, Sept. 30, 2013; 81 FR 21681, Apr. 12, 2016; 82 FR 3129, Jan. 10, 2017]