40 CFR § 60.13 - Monitoring requirements.
(a) For the purposes of this section, all continuous monitoring systems required under applicable subparts shall be subject to the provisions of this section upon promulgation of performance specifications for continuous monitoring systems under appendix B to this part and, if the continuous monitoring system is used to demonstrate compliance with emission limits on a continuous basis, appendix F to this part, unless otherwise specified in an applicable subpart or by the Administrator. Appendix F is applicable December 4, 1987.
(b) All continuous monitoring systems and monitoring devices shall be installed and operational prior to conducting performance tests under § 60.8. Verification of operational status shall, as a minimum, include completion of the manufacturer's written requirements or recommendations for installation, operation, and calibration of the device.
(c) If the owner or operator of an affected facility elects to submit continous opacity monitoring system (COMS) data for compliance with the opacity standard as provided under § 60.11(e)(5), he shall conduct a performance evaluation of the COMS as specified in Performance Specification 1, appendix B, of this part before the performance test required under § 60.8 is conducted. Otherwise, the owner or operator of an affected facility shall conduct a performance evaluation of the COMS or continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) during any performance test required under § 60.8 or within 30 days thereafter in accordance with the applicable performance specification in appendix B of this part, The owner or operator of an affected facility shall conduct COMS or CEMS performance evaluations at such other times as may be required by the Administrator under section 114 of the Act.
(1) The owner or operator of an affected facility using a COMS to determine opacity compliance during any performance test required under § 60.8 and as described in § 60.11(e)(5) shall furnish the Administrator two or, upon request, more copies of a written report of the results of the COMS performance evaluation described in paragraph (c) of this section at least 10 days before the performance test required under § 60.8 is conducted.
(2) Except as provided in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the owner or operator of an affected facility shall furnish the Administrator within 60 days of completion two or, upon request, more copies of a written report of the results of the performance evaluation.
(1) Owners and operators of a CEMS installed in accordance with the provisions of this part, must check the zero (or low level value between 0 and 20 percent of span value) and span (50 to 100 percent of span value) calibration drifts at least once each operating day in accordance with a written procedure. The zero and span must, at a minimum, be adjusted whenever either the 24-hour zero drift or the 24-hour span drift exceeds two times the limit of the applicable performance specification in appendix B of this part. The system must allow the amount of the excess zero and span drift to be recorded and quantified whenever specified. Owners and operators of a COMS installed in accordance with the provisions of this part must check the zero and upscale (span) calibration drifts at least once daily. For a particular COMS, the acceptable range of zero and upscale calibration materials is defined in the applicable version of PS-1 in appendix B of this part. For a COMS, the optical surfaces, exposed to the effluent gases, must be cleaned before performing the zero and upscale drift adjustments, except for systems using automatic zero adjustments. The optical surfaces must be cleaned when the cumulative automatic zero compensation exceeds 4 percent opacity.
(2) Unless otherwise approved by the Administrator, the following procedures must be followed for a COMS. Minimum procedures must include an automated method for producing a simulated zero opacity condition and an upscale opacity condition using a certified neutral density filter or other related technique to produce a known obstruction of the light beam. Such procedures must provide a system check of all active analyzer internal optics with power or curvature, all active electronic circuitry including the light source and photodetector assembly, and electronic or electro-mechanical systems and hardware and or software used during normal measurement operation.
(e) Except for system breakdowns, repairs, calibration checks, and zero and span adjustments required under paragraph (d) of this section, all continuous monitoring systems shall be in continuous operation and shall meet minimum frequency of operation requirements as follows:
(1) All continuous monitoring systems referenced by paragraph (c) of this section for measuring opacity of emissions shall complete a minimum of one cycle of sampling and analyzing for each successive 10-second period and one cycle of data recording for each successive 6-minute period.
(2) All continuous monitoring systems referenced by paragraph (c) of this section for measuring emissions, except opacity, shall complete a minimum of one cycle of operation (sampling, analyzing, and data recording) for each successive 15-minute period.
(f) All continuous monitoring systems or monitoring devices shall be installed such that representative measurements of emissions or process parameters from the affected facility are obtained. Additional procedures for location of continuous monitoring systems contained in the applicable Performance Specifications of appendix B of this part shall be used.
(g) When the effluents from a single affected facility or two or more affected facilities subject to the same emission standards are combined before being released to the atmosphere, the owner or operator may install applicable continuous monitoring systems on each effluent or on the combined effluent. When the affected facilities are not subject to the same emission standards, separate continuous monitoring systems shall be installed on each effluent. When the effluent from one affected facility is released to the atmosphere through more than one point, the owner or operator shall install an applicable continuous monitoring system on each separate effluent unless the installation of fewer systems is approved by the Administrator. When more than one continuous monitoring system is used to measure the emissions from one affected facility (e.g., multiple breechings, multiple outlets), the owner or operator shall report the results as required from each continuous monitoring system.
(1) Owners or operators of all continuous monitoring systems for measurement of opacity shall reduce all data to 6-minute averages and for continuous monitoring systems other than opacity to 1-hour averages for time periods as defined in § 60.2. Six-minute opacity averages shall be calculated from 36 or more data points equally spaced over each 6-minute period.
(2) For continuous monitoring systems other than opacity, 1-hour averages shall be computed as follows, except that the provisions pertaining to the validation of partial operating hours are only applicable for affected facilities that are required by the applicable subpart to include partial hours in the emission calculations:
(i) Except as provided under paragraph (h)(2)(iii) of this section, for a full operating hour (any clock hour with 60 minutes of unit operation), at least four valid data points are required to calculate the hourly average, i.e., one data point in each of the 15-minute quadrants of the hour.
(ii) Except as provided under paragraph (h)(2)(iii) of this section, for a partial operating hour (any clock hour with less than 60 minutes of unit operation), at least one valid data point in each 15-minute quadrant of the hour in which the unit operates is required to calculate the hourly average.
(iii) For any operating hour in which required maintenance or quality-assurance activities are performed:
(A) If the unit operates in two or more quadrants of the hour, a minimum of two valid data points, separated by at least 15 minutes, is required to calculate the hourly average; or
(B) If the unit operates in only one quadrant of the hour, at least one valid data point is required to calculate the hourly average.
(iv) If a daily calibration error check is failed during any operating hour, all data for that hour shall be invalidated, unless a subsequent calibration error test is passed in the same hour and the requirements of paragraph (h)(2)(iii) of this section are met, based solely on valid data recorded after the successful calibration.
(v) For each full or partial operating hour, all valid data points shall be used to calculate the hourly average.
(vi) Except as provided under paragraph (h)(2)(vii) of this section, data recorded during periods of continuous monitoring system breakdown, repair, calibration checks, and zero and span adjustments shall not be included in the data averages computed under this paragraph.
(vii) Owners and operators complying with the requirements of § 60.7(f)(1) or (2) must include any data recorded during periods of monitor breakdown or malfunction in the data averages.
(viii) When specified in an applicable subpart, hourly averages for certain partial operating hours shall not be computed or included in the emission averages (e.g., hours with < 30 minutes of unit operation under § 60.47b(d)).
(ix) Either arithmetic or integrated averaging of all data may be used to calculate the hourly averages. The data may be recorded in reduced or nonreduced form (e.g., ppm pollutant and percent O2 or ng/J of pollutant).
(3) All excess emissions shall be converted into units of the standard using the applicable conversion procedures specified in the applicable subpart. After conversion into units of the standard, the data may be rounded to the same number of significant digits used in the applicable subpart to specify the emission limit.
(i) After receipt and consideration of written application, the Administrator may approve alternatives to any monitoring procedures or requirements of this part including, but not limited to the following:
(1) Alternative monitoring requirements when installation of a continuous monitoring system or monitoring device specified by this part would not provide accurate measurements due to liquid water or other interferences caused by substances in the effluent gases.
(2) Alternative monitoring requirements when the affected facility is infrequently operated.
(3) Alternative monitoring requirements to accommodate continuous monitoring systems that require additional measurements to correct for stack moisture conditions.
(4) Alternative locations for installing continuous monitoring systems or monitoring devices when the owner or operator can demonstrate that installation at alternate locations will enable accurate and representative measurements.
(5) Alternative methods of converting pollutant concentration measurements to units of the standards.
(6) Alternative procedures for performing daily checks of zero and span drift that do not involve use of span gases or test cells.
(7) Alternatives to the A.S.T.M. test methods or sampling procedures specified by any subpart.
(8) Alternative continuous monitoring systems that do not meet the design or performance requirements in Performance Specification 1, appendix B, but adequately demonstrate a definite and consistent relationship between its measurements and the measurements of opacity by a system complying with the requirements in Performance Specification 1. The Administrator may require that such demonstration be performed for each affected facility.
(9) Alternative monitoring requirements when the effluent from a single affected facility or the combined effluent from two or more affected facilities is released to the atmosphere through more than one point.
(j) An alternative to the relative accuracy (RA) test specified in Performance Specification 2 of appendix B may be requested as follows:
(1) An alternative to the reference method tests for determining RA is available for sources with emission rates demonstrated to be less than 50 percent of the applicable standard. A source owner or operator may petition the Administrator to waive the RA test in Section 8.4 of Performance Specification 2 and substitute the procedures in Section 16.0 if the results of a performance test conducted according to the requirements in § 60.8 of this subpart or other tests performed following the criteria in § 60.8 demonstrate that the emission rate of the pollutant of interest in the units of the applicable standard is less than 50 percent of the applicable standard. For sources subject to standards expressed as control efficiency levels, a source owner or operator may petition the Administrator to waive the RA test and substitute the procedures in Section 16.0 of Performance Specification 2 if the control device exhaust emission rate is less than 50 percent of the level needed to meet the control efficiency requirement. The alternative procedures do not apply if the continuous emission monitoring system is used to determine compliance continuously with the applicable standard. The petition to waive the RA test shall include a detailed description of the procedures to be applied. Included shall be location and procedure for conducting the alternative, the concentration or response levels of the alternative RA materials, and the other equipment checks included in the alternative procedure. The Administrator will review the petition for completeness and applicability. The determination to grant a waiver will depend on the intended use of the CEMS data (e.g., data collection purposes other than NSPS) and may require specifications more stringent than in Performance Specification 2 (e.g., the applicable emission limit is more stringent than NSPS).
(2) The waiver of a CEMS RA test will be reviewed and may be rescinded at such time, following successful completion of the alternative RA procedure, that the CEMS data indicate that the source emissions are approaching the level. The criterion for reviewing the waiver is the collection of CEMS data showing that emissions have exceeded 70 percent of the applicable standard for seven, consecutive, averaging periods as specified by the applicable regulation(s). For sources subject to standards expressed as control efficiency levels, the criterion for reviewing the waiver is the collection of CEMS data showing that exhaust emissions have exceeded 70 percent of the level needed to meet the control efficiency requirement for seven, consecutive, averaging periods as specified by the applicable regulation(s) [e.g., §§ 60.45(g) (2) and (3), 60.73(e), and 60.84(e)]. It is the responsibility of the source operator to maintain records and determine the level of emissions relative to the criterion on the waiver of RA testing. If this criterion is exceeded, the owner or operator must notify the Administrator within 10 days of such occurrence and include a description of the nature and cause of the increasing emissions. The Administrator will review the notification and may rescind the waiver and require the owner or operator to conduct a RA test of the CEMS as specified in Section 8.4 of Performance Specification 2.