40 CFR § 60.5397a - What fugitive emissions GHG and VOC standards apply to the affected facility which is the collection of fugitive emissions components at a well site and the affected facility which is the collection of fugitive emissions components at a compressor station?

§ 60.5397a What fugitive emissions GHG and VOC standards apply to the affected facility which is the collection of fugitive emissions components at a well site and the affected facility which is the collection of fugitive emissions components at a compressor station?

For each affected facility under § 60.5365a(i) and (j), you must reduce GHG (in the form of a limitation on emissions of methane) and VOC emissions by complying with the requirements of paragraphs (a) through (j) of this section. These requirements are independent of the closed vent system and cover requirements in § 60.5411a.

(a) You must monitor all fugitive emission components, as defined in § 60.5430a, in accordance with paragraphs (b) through (g) of this section. You must repair all sources of fugitive emissions in accordance with paragraph (h) of this section. You must keep records in accordance with paragraph (i) of this section and report in accordance with paragraph (j) of this section. For purposes of this section, fugitive emissions are defined as: Any visible emission from a fugitive emissions component observed using optical gas imaging or an instrument reading of 500 ppm or greater using Method 21.

(b) You must develop an emissions monitoring plan that covers the collection of fugitive emissions components at well sites and compressor stations within each company-defined area in accordance with paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section.

(c) Fugitive emissions monitoring plans must include the elements specified in paragraphs (c)(1) through (8) of this section, at a minimum.

(1) Frequency for conducting surveys. Surveys must be conducted at least as frequently as required by paragraphs (f) and (g) of this section.

(2) Technique for determining fugitive emissions (i.e., Method 21 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7, or optical gas imaging).

(3) Manufacturer and model number of fugitive emissions detection equipment to be used.

(4) Procedures and timeframes for identifying and repairing fugitive emissions components from which fugitive emissions are detected, including timeframes for fugitive emission components that are unsafe to repair. Your repair schedule must meet the requirements of paragraph (h) of this section at a minimum.

(5) Procedures and timeframes for verifying fugitive emission component repairs.

(6) Records that will be kept and the length of time records will be kept.

(7) If you are using optical gas imaging, your plan must also include the elements specified in paragraphs (c)(7)(i) through (vii) of this section.

(i) Verification that your optical gas imaging equipment meets the specifications of paragraphs (c)(7)(i)(A) and (B) of this section. This verification is an initial verification and may either be performed by the facility, by the manufacturer, or by a third party. For the purposes of complying with the fugitives emissions monitoring program with optical gas imaging, a fugitive emission is defined as any visible emissions observed using optical gas imaging.

(A) Your optical gas imaging equipment must be capable of imaging gases in the spectral range for the compound of highest concentration in the potential fugitive emissions.

(B) Your optical gas imaging equipment must be capable of imaging a gas that is half methane, half propane at a concentration of 10,000 ppm at a flow rate of ≤60g/hr from a quarter inch diameter orifice.

(ii) Procedure for a daily verification check.

(iii) Procedure for determining the operator's maximum viewing distance from the equipment and how the operator will ensure that this distance is maintained.

(iv) Procedure for determining maximum wind speed during which monitoring can be performed and how the operator will ensure monitoring occurs only at wind speeds below this threshold.

(v) Procedures for conducting surveys, including the items specified in paragraphs (c)(7)(v)(A) through (C) of this section.

(A) How the operator will ensure an adequate thermal background is present in order to view potential fugitive emissions.

(B) How the operator will deal with adverse monitoring conditions, such as wind.

(C) How the operator will deal with interferences (e.g., steam).

(vi) Training and experience needed prior to performing surveys.

(vii) Procedures for calibration and maintenance. At a minimum, procedures must comply with those recommended by the manufacturer.

(8) If you are using Method 21 of appendix A-7 of this part, your plan must also include the elements specified in paragraphs (c)(8)(i) and (ii) of this section. For the purposes of complying with the fugitive emissions monitoring program using Method 21 a fugitive emission is defined as an instrument reading of 500 ppm or greater.

(i) Verification that your monitoring equipment meets the requirements specified in Section 6.0 of Method 21 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7. For purposes of instrument capability, the fugitive emissions definition shall be 500 ppm or greater methane using a FID-based instrument. If you wish to use an analyzer other than a FID-based instrument, you must develop a site-specific fugitive emission definition that would be equivalent to 500 ppm methane using a FID-based instrument (e.g., 10.6 eV PID with a specified isobutylene concentration as the fugitive emission definition would provide equivalent response to your compound of interest).

(ii) Procedures for conducting surveys. At a minimum, the procedures shall ensure that the surveys comply with the relevant sections of Method 21 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7, including Section 8.3.1.

(d) Each fugitive emissions monitoring plan must include the elements specified in paragraphs (d)(1) through (4) of this section, at a minimum, as applicable.

(1) Sitemap.

(2) A defined observation path that ensures that all fugitive emissions components are within sight of the path. The observation path must account for interferences.

(3) If you are using Method 21, your plan must also include a list of fugitive emissions components to be monitored and method for determining location of fugitive emissions components to be monitored in the field (e.g. tagging, identification on a process and instrumentation diagram, etc.).

(4) Your plan must also include the written plan developed for all of the fugitive emission components designated as difficult-to-monitor in accordance with paragraph (g)(3)(i) of this section, and the written plan for fugitive emission components designated as unsafe-to-monitor in accordance with paragraph (g)(3)(ii) of this section.

(e) Each monitoring survey shall observe each fugitive emissions component, as defined in § 60.5430a, for fugitive emissions.

(f)

(1) You must conduct an initial monitoring survey within 60 days of the startup of production, as defined in § 60.5430a, for each collection of fugitive emissions components at a new well site or by June 3, 2017, whichever is later. For a modified collection of fugitive emissions components at a well site, the initial monitoring survey must be conducted within 60 days of the first day of production for each collection of fugitive emission components after the modification or by June 3, 2017, whichever is later. Notwithstanding the preceding deadlines, for each collection of fugitive emissions components at a well site located on the Alaskan North Slope, as defined in § 60.5430a, that starts up production between September and March, you must conduct an initial monitoring survey within 6 months of the startup of production for a new well site, within 6 months of the first day of production after a modification of the collection of fugitive emission components, or by the following June 30, whichever is later.

(2) You must conduct an initial monitoring survey within 60 days of the startup of a new compressor station for each new collection of fugitive emissions components at the new compressor station or by June 3, 2017, whichever is later. For a modified collection of fugitive components at a compressor station, the initial monitoring survey must be conducted within 60 days of the modification or by June 3, 2017, whichever is later.

(g) A monitoring survey of each collection of fugitive emissions components at a well site or at a compressor station must be performed at the frequencies specified in paragraphs (g)(1) and (2) of this section, with the exceptions noted in paragraphs (g)(3) and (4) of this section.

(1) Except as provided herein, a monitoring survey of each collection of fugitive emissions components at a well site within a company-defined area must be conducted at least semiannually after the initial survey. Consecutive semiannual monitoring surveys must be conducted at least 4 months apart. A monitoring survey of each collection of fugitive emissions components at a well site located on the Alaskan North Slope must be conducted at least annually. Consecutive annual monitoring surveys must be conducted at least 9 months apart.

(2) A monitoring survey of the collection of fugitive emissions components at a compressor station within a company-defined area must be conducted at least quarterly after the initial survey. Consecutive quarterly monitoring surveys must be conducted at least 60 days apart.

(3) Fugitive emissions components that cannot be monitored without elevating the monitoring personnel more than 2 meters above the surface may be designated as difficult-to-monitor. Fugitive emissions components that are designated difficult-to-monitor must meet the specifications of paragraphs (g)(3)(i) through (iv) of this section.

(i) A written plan must be developed for all of the fugitive emissions components designated difficult-to-monitor. This written plan must be incorporated into the fugitive emissions monitoring plan required by paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section.

(ii) The plan must include the identification and location of each fugitive emissions component designated as difficult-to-monitor.

(iii) The plan must include an explanation of why each fugitive emissions component designated as difficult-to-monitor is difficult-to-monitor.

(iv) The plan must include a schedule for monitoring the difficult-to-monitor fugitive emissions components at least once per calendar year.

(4) Fugitive emissions components that cannot be monitored because monitoring personnel would be exposed to immediate danger while conducting a monitoring survey may be designated as unsafe-to-monitor. Fugitive emissions components that are designated unsafe-to-monitor must meet the specifications of paragraphs (g)(4)(i) through (iv) of this section.

(i) A written plan must be developed for all of the fugitive emissions components designated unsafe-to-monitor. This written plan must be incorporated into the fugitive emissions monitoring plan required by paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section.

(ii) The plan must include the identification and location of each fugitive emissions component designated as unsafe-to-monitor.

(iii) The plan must include an explanation of why each fugitive emissions component designated as unsafe-to-monitor is unsafe-to-monitor.

(iv) The plan must include a schedule for monitoring the fugitive emissions components designated as unsafe-to-monitor.

(5) The requirements of paragraph (g)(2) of this section are waived for any collection of fugitive emissions components at a compressor station located within an area that has an average calendar month temperature below 0 °Fahrenheit for two of three consecutive calendar months of a quarterly monitoring period. The calendar month temperature average for each month within the quarterly monitoring period must be determined using historical monthly average temperatures over the previous three years as reported by a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration source or other source approved by the Administrator. The requirements of paragraph (g)(2) of this section shall not be waived for two consecutive quarterly monitoring periods.

(h) Each identified source of fugitive emissions shall be repaired or replaced in accordance with paragraphs (h)(1) and (2) of this section. For fugitive emissions components also subject to the repair provisions of §§ 60.5416a(b)(9) through (12) and (c)(4) through (7), those provisions apply instead to those closed vent system and covers, and the repair provisions of paragraphs (h)(1) and (2) of this section do not apply to those closed vent systems and covers.

(1) Each identified source of fugitive emissions shall be repaired or replaced as soon as practicable, but no later than 30 calendar days after detection of the fugitive emissions.

(2) If the repair or replacement is technically infeasible, would require a vent blowdown, a compressor station shutdown, a well shutdown or well shut-in, or would be unsafe to repair during operation of the unit, the repair or replacement must be completed during the next scheduled compressor station shutdown, well shutdown, well shut-in, after a planned vent blowdown or within 2 years, whichever is earlier.

(3) Each repaired or replaced fugitive emissions component must be resurveyed as soon as practicable, but no later than 30 days after being repaired, to ensure that there are no fugitive emissions.

(i) For repairs that cannot be made during the monitoring survey when the fugitive emissions are initially found, the operator may resurvey the repaired fugitive emissions components using either Method 21 or optical gas imaging within 30 days of finding such fugitive emissions.

(ii) For each repair that cannot be made during the monitoring survey when the fugitive emissions are initially found, a digital photograph must be taken of that component or the component must be tagged for identification purposes. The digital photograph must include the date that the photograph was taken, must clearly identify the component by location within the site (e.g., the latitude and longitude of the component or by other descriptive landmarks visible in the picture).

(iii)Operators that use Method 21 to resurvey the repaired fugitive emissions components are subject to the resurvey provisions specified in paragraphs (h)(3)(iii)(A) and (B) of this section.

(A) A fugitive emissions component is repaired when the Method 21 instrument indicates a concentration of less than 500 ppm above background or when no soap bubbles are observed when the alternative screening procedures specified in section 8.3.3 of Method 21 are used.

(B)Operators must use the Method 21 monitoring requirements specified in paragraph (c)(8)(ii) of this section or the alternative screening procedures specified in section 8.3.3 of Method 21.

(iv)Operators that use optical gas imaging to resurvey the repaired fugitive emissions components, are subject to the resurvey provisions specified in paragraphs (h)(3)(iv)(A) and (B) of this section.

(A) A fugitive emissions component is repaired when the optical gas imaging instrument shows no indication of visible emissions.

(B)Operators must use the optical gas imaging monitoring requirements specified in paragraph (c)(7) of this section.

(i) Records for each monitoring survey shall be maintained as specified § 60.5420a(c)(15).

(j) Annual reports shall be submitted for each collection of fugitive emissions components at a well site and each collection of fugitive emissions components at a compressor station that include the information specified in § 60.5420a(b)(7). Multiple collection of fugitive emissions components at a well site or at a compressor station may be included in a single annual report.

[81 FR 35898, June 3, 2016, as amended at 83 FR 10638, Mar. 12, 2018]