40 CFR § 60.5580 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

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§ 60.5580 What definitions apply to this subpart?

As used in this subpart, all terms not defined herein will have the meaning given them in the Clean Air Act and in subpart A (general provisions of this part).

Annual capacity factor means the ratio between the actual heat input to an EGU during a calendar year and the potential heat input to the EGU had it been operated for 8,760 hours during a calendar year at the base load rating.

Base load rating means the maximum amount of heat input (fuel) that an EGU can combust on a steady state basis, as determined by the physical design and characteristics of the EGU at ISO conditions. For a stationary combustion turbine, base load rating includes the heat input from duct burners.

Coal means all solid fuels classified as anthracite, bituminous, subbituminous, or lignite by ASTM International in ASTM D388-99 (Reapproved 2004) ε1 (incorporated by reference, see § 60.17), coal refuse, and petroleum coke. Synthetic fuels derived from coal for the purpose of creating useful heat, including, but not limited to, solvent-refined coal, gasified coal (not meeting the definition of natural gas), coal-oil mixtures, and coal-water mixtures are included in this definition for the purposes of this subpart.

Combined cycle unit means an electric generating unit that uses a stationary combustion turbine from which the heat from the turbine exhaust gases is recovered by a heat recovery steam generating unit (HRSG) to generate additional electricity.

Combined heat and power unit or CHP unit, (also known as “cogeneration”) means an electric generating unit that that use a steam generating unit or stationary combustion turbine to simultaneously produce both electric (or mechanical) and useful thermal output from the same primary energy source.

Design efficiency means the rated overall net efficiency (e.g., electric plus useful thermal output) on a lower heating value basis at the base load rating, at ISO conditions, and at the maximum useful thermal output (e.g., CHP unit with condensing steam turbines would determine the design efficiency at the maximum level of extraction and/or bypass). Design efficiency shall be determined using one of the following methods: ASME PTC 22 Gas Turbines (incorporated by reference, see § 60.17), ASME PTC 46 Overall Plant Performance (incorporated by reference, see § 60.17) or ISO 2314 Gas turbines - acceptance tests (incorporated by reference, see § 60.17).

Distillate oil means fuel oils that comply with the specifications for fuel oil numbers 1 and 2, as defined by ASTM International in ASTM D396-98 (incorporated by reference, see § 60.17); diesel fuel oil numbers 1 and 2, as defined by ASTM International in ASTM D975-08a (incorporated by reference, see § 60.17); kerosene, as defined by ASTM International in ASTM D3699 (incorporated by reference, see § 60.17); biodiesel as defined by ASTM International in ASTM D6751 (incorporated by reference, see § 60.17); or biodiesel blends as defined by ASTM International in ASTM D7467 (incorporated by reference, see § 60.17).

Electric Generating units or EGU means any steam generating unit, IGCC unit, or stationary combustion turbine that is subject to this rule (i.e., meets the applicability criteria)

Fossil fuel means natural gas, petroleum, coal, and any form of solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel derived from such material for the purpose of creating useful heat.

Gaseous fuel means any fuel that is present as a gas at ISO conditions and includes, but is not limited to, natural gas, refinery fuel gas, process gas, coke-oven gas, synthetic gas, and gasified coal.

Gross energy output means:

(1) For stationary combustion turbines and IGCC, the gross electric or direct mechanical output from both the EGU (including, but not limited to, output from steam turbine(s), combustion turbine(s), and gas expander(s)) plus 100 percent of the useful thermal output.

(2) For steam generating units, the gross electric or mechanical output from the affected EGU(s) (including, but not limited to, output from steam turbine(s), combustion turbine(s), and gas expander(s)) minus any electricity used to power the feedwater pumps plus 100 percent of the useful thermal output;

(3) For combined heat and power facilities where at least 20.0 percent of the total gross energy output consists of electric or direct mechanical output and 20.0 percent of the total gross energy output consists of useful thermal output on a 12-operating-month rolling average basis, the gross electric or mechanical output from the affected EGU (including, but not limited to, output from steam turbine(s), combustion turbine(s), and gas expander(s)) minus any electricity used to power the feedwater pumps (the electric auxiliary load of boiler feedwater pumps is not applicable to IGCC facilities), that difference divided by 0.95, plus 100 percent of the useful thermal output.

Heat recovery steam generating unit (HRSG) means an EGU in which hot exhaust gases from the combustion turbine engine are routed in order to extract heat from the gases and generate useful output. Heat recovery steam generating units can be used with or without duct burners.

Integrated gasification combined cycle facility or IGCC means a combined cycle facility that is designed to burn fuels containing 50 percent (by heat input) or more solid-derived fuel not meeting the definition of natural gas, plus any integrated equipment that provides electricity or useful thermal output to the affected EGU or auxiliary equipment. The Administrator may waive the 50 percent solid-derived fuel requirement during periods of the gasification system construction, startup and commissioning, shutdown, or repair. No solid fuel is directly burned in the EGU during operation.

ISO conditions means 288 Kelvin (15 °C), 60 percent relative humidity and 101.3 kilopascals pressure.

Liquid fuel means any fuel that is present as a liquid at ISO conditions and includes, but is not limited to, distillate oil and residual oil.

Mechanical output means the useful mechanical energy that is not used to operate the affected EGU(s), generate electricity and/or thermal energy, or to enhance the performance of the affected EGU. Mechanical energy measured in horsepower hour should be converted into MWh by multiplying it by 745.7 then dividing by 1,000,000.

Natural gas means a fluid mixture of hydrocarbons (e.g., methane, ethane, or propane), composed of at least 70 percent methane by volume or that has a gross calorific value between 35 and 41 megajoules (MJ) per dry standard cubic meter (950 and 1,100 Btu per dry standard cubic foot), that maintains a gaseous state under ISO conditions. Finally, natural gas does not include the following gaseous fuels: Landfill gas, digester gas, refinery gas, sour gas, blast furnace gas, coal-derived gas, producer gas, coke oven gas, or any gaseous fuel produced in a process which might result in highly variable CO2 content or heating value.

Net-electric output means the amount of gross generation the generator(s) produces (including, but not limited to, output from steam turbine(s), combustion turbine(s), and gas expander(s)), as measured at the generator terminals, less the electricity used to operate the plant (i.e., auxiliary loads); such uses include fuel handling equipment, pumps, fans, pollution control equipment, other electricity needs, and transformer losses as measured at the transmission side of the step up transformer (e.g., the point of sale).

Net-electric sales means:

(1) The gross electric sales to the utility power distribution system minus purchased power; or

(2) For combined heat and power facilities where at least 20.0 percent of the total gross energy output consists of electric or direct mechanical output and at least 20.0 percent of the total gross energy output consists of useful thermal output on an annual basis, the gross electric sales to the utility power distribution system minus purchased power of the thermal host facility or facilities.

(3) Electricity supplied to other facilities that produce electricity to offset auxiliary loads are included when calculating net-electric sales.

(4) Electric sales that that result from a system emergency are not included when calculating net-electric sales.

Net energy output means:

(1) The net electric or mechanical output from the affected EGU plus 100 percent of the useful thermal output; or

(2) For combined heat and power facilities where at least 20.0 percent of the total gross or net energy output consists of electric or direct mechanical output and at least 20.0 percent of the total gross or net energy output consists of useful thermal output on a 12-operating-month rolling average basis, the net electric or mechanical output from the affected EGU divided by 0.95, plus 100 percent of the useful thermal output.

Operating month means a calendar month during which any fuel is combusted in the affected EGU at any time.

Petroleum means crude oil or a fuel derived from crude oil, including, but not limited to, distillate and residual oil.

Potential electric output means 33 percent or the base load rating design efficiency at the maximum electric production rate (e.g., CHP units with condensing steam turbines will operate at maximum electric production), whichever is greater, multiplied by the base load rating (expressed in MMBtu/h) of the EGU, multiplied by 10 6 Btu/MMBtu, divided by 3,413 Btu/KWh, divided by 1,000 kWh/MWh, and multiplied by 8,760 h/yr (e.g., a 35 percent efficient affected EGU with a 100 MW (341 MMBtu/h) fossil fuel heat input capacity would have a 306,000 MWh 12-month potential electric output capacity).

Solid fuel means any fuel that has a definite shape and volume, has no tendency to flow or disperse under moderate stress, and is not liquid or gaseous at ISO conditions. This includes, but is not limited to, coal, biomass, and pulverized solid fuels.

Standard ambient temperature and pressure (SATP) conditions means 298.15 Kelvin (25 °C, 77 °F) and 100.0 kilopascals (14.504 psi, 0.987 atm) pressure. The enthalpy of water at SATP conditions is 50 Btu/lb.

Stationary combustion turbine means all equipment including, but not limited to, the turbine engine, the fuel, air, lubrication and exhaust gas systems, control systems (except emissions control equipment), heat recovery system, fuel compressor, heater, and/or pump, post-combustion emission control technology, and any ancillary components and sub- components comprising any simple cycle stationary combustion turbine, any combined cycle combustion turbine, and any combined heat and power combustion turbine based system plus any integrated equipment that provides electricity or useful thermal output to the combustion turbine engine, heat recovery system or auxiliary equipment. Stationary means that the combustion turbine is not self-propelled or intended to be propelled while performing its function. It may, however, be mounted on a vehicle for portability. A stationary combustion turbine that burns any solid fuel directly is considered a steam generating unit.

Steam generating unit means any furnace, boiler, or other device used for combusting fuel and producing steam (nuclear steam generators are not included) plus any integrated equipment that provides electricity or useful thermal output to the affected EGU(s) or auxiliary equipment.

System emergency means any abnormal system condition that the Regional Transmission Organizations (RTO), Independent System Operators (ISO) or control area Administrator determines requires immediate automatic or manual action to prevent or limit loss of transmission facilities or generators that could adversely affect the reliability of the power system and therefore call for maximum generation resources to operate in the affected area, or for the specific affected EGU to operate to avert loss of load.

Useful thermal output means the thermal energy made available for use in any heating application (e.g., steam delivered to an industrial process for a heating application, including thermal cooling applications) that is not used for electric generation, mechanical output at the affected EGU, to directly enhance the performance of the affected EGU (e.g., economizer output is not useful thermal output, but thermal energy used to reduce fuel moisture is considered useful thermal output), or to supply energy to a pollution control device at the affected EGU. Useful thermal output for affected EGU(s) with no condensate return (or other thermal energy input to the affected EGU(s)) or where measuring the energy in the condensate (or other thermal energy input to the affected EGU(s)) would not meaningfully impact the emission rate calculation is measured against the energy in the thermal output at SATP conditions. Affected EGU(s) with meaningful energy in the condensate return (or other thermal energy input to the affected EGU) must measure the energy in the condensate and subtract that energy relative to SATP conditions from the measured thermal output.

Valid data means quality-assured data generated by continuous monitoring systems that are installed, operated, and maintained according to part 75 of this chapter. For CEMS, the initial certification requirements in § 75.20 of this chapter and appendix A to part 75 of this chapter must be met before quality-assured data are reported under this subpart; for on-going quality assurance, the daily, quarterly, and semiannual/annual test requirements in sections 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3 of appendix B to part 75 of this chapter must be met and the data validation criteria in sections 2.1.5, 2.2.3, and 2.3.2 of appendix B to part 75 of this chapter apply. For fuel flow meters, the initial certification requirements in section 2.1.5 of appendix D to part 75 of this chapter must be met before quality-assured data are reported under this subpart (except for qualifying commercial billing meters under section 2.1.4.2 of appendix D to part 75), and for on-going quality assurance, the provisions in section 2.1.6 of appendix D to part 75 apply (except for qualifying commercial billing meters).

Violation means a specified averaging period over which the CO2 emissions rate is higher than the applicable emissions standard located in table 1 or 2 of this subpart.