40 CFR 60.561 - Definitions.
As used in this subpart, all terms not defined herein shall have the meaning given them in the Act, in subpart A of part 60, or in subpart VV of part 60, and the following terms shall have the specific meanings given them.
Boiler means any enclosed combustion device that extracts useful energy in the form of steam.
Capital expenditure means, in addition to the definition in 40 CFR 60.2, an expenditure for a physical or operational change to an existing facility that exceeds P, the product of the facility's replacement cost, R, and an adjusted annual asset guideline repair allowance, A, as reflected by the following equation: P = R × A, where
(a) The adjusted annual asset guideline repair allowance, A, is the product of the percent of the replacement cost, Y, and the applicable basic annual asset guideline repair allowance, B, as reflected by the following equation: A = Y × (B ÷ 100);
(b) The percent Y is determined from the following equation: Y = 1.0 − 0.57 log X, where X is 1986 minus the year of construction; and
(c) The applicable basic annual asset guideline repair allowance, B, is equal to 12.5.
Car-sealed means, for purposes of these standards, a seal that is placed on the device used to change the position of a valve (e.g., from opened to closed) such that the position of the valve cannot be changed without breaking the seal and requiring the replacement of the old seal once broken with a new seal.
Closed vent system means a system that is not open to the atmosphere and that is composed of piping, connections, and, if necessary, flow inducing devices that transport gas or vapor from a piece or pieces of equipment to a control device.
Continuous process means a polymerization process in which reactants are introduced in a continuous manner and products are removed either continuously or intermittently at regular intervals so that the process can be operated and polymers produced essentially continuously.
Control device means an enclosed combustion device, vapor recovery system, or flare.
Copolymer means a polymer that has two different repeat units in its chain.
Decomposition means, for the purposes of these standards, an event in a polymerization reactor that advances to the point where the polymerization reaction becomes uncontrollable, the polymer begins to break down (decompose), and it becomes necessary to relieve the reactor instantaneously in order to avoid catastrophic equipment damage or serious adverse personnel safety consequences.
Emergency vent stream means, for the purposes of these standards, an intermittent emission that results from a decomposition, attempts to prevent decompositions, power failure, equipment failure, or other unexpected cause that requires immediate venting of gases from process equipment in order to avoid safety hazards or equipment damage. This includes intermittent vents that occur from process equipment where normal operating parameters (e.g., pressure or temperature) are exceeded such that the process equipment can not be returned to normal operating conditions using the design features of the system and venting must occur to avoid equipment failure or adverse safety personnel consequences and to minimize adverse effects of the runaway reaction. This does not include intermittent vents that are designed into the process to maintain normal operating conditions of process vessels including those vents that regulate normal process vessel pressure.
End finisher means a polymerization reaction vessel operated under very low pressures, typically at pressures of 2 mm Hg (1 in. H2O) or less, in order to produce high viscosity poly(ethylene terephthalate). An end finisher is preceded in a high viscosity poly(ethylene terephthalate) process line by one or more polymerization vessels operated under less severe vacuums, typically between 5 and 10 mm Hg (3 and 5 in. H2O). A high viscosity poly(ethylene terephthalate) process line may have one or more end finishers.
Existing control device means, for the purposes of these standards, an air pollution control device that has been in operation on or before September 30, 1987, or that has been in operation between September 30, 1987, and January 10, 1989, on those continuous or intermittent emissions from a process section that is marked by an “ - ” in table 1 of this subpart.
Experimental process line means a polymer or copolymer manufacturing process line with the sole purpose of operating to evaluate polymer manufacturing processes, technologies, or products. An experimental process line does not produce a polymer or resin that is sold or that is used as a raw material for nonexperimental process lines.
Flame zone means that portion of the combustion chamber in a boiler occupied by the flame envelope.
Fugitive emissions equipment means each pump, compressor, pressure relief device, sampling connection system, open-ended valve or line, valve, and flange or other connector in VOC service and any devices or systems required by subpart VV of this part.
Gas phase process means a polymerization process in which the polymerization reaction is carried out in the gas phase; i.e., the monomer(s) are gases in a fluidized bed of catalyst particles and granular polymer.
High pressure process means the conventional production process for the manufacture of low density polyethylene in which a reaction pressure of about 15,000 psig (103,000 kPa gauge) or greater is used.
High viscosity poly(ethylene terephthalate) means poly(ethylene terephthalate) that has an intrinsic viscosity of 0.9 or higher and is used in such applications as tire cord and seat belts.
Incinerator means an enclosed combustion device that is used for destroying VOC.
In-situ suspension process means a manufacturing process in which styrene, blowing agent, and other raw materials are added together within a reactor for the production of expandable polystyrene.
Liquid phase process means a polymerization process in which the polymerization reaction is carried out in the liquid phase; i.e., the monomer(s) and any catalyst are dissolved, or suspended in a liquid solvent.
Liquid phase slurry process means a liquid phase polymerization process in which the monomer(s) are in solution (completely dissolved) in a liquid solvent, but the polymer is in the form of solid particles suspended in the liquid reaction mixture during the polymerization reaction; sometimes called a particle form process.
Liquid phase solution process means a liquid phase polymerization process in which both the monomer(s) and polymer are in solution (completely dissolved) in the liquid reaction mixture.
Low pressure process means a production process for the manufacture of low density polyethylene in which a reaction pressure markedly below that used in a high pressure process is used. Reaction pressure of current low pressure processes typically go up to about 300 psig (2,070 kPa gauge).
Low viscosity poly(ethylene terephthalate) means a poly(ethylene terephthalate) that has an intrinsic viscosity of less than 0.75 and is used in such applications as clothing, bottle, and film production.
Material recovery section means the equipment that recovers unreacted or by-product materials from any process section for return to the process line, off-site purification or treatment, or sale. Equipment designed to separate unreacted or by-product material from the polymer product are to be included in this process section, provided at least some of the material is recovered for reuse in the process, off-site purification or treatment, or sale, at the time the process section becomes an affected facility. Otherwise such equipment are to be assigned to one of the other process sections, as appropriate. Equipment that treats recovered materials are to be included in this process section, but equipment that also treats raw materials are not to be included in this process section. The latter equipment are to be included in the raw materials preparation section. If equipment is used to return unreacted or by-product material directly to the same piece of process equipment from which it was emitted, then that equipment is considered part of the process section that contains the process equipment. If equipment is used to recover unreacted or by-product material from a process section and return it to another process section or a different piece of process equipment in the same process section or sends it off-site for purification, treatment, or sale, then such equipment are considered part of a material recovery section. Equipment used for the on-site recovery of ethylene glycol from poly(ethylene terephthalate) plants, however, are not included in the material recovery section, but are covered under the standards applicable to the polymerization reaction section ( § 60.562-1(c)(1)(ii)(A) or (2)(ii)(A)).
Operating day means, for the purposes of these standards, any calendar day during which equipment used in the manufacture of polymer was operating for at least 8 hours or one labor shift, whichever is shorter. Only operating days shall be used in determining compliance with the standards specified in § 60.562-1(c)(1)(ii)(B), (1)(ii)(C), (2)(ii)(B), and (2)(ii)(C). Any calendar day in which equipment is used for less than 8 hours or one labor shift, whichever is less, is not an “operating day” and shall not be used as part of the rolling 14-day period for determining compliance with the standards specified in § 60.562-1(c)(1)(ii)(B), (1)(ii)(C), (2)(ii)(B), and (2)(ii)(C).
Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) manufacture using dimethyl terephthalate means the manufacturing of poly(ethylene terephthalate) based on the esterification of dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) with ethylene glycol to form the intermediate monomer bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-terephthalate (BHET) that is subsequently polymerized to form PET.
Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) manufacture using terephthalic acid means the manufacturing of poly(ethylene terephthalate) based on the esterification reaction of terephthalic acid (TPA) with ethylene glycol to form the intermediate monomer bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-terephthalate (BHET) that is subsequently polymerized to form PET.
Polymerization reaction section means the equipment designed to cause monomer(s) to react to form polymers, including equipment designed primarily to cause the formation of short polymer chains (oligomers or low polymers), but not including equipment designed to prepare raw materials for polymerization, e.g., esterification vessels. For the purposes of these standards, the polymerization reaction section begins with the equipment used to transfer the materials from the raw materials preparation section and ends with the last vessel in which polymerization occurs. Equipment used for the on-site recovery of ethylene glycol from poly(ethylene terephthalate) plants, however, are included in this process section, rather than in the material recovery process section.
Post-impregnation suspension process means a manufacturing process in which polystyrene beads are first formed in a suspension process, washed, dried, or otherwise finished and then added with a blowing agent to another reactor in which the beads and blowing agent are reacted to produce expandable polystyrene.
Process heater means a device that transfers heat liberated by burning fuel to fluids contained in tubular coils, including all fluids except water that is heated to produce steam.
Process line means a group of equipment assembled that can operate independently if supplied with sufficient raw materials to produce polypropylene, polyethylene, polystyrene, (general purpose, crystal, or expandable) or poly(ethylene terephthalate) or one of their copolymers. A process line consists of the equipment in the following process sections (to the extent that these process sections are present at a plant): raw materials preparation, polymerization reaction, product finishing, product storage, and material recovery.
Process section means the equipment designed to accomplish a general but well-defined task in polymer production. Process sections include raw materials preparation, polymerization reaction, material recovery, product finishing, and product storage and may be dedicated to a single process line or common to more than one process line.
Process unit means equipment assembled to perform any of the physical and chemical operations in the production of polypropylene, polyethylene, polystyrene, (general purpose, crystal, or expandable), or poly(ethylene terephthalate) or one of their copolymers. A process unit can operate independently if supplied with sufficient feed or raw materials and sufficient storage facilities for the product. Examples of process units are raw materials handling and monomer recovery.
Product finishing section means the equipment that treats, shapes, or modifies the polymer or resin to produce the finished end product of the particular facility, including equipment that prepares the product for product finishing. For the purposes of these standards, the product finishing section begins with the equipment used to transfer the polymerized product from the polymerization reaction section and ends with the last piece of equipment that modifies the characteristics of the polymer. Product finishing equipment may accomplish product separation, extruding and pelletizing, cooling and drying, blending, additives introduction, curing, or annealing. Equipment used to separate unreacted or by-product material from the product are to be included in this process section, provided the material separated from the polymer product is not recovered at the time the process section becomes an affected facility. If the material is being recovered, then the separation equipment are to be included in the material recovery section. Product finishing does not include polymerization, the physical mixing of the pellets to obtain a homogenous mixture of the polymer (except as noted below), or the shaping (such as fiber spinning, molding, or fabricating) or modification (such as fiber stretching and crimping) of the finished end product. If physical mixing occurs in equipment located between product finishing equipment (i.e., before all the chemical and physical characteristics have been “set” by virtue of having passed through the last piece of equipment in the product finishing section), then such equipment are to be included in this process section. Equipment used to physically mix the finished product that are located after the last piece of equipment in the product finishing section are part of the product storage section.
Product storage section means the equipment that is designed to store the finished polymer or resin end product of the particular facility. For the purposes of these standards, the product storage section begins with the equipment used to transfer the finished product out of the product finishing section and ends with the containers used to store the final product. Any equipment used after the product finishing section to recover unreacted or by-product material are to be considered part of a material recovery section. Product storage does not include any intentional modification of the characteristics of any polymer or resin product, but does include equipment that provide a uniform mixture of product, provided such equipment are used after the last product finishing piece of equipment. This process section also does not include the shipment of a finished polymer or resin product to another facility for further finishing or fabrication.
Raw materials preparation section means the equipment located at a polymer manufacturing plant designed to prepare raw materials, such as monomers and solvents, for polymerization. For the purposes of these standards, this process section begins with the equipment used to transfer raw materials from storage and recovered material from material recovery process sections, and ends with the last piece of equipment that prepares the material for polymerization. The raw materials preparation section may include equipment that accomplishes purification, drying, or other treatment of raw materials or of raw and recovered materials together, activation of catalysts, and esterification including the formation of some short polymer chains (oligomers), but does not include equipment that is designed primarily to accomplish the formation of oligomers, the treatment of recovered materials alone, or the storage of raw materials.
Recovery system means an individual unit or series of material recovery units, such as absorbers, condensers, and carbon adsorbers, used for recovering volatile organic compounds.
Total organic compounds (TOC) means those compounds measured according to the procedures specified in § 60.564.
Vent stream means any gas stream released to the atmosphere directly from an emission source or indirectly either through another piece of process equipment or a material recovery device that constitutes part of the normal recovery operations in a polymer process line where potential emissions are recovered for recycle or resale, and any gas stream directed to an air pollution control device. The emissions released from an air pollution control device are not considered a vent stream unless, as noted above, the control device is part of the normal material recovery operations in a polymer process line where potential emissions are recovered for recycle or resale.
Volatile organic compounds (VOC) means, for the purposes of these standards, any reactive organic compounds as defined in § 60.2 Definitions.
Title 40 published on 2015-08-22
The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 40 CFR Part 60 after this date.