40 CFR 60.63 - Monitoring of operations.

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§ 60.63 Monitoring of operations.

(a) [Reserved]

(b) Clinker production monitoring requirements. For any kiln subject to an emissions limitation on PM, NOX, or SO2 emissions (lb/ton of clinker), you must:

(1) Determine hourly clinker production by one of two methods:

(i) Install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a permanent weigh scale system to measure and record weight rates of the amount of clinker produced in tons of mass per hour. The system of measuring hourly clinker production must be maintained within ±5 percent accuracy or

(ii) Install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a permanent weigh scale system to measure and record weight rates of the amount of feed to the kiln in tons of mass per hour. The system of measuring feed must be maintained within ±5 percent accuracy. Calculate your hourly clinker production rate using a kiln specific feed-to-clinker ratio based on reconciled clinker production rates determined for accounting purposes and recorded feed rates. This ratio should be updated monthly. Note that if this ratio changes at clinker reconciliation, you must use the new ratio going forward, but you do not have to retroactively change clinker production rates previously estimated.

(iii) For each kiln operating hour for which you do not have data on clinker production or the amount of feed to the kiln, use the value from the most recent previous hour for which valid data are available.

(2) Determine, record, and maintain a record of the accuracy of the system of measuring hourly clinker production rates or feed rates before initial use (for new sources) or by the effective compliance date of this rule (for existing sources). During each quarter of source operation, you must determine, record, and maintain a record of the ongoing accuracy of the system of measuring hourly clinker production rates or feed rates.

(3) If you measure clinker production directly, record the daily clinker production rates; if you measure the kiln feed rates and calculate clinker production, record the daily kiln feed and clinker production rates.

(c) PM Emissions Monitoring Requirements.

(1) For each kiln or clinker cooler subject to a PM emissions limit in §§ 60.62(a)1(ii) and 60.62(a)1(iii) or §§ 60.62(b)(1)(i) and 60.62(b)(1)(ii), you must demonstrate compliance through an initial performance test. You will conduct your performance test using Method 5 or Method 5I at appendix A-3 to part 60 of this chapter. You must also monitor continuous performance through use of a PM CPMS.

(2) For your PM CPMS, you will establish a site-specific operating limit. If your PM performance test demonstrates your PM emission levels to be below 75 percent of your emission limit you will use the average PM CPMS value recorded during the PM compliance test, the milliamp equivalent of zero output from your PM CPMS, and the average PM result of your compliance test to establish your operating limit equivalent to 75 percent of the standard. If your PM compliance test demonstrates your PM emission levels to be at or above 75 percent of your emission limit you will use the average PM CPMS value recorded during the PM compliance test demonstrating compliance with the PM limit to establish your operating limit. You will use the PM CPMS to demonstrate continuous compliance with your operating limit. You must repeat the performance test annually and reassess and adjust the site-specific operating limit in accordance with the results of the performance test.

(i) Your PM CPMS must provide a 4-20 milliamp or digital signal output and the establishment of its relationship to manual reference method measurements must be determined in units of milliamps or the monitors digital equivalent.

(ii) Your PM CPMS operating range must be capable of reading PM concentrations from zero to a level equivalent to two times your allowable emission limit. If your PM CPMS is an auto-ranging instrument capable of multiple scales, the primary range of the instrument must be capable of reading PM concentration from zero to a level equivalent to two times your allowable emission limit.

(iii) During the initial performance test or any such subsequent performance test that demonstrates compliance with the PM limit, record and average all milliamp or digital output values from the PM CPMS for the periods corresponding to the compliance test runs (e.g., average all your PM CPMS output values for three corresponding 2-hour Method 5I test runs).

(3) Determine your operating limit as specified in paragraphs (c)(4)(i) through (c)(5) of this section. If your PM performance test demonstrates your PM emission levels to be below 75 percent of your emission limit, you will use the average PM CPMS value recorded during the PM compliance test, the milliamp or digital equivalent of zero output from your PM CPMS, and the average PM result of your compliance test to establish your operating limit. If your PM compliance test demonstrates your PM emission levels to be at or above 75 percent of your emission limit, you will use the average PM CPMS value recorded during the PM compliance test to establish your operating limit. You must verify an existing or establish a new operating limit after each repeated performance test. You must repeat the performance test at least annually and reassess and adjust the site-specific operating limit in accordance with the results of the performance test.

(4) If the average of your three Method 5 or 5I compliance test runs are below 75 percent of your PM emission limit, you must calculate an operating limit by establishing a relationship of PM CPMS signal to PM concentration using the PM CPMS instrument zero, the average PM CPMS values corresponding to the three compliance test runs, and the average PM concentration from the Method 5 or 5I compliance test with the procedures in (c)(4)(i)(A) through (D) of this section.

(i) Determine your PM CPMS instrument zero output with one of the following procedures.

(A) Zero point data for in-situ instruments should be obtained by removing the instrument from the stack and monitoring ambient air on a test bench.

(B) Zero point data for extractive instruments should be obtained by removing the extractive probe from the stack and drawing in clean ambient air.

(C) The zero point can also can be obtained by performing manual reference method measurements when the flue gas is free of PM emissions or contains very low PM concentrations (e.g., when your process is not operating, but the fans are operating or your source is combusting only natural gas) and plotting these with the compliance data to find the zero intercept.

(D) If none of the steps in paragraphs (c)(4)(i)(A) through (C) of this section are possible, you must use a zero output value provided by the manufacturer.

(ii) Determine your PM CPMS instrument average in milliamps or digital equivalent and the average of your corresponding three PM compliance test runs, using equation 1.

Where:
X1 = The PM CPMS data points for the three runs constituting the performance test,
Y1 = The PM concentration value for the three runs constituting the performance test, and
n = The number of data points.

(iii) With your PM CPMS instrument zero expressed in milliamps or a digital value, your three run average PM CPMS milliamp or digital signal value, and your three run average PM concentration from your three PM performance test runs, determine a relationship of lb/ton-clinker per milliamp or digital signal with equation 2.

Where:
R = The relative lb/ton clinker per milliamp or digital equivalent for your PM CPMS.
Y1 = The three run average PM lb/ton clinker.
X1 = The three run average milliamp or digital signal output from your PM CPMS.
z = The milliamp or digital equivalent of your instrument zero determined from (c)(4)(i) of this section.

(iv) Determine your source specific 30-day rolling average operating limit using the lb/ton-clinker per milliamp or digital signal value from Equation 2 above in Equation 3, below. This sets your operating limit at the PM CPMS output value corresponding to 75 percent of your emission limit.

Where:
Ol = The operating limit for your PM CPMS on a 30-day rolling average, in milliamps or the digital equivalent.
L = Your source emission limit expressed in lb/ton clinker.
z = Your instrument zero in milliamps or a digital equivalent, determined from (1)(i).
R = The relative lb/ton-clinker per milliamp or digital equivalent, for your PM CPMS, from Equation 2.

(5) If the average of your three PM compliance test runs is at or above 75 percent of your PM emission limit, you must determine your operating limit by averaging the PM CPMS milliamp or digital equivalent output corresponding to your three PM performance test runs that demonstrate compliance with the emission limit using Equation 4.

Where:
X1 = The PM CPMS data points for all runs i.
n = The number of data points.
Oh = Your site specific operating limit, in milliamps or digital equivalent.

(6) To determine continuous compliance, you must record the PM CPMS output data for all periods when the process is operating, and use all the PM CPMS data for calculations when the source is not out-of-control. You must demonstrate continuous compliance by using all quality-assured hourly average data collected by the PM CPMS for all operating hours to calculate the arithmetic average operating parameter in units of the operating limit (milliamps or the digital equivalent) on a 30 operating day rolling average basis, updated at the end of each new kiln operating day. Use Equation 5 to determine the 30 kiln operating day average.

Where:
Hpvi = The hourly parameter value for hour i.
n = The number of valid hourly parameter values collected over the previous 30 kiln operating days.

(7) Use EPA Method 5 or Method 5I of appendix A to part 60 of this chapter to determine PM emissions. For each performance test, conduct at least three separate runs each while the mill is on and the mill is off under the conditions that exist when the affected source is operating at the level reasonably expected to occur. Conduct each test run to collect a minimum sample volume of 2 dscm for determining compliance with a new source limit and 1 dscm for determining compliance with an existing source limit. Calculate the time weighted average of the results from three consecutive runs to determine compliance. You need not determine the particulate matter collected in the impingers (“back half”) of the Method 5 or Method 5I particulate sampling train to demonstrate compliance with the PM standards of this subpart. This shall not preclude the permitting authority from requiring a determination of the “back half” for other purposes.

(8) For PM performance test reports used to set a PM CPMS operating limit, the electronic submission of the test report must also include the make and model of the PM CPMS instrument, serial number of the instrument, analytical principle of the instrument (e.g. beta attenuation), span of the instruments primary analytical range, milliamp or digital signal value equivalent to the instrument zero output, technique by which this zero value was determined, and the average milliamp or digital equivalent signals corresponding to each PM compliance test run.

(d) You must install, operate, calibrate, and maintain a CEMS continuously monitoring and recording the concentration by volume of NOX emissions into the atmosphere for any kiln subject to the NOX emissions limit in § 60.62(a)(3). If the kiln has an alkali bypass, NOX emissions from the alkali bypass do not need to be monitored, and NOX emission monitoring of the kiln exhaust may be done upstream of any commingled alkali bypass gases.

(e) You must install, operate, calibrate, and maintain a CEMS for continuously monitoring and recording the concentration by volume of SO2 emissions into the atmosphere for any kiln subject to the SO2 emissions limit in § 60.62(a)(4). If you are complying with the alternative 90 percent SO2 emissions reduction emissions limit, you must also continuously monitor and record the concentration by volume of SO2 present at the wet scrubber inlet.

(f) The NOX and SO2 CEMS required under paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section must be installed, operated and maintained according to Performance Specification 2 of appendix B of this part and the requirements in paragraphs (f)(1) through (5) of this section.

(1) The span value of each NOX CEMS monitor must be set at 125 percent of the maximum estimated hourly potential NOX emission concentration that translates to the applicable emissions limit at full clinker production capacity.

(2) You must conduct performance evaluations of each NOX CEMS monitor according to the requirements in § 60.13(c) and Performance Specification 2 of appendix B to this part. You must use Methods 7, 7A, 7C, 7D, or 7E of appendix A-4 to this part for conducting the relative accuracy evaluations. The method ASME PTC 19.10-1981, “Flue and Exhaust Gas Analyses,” (incorporated by reference - see § 60.17) is an acceptable alternative to Method 7 or 7C of appendix A-4 to this part.

(3) The span value for the SO2 CEMS monitor is the SO2 emission concentration that corresponds to 125 percent of the applicable emissions limit at full clinker production capacity and the expected maximum fuel sulfur content.

(4) You must conduct performance evaluations of each SO2 CEMS monitor according to the requirements in § 60.13(c) and Performance Specification 2 of appendix B to this part. You must use Methods 6, 6A, or 6C of appendix A-4 to this part for conducting the relative accuracy evaluations. The method ASME PTC 19.10-1981, “Flue and Exhaust Gas Analyses,” (incorporated by reference - see § 60.17) is an acceptable alternative to Method 6 or 6A of appendix A-4 to this part.

(5) You must comply with the quality assurance requirements in Procedure 1 of appendix F to this part for each NOX and SO2 CEMS, including quarterly accuracy determinations for monitors, and daily calibration drift tests.

(g) For each CPMS or CEMS required under paragraphs (c) through (e) of this section:

(1) You must operate the monitoring system and collect data at all required intervals at all times the affected source is operating, except for periods of monitoring system malfunctions, repairs associated with monitoring system malfunctions, and required monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities (including, as applicable, calibration checks and required zero and span adjustments).

(2) You may not use data recorded during the monitoring system malfunctions, repairs associated with monitoring system malfunctions, or required monitoring system quality assurance or control activities in calculations used to report emissions or operating levels. A monitoring system malfunction is any sudden, infrequent, not reasonably preventable failure of the monitoring system to provide valid data. Monitoring system failures that are caused in part by poor maintenance or careless operation are not malfunctions. An owner or operator must use all the data collected during all other periods in reporting emissions or operating levels.

(3) You must meet the requirements of § 60.13(h) when determining the 1-hour averages of emissions data.

(h) You must install, operate, calibrate, and maintain instruments for continuously measuring and recording the stack gas flow rate to allow determination of the pollutant mass emissions rate to the atmosphere for each kiln subject to the PM emissions limits in § 60.62(a)(1)(ii) and (iii) and (b)(1)(i) and (ii), the NOX emissions limit in § 60.62(a)(3), or the SO2 emissions limit in § 60.62(a)(4) according to the requirements in paragraphs (h)(1) through (10), where appropriate, of this section.

(1) The owner or operator must install each sensor of the flow rate monitoring system in a location that provides representative measurement of the exhaust gas flow rate at the sampling location of the NOX and/or SO2 CEMS, taking into account the manufacturer's recommendations. The flow rate sensor is that portion of the system that senses the volumetric flow rate and generates an output proportional to that flow rate.

(2) The flow rate monitoring system must be designed to measure the exhaust gas flow rate over a range that extends from a value of at least 20 percent less than the lowest expected exhaust flow rate to a value of at least 20 percent greater than the highest expected exhaust gas flow rate.

(3) The flow rate monitoring system must have a minimum accuracy of 5 percent of the flow rate.

(4) The flow rate monitoring system must be equipped with a data acquisition and recording system that is capable of recording values over the entire range specified in paragraph (h)(2) of this section.

(5) The signal conditioner, wiring, power supply, and data acquisition and recording system for the flow rate monitoring system must be compatible with the output signal of the flow rate sensors used in the monitoring system.

(6) The flow rate monitoring system must be designed to measure a minimum of one cycle of operational flow for each successive 15-minute period.

(7) The flow rate sensor must be able to determine the daily zero and upscale calibration drift (CD) (see sections 3.1 and 8.3 of Performance Specification 2 in appendix B to this part for a discussion of CD).

(i) Conduct the CD tests at two reference signal levels, zero (e.g., 0 to 20 percent of span) and upscale (e.g., 50 to 70 percent of span).

(ii) The absolute value of the difference between the flow monitor response and the reference signal must be equal to or less than 3 percent of the flow monitor span.

(8) You must perform an initial relative accuracy test of the flow rate monitoring system according to section 8.2 of Performance Specification 6 of appendix B to this part, with the exceptions noted in paragraphs (h)(8)(i) and (ii) of this section.

(i) The relative accuracy test is to evaluate the flow rate monitoring system alone rather than a continuous emission rate monitoring system.

(ii) The relative accuracy of the flow rate monitoring system shall be no greater than 10 percent of the mean value of the reference method data.

(9) You must verify the accuracy of the flow rate monitoring system at least once per year by repeating the relative accuracy test specified in paragraph (h)(8) of this section.

(10) You must operate the flow rate monitoring system and record data during all periods of operation of the affected facility including periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction, except for periods of monitoring system malfunctions, repairs associated with monitoring system malfunctions, and required monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities (including, as applicable, calibration checks and required zero and span adjustments.

(i) Development and Submittal (Upon Request) of Monitoring Plans. To demonstrate compliance with any applicable emissions limit through performance stack testing or other emissions monitoring (including PM CPMS), you must develop a site-specific monitoring plan according to the requirements in paragraphs (i)(1) through (4) of this section. This requirement also applies to you if you petition the EPA Administrator for alternative monitoring parameters under § 60.13(3)(i). If you use a bag leak detector system (BLDS), you must also meet the requirements specified in paragraph § 63.1350(m)(10) of this chapter.

(1) For each continuous monitoring system (CMS) required in this section, you must develop, and submit to the permitting authority for approval upon request, a site-specific monitoring plan that addresses paragraphs (i)(1)(i) through (iii) of this section. You must submit this site-specific monitoring plan, if requested, at least 30 days before the initial performance evaluation of your CMS.

(i) Installation of the CMS sampling probe or other interface at a measurement location relative to each affected process unit such that the measurement is representative of control of the exhaust emissions (e.g., on or downstream of the last control device);

(ii) Performance and equipment specifications for the sample interface, the pollutant concentration or parametric signal analyzer, and the data collection and reduction systems; and

(iii) Performance evaluation procedures and acceptance criteria (e.g., calibrations).

(2) In your site-specific monitoring plan, you must also address paragraphs (i)(2)(i) through (iii) of this section.

(i) Ongoing operation and maintenance procedures in accordance with the general requirements of § 63.8(c)(1), (c)(3), and (c)(4)(ii);

(ii) Ongoing data quality assurance procedures in accordance with the general requirements of § 63.8(d); and

(iii) Ongoing recordkeeping and reporting procedures in accordance with the general requirements of § 63.10(c), (e)(1), and (e)(2)(i).

(3) You must conduct a performance evaluation of each CMS in accordance with your site-specific monitoring plan.

(4) You must operate and maintain the CMS in continuous operation according to the site-specific monitoring plan.

[75 FR 55035, Sept. 9, 2010, as amended at 78 FR 10032, Feb. 12, 2013; 80 FR 44777, July 27, 2015]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE

§ 7401 - Congressional findings and declaration of purpose

§ 7402 - Cooperative activities

§ 7403 - Research, investigation, training, and other activities

§ 7404 - Research relating to fuels and vehicles

§ 7405 - Grants for support of air pollution planning and control programs

§ 7406 - Interstate air quality agencies; program cost limitations

§ 7407 - Air quality control regions

§ 7408 - Air quality criteria and control techniques

§ 7409 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7410 - State implementation plans for national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7411 - Standards of performance for new stationary sources

§ 7412 - Hazardous air pollutants

§ 7413 - Federal enforcement

§ 7414 - Recordkeeping, inspections, monitoring, and entry

§ 7415 - International air pollution

§ 7416 - Retention of State authority

§ 7417 - Advisory committees

§ 7418 - Control of pollution from Federal facilities

§ 7419 - Primary nonferrous smelter orders

§ 7420 - Noncompliance penalty

§ 7421 - Consultation

§ 7422 - Listing of certain unregulated pollutants

§ 7423 - Stack heights

§ 7424 - Assurance of adequacy of State plans

§ 7425 - Measures to prevent economic disruption or unemployment

§ 7426 - Interstate pollution abatement

§ 7427 - Public notification

§ 7428 - State boards

§ 7429 - Solid waste combustion

§ 7430 - Emission factors

§ 7431 - Land use authority

§ 7450 to 7459 - Repealed. Pub. L. 101–549, title VI, § 601, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2648

§ 7470 - Congressional declaration of purpose

§ 7471 - Plan requirements

§ 7472 - Initial classifications

§ 7473 - Increments and ceilings

§ 7474 - Area redesignation

§ 7475 - Preconstruction requirements

§ 7476 - Other pollutants

§ 7477 - Enforcement

§ 7478 - Period before plan approval

§ 7479 - Definitions

§ 7491 - Visibility protection for Federal class I areas

§ 7492 - Visibility

§ 7501 - Definitions

§ 7502 - Nonattainment plan provisions in general

§ 7503 - Permit requirements

§ 7504 - Planning procedures

§ 7505 - Environmental Protection Agency grants

§ 7505a - Maintenance plans

§ 7506 - Limitations on certain Federal assistance

§ 7506a - Interstate transport commissions

§ 7507 - New motor vehicle emission standards in nonattainment areas

§ 7508 - Guidance documents

§ 7509 - Sanctions and consequences of failure to attain

§ 7509a - International border areas

§ 7511 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7511a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7511b - Federal ozone measures

§ 7511c - Control of interstate ozone air pollution

§ 7511d - Enforcement for Severe and Extreme ozone nonattainment areas for failure to attain

§ 7511e - Transitional areas

§ 7511f - NOx and VOC study

§ 7512 - Classification and attainment dates

§ 7512a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7513 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7513a - Plan provisions and schedules for plan submissions

§ 7513b - Issuance of RACM and BACM guidance

§ 7514 - Plan submission deadlines

§ 7514a - Attainment dates

§ 7515 - General savings clause

§ 7521 - Emission standards for new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines

§ 7522 - Prohibited acts

§ 7523 - Actions to restrain violations

§ 7524 - Civil penalties

§ 7525 - Motor vehicle and motor vehicle engine compliance testing and certification

§ 7541 - Compliance by vehicles and engines in actual use

§ 7542 - Information collection

§ 7543 - State standards

§ 7544 - State grants

§ 7545 - Regulation of fuels

§ 7546 - Renewable fuel

§ 7547 - Nonroad engines and vehicles

§ 7548 - Study of particulate emissions from motor vehicles

§ 7549 - High altitude performance adjustments

§ 7550 - Definitions

§ 7551 - Omitted

§ 7552 - Motor vehicle compliance program fees

§ 7553 - Prohibition on production of engines requiring leaded gasoline

§ 7554 - Urban bus standards

§ 7571 - Establishment of standards

§ 7572 - Enforcement of standards

§ 7573 - State standards and controls

§ 7574 - Definitions

§ 7581 - Definitions

§ 7582 - Requirements applicable to clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7583 - Standards for light-duty clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7584 - Administration and enforcement as per California standards

§ 7585 - Standards for heavy-duty clean-fuel vehicles (GVWR above 8,500 up to 26,000 lbs.)

§ 7586 - Centrally fueled fleets

§ 7587 - Vehicle conversions

§ 7588 - Federal agency fleets

§ 7589 - California pilot test program

§ 7590 - General provisions

§ 7601 - Administration

Title 40 published on 2015-07-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 40 CFR Part 60 after this date.

  • 2015-12-01; vol. 80 # 230 - Tuesday, December 1, 2015
    1. 80 FR 75178 - Petroleum Refinery Sector Risk and Technology Review and New Source Performance Standards
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, 40 CFR Parts 60 and 63
      Final rule.
      This final action is effective on February 1, 2016. The incorporation by reference of certain publications for part 63 listed in the rule is approved by the Director of the Federal Register as of February 1, 2016. The incorporation by reference of certain publications for part 60 listed in the rule were approved by the Director of the Federal Register as of June 24, 2008.
      40 CFR Part 60