# 40 CFR § 60.704 - Test methods and procedures.

§ 60.704 Test methods and procedures.

(a) For the purpose of demonstrating compliance with § 60.702, all affected facilities shall be run at full operating conditions and flow rates during any performance test.

(b) The following methods in appendix A to this part, except as provided under § 60.8(b), shall be used as reference methods to determine compliance with the emission limit or percent reduction efficiency specified under § 60.702(a).

(1) Method 1 or 1A, as appropriate, for selection of the sampling sites. The control device inlet sampling site for determination of vent stream molar composition or TOC (less methane and ethane) reduction efficiency shall be prior to the inlet of the control device and after the recovery system.

(2) Method 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D, as appropriate, for determination of the gas volumetric flow rates.

(3) The emission rate correction factor, integrated sampling and analysis procedure of Method 3B shall be used to determine the oxygen concentration (%O2d) for the purposes of determining compliance with the 20 ppmv limit. The sampling site shall be the same as that of the TOC samples, and the samples shall be taken during the same time that the TOC samples are taken. The TOC concentration corrected to 3 percent O2 (Cc) shall be computed using the following equation:

${C}_{C}={C}_{\mathrm{TOC}}\frac{17.9}{20.9-{%O}_{2d}}$

where:
Cc = Concentration of TOC corrected to 3 percent O2, dry basis, ppm by volume.
CTOC = Concentration of TOC (minus methane and ethane), dry basis, ppm by volume.
%O2d = Concentration of O2, dry basis, percent by volume.

(4) Method 18 to determine the concentration of TOC in the control device outlet and the concentration of TOC in the inlet when the reduction efficiency of the control device is to be determined.

(i) The minimum sampling time for each run shall be 1 hour in which either an integrated sample or four grab samples shall be taken. If grab sampling is used, then the samples shall be taken at approximately 15-minute intervals.

(ii) The emission reduction (R) of TOC (minus methane and ethane) shall be determined using the following equation:

$R=\frac{{E}_{i}-{E}_{o}}{{E}_{i}}×100$

where:
R = Emission reduction, percent by weight.
Ei = Mass rate of TOC entering the control device, kg TOC/hr.
Eo = Mass rate of TOC discharged to the atmosphere, kg TOC/hr.

(iii) The mass rates of TOC (Ei, Eo) shall be computed using the following equations:

$\begin{array}{c}{E}_{i}={K}_{2}\sum _{j=1}^{n}{C}_{\mathrm{ij}}{M}_{\mathrm{ij}}{Q}_{i}\\ {E}_{i}={K}_{2}\sum _{j=1}^{n}{C}_{\mathrm{oj}}{M}_{\mathrm{ij}}{Q}_{o}\end{array}$

where:
Cij, Coj = Concentration of sample component “j” of the gas stream at the inlet and outlet of the control device, respectively, dry basis, ppm by volume.
Mij, Moj = Molecular weight of sample component “j” of the gas stream at the inlet and outlet of the control device, respectively, g/g-mole (lb/lb-mole).
Qi, Qo = Flow rate of gas stream at the inlet and outlet of the control device, respectively, dscm/min (dscf/hr).
K2 = Constant, 2.494 × 10−6 (l/ppm) (g-mole/scm) (kg/g) (min/hr), where standard temperature for (g-mole/scm) is 20 °C.

(iv) The TOC concentration (CTOC) is the sum of the individual components and shall be computed for each run using the following equation:

${C}_{\mathrm{TOC}}=\sum _{j=1}^{n}{C}_{j}$

where:
CTOC = Concentration of TOC (minus methane and ethane), dry basis, ppm by volume.
Cj = Concentration of sample components “j”, dry basis, ppm by volume.
n = Number of components in the sample.

(5) The requirement for an initial performance test is waived, in accordance with § 60.8(b), for the following:

(i) When a boiler or process heater with a design heat input capacity of 44 MW (150 million Btu/hour) or greater is used to seek compliance with § 60.702(a).

(ii) When a vent stream is introduced into a boiler or process heater with the primary fuel.

(iii) The Administrator reserves the option to require testing at such other times as may be required, as provided for in section 114 of the Act.

(6) For purposes of complying with the 98 weight-percent reduction in § 60.702(a), if the vent stream entering a boiler or process heater with a design capacity less than 44 MW (150 million Btu/hour) is introduced with the combustion air or as secondary fuel, the weight-percent reduction of TOC (minus methane and ethane) across the combustion device shall be determined by comparing the TOC (minus methane and ethane) in all combusted vent streams, primary fuels, and secondary fuels with the TOC (minus methane and ethane) exiting the combustion device.

(c) When a flare is used to seek to comply with § 60.702(b), the flare shall comply with the requirements of § 60.18.

(d) The following test methods in appendix A to this part, except as provided under § 60.8(b), shall be used for determining the net heating value of the gas combusted to determine compliance under § 60.702(b) and for determining the process vent stream TRE index value to determine compliance under §§ 60.700(c)(2) and 60.702(c).

(1)

(i) Method 1 or 1A, as appropriate, for selection of the sampling site. The sampling site for the vent stream flow rate and molar composition determination prescribed in § 60.704 (d)(2) and (d)(3) shall be, except for the situations outlined in paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section, prior to the inlet of any control device, prior to any postreactor dilution of the stream with air, and prior to any postreactor introduction of halogenated compounds into the process vent stream. No traverse site selection method is needed for vents smaller than 4 inches in diameter.

(ii) If any gas stream other than the reactor vent stream is normally conducted through the final recovery device:

(A) The sampling site for vent stream flow rate and molar composition shall be prior to the final recovery device and prior to the point at which any nonreactor stream or stream from a nonaffected reactor process is introduced.

(B) The efficiency of the final recovery device is determined by measuring the TOC concentration using Method 18 at the inlet to the final recovery device after the introduction of any vent stream and at the outlet of the final recovery device.

(C) This efficiency of the final recovery device shall be applied to the TOC concentration measured prior to the final recovery device and prior to the introduction of any nonreactor stream or stream from a nonaffected reactor process to determine the concentration of TOC in the reactor process vent stream from the final recovery device. This concentration of TOC is then used to perform the calculations outlined in § 60.704(d) (4) and (5).

(2) The molar composition of the process vent stream shall be determined as follows:

(i) Method 18 to measure the concentration of TOC including those containing halogens.

(ii) ASTM D1946-77 or 90 (Reapproved 1994) (incorporation by reference as specified in § 60.17 of this part) to measure the concentration of carbon monoxide and hydrogen.

(iii) Method 4 to measure the content of water vapor.

(3) The volumetric flow rate shall be determined using Method 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D, as appropriate.

(4) The net heating value of the vent stream shall be calculated using the following equation:

${H}_{T}={K}_{1}\sum _{j=1}^{n}{C}_{j}{H}_{j}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}1-{B}_{\mathrm{ws}}$

where:
HT = Net heating value of the sample, MJ/scm, where the net enthalpy per mole of vent stream is based on combustion at 25 °C and 760 mm Hg, but the standard temperature for determining the volume corresponding to one mole is 20 °C, as in the definition of Qs (vent stream flow rate).
K1 = Constant, 1.740 × 10−7 (l/ppm) (g-mole/scm) (MJ/kcal), where standard temperature for (g-mole/scm) is 20 °C.
Cj = Concentration on a dry basis of compound j in ppm, as measured for organics by Method 18 and measured for hydrogen and carbon monoxide by ASTM D1946-77 or 90 (Reapproved 1994) (incorporation by reference as specified in § 60.17 of this part) as indicated in § 60.704(d)(2).
Hj = Net heat of combustion of compound j, kcal/g-mole, based on combustion at 25 °C and 760 mm Hg. The heats of combustion of vent stream components would be required to be determined using ASTM D2382-76 or 88 or D4809-95 (incorporation by reference as specified in § 60.17 of this part) if published values are not available or cannot be calculated.
Bws = Water vapor content of the vent stream, proportion by volume.

(5) The emission rate of TOC in the vent stream shall be calculated using the following equation:

${E}_{\mathrm{TOC}}={K}_{2}\sum _{j=1}^{n}{C}_{j}{H}_{j}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}{Q}_{s}$

where:
ETOC = Emission rate of TOC in the sample, kg/hr.
K2 = Constant, 2.494 × 10−6 (l/ppm) (g-mole/scm) (kg/g) (min/hr), where standard temperature for (g-mole/scm) is 20 °C.
Cj = Concentration on a dry basis of compound j in ppm as measured by Method 18 as indicated in § 60.704(d)(2).
Mj = Molecular weight of sample j, g/g-mole.
Qs = Vent stream flow rate (dscm/min) at a temperature of 20 °C.

(6) The total vent stream concentration (by volume) of compounds containing halogens (ppmv, by compound) shall be summed from the individual concentrations of compounds containing halogens which were measured by Method 18.

(e) For purposes of complying with §§ 60.700(c)(2) and 60.702(c), the owner or operator of a facility affected by this subpart shall calculate the TRE index value of the vent stream using the equation for incineration in paragraph (e)(1) of this section for halogenated vent streams. The owner or operator of an affected facility with a nonhalogenated vent stream shall determine the TRE index value by calculating values using both the incinerator equation in (e)(1) of this section and the flare equation in (e)(2) of this section and selecting the lower of the two values.

(1) The equation for calculating the TRE index value of a vent stream controlled by an incinerator is as follows:

$\mathrm{TRE}=\frac{1}{{E}_{\mathrm{TOC}}}\left[a+b{\left({Q}_{s}\right)}^{0.88}+c\left({Q}_{s}\right)+d\left({Q}_{s}\right)\left({H}_{T}\right)+e{\left({Q}_{s}\right)}^{0.88}{\left({H}_{T}\right)}^{0.88}+f{\left({Y}_{s}\right)}^{0.5}\right]$

(i) Where for a vent stream flow rate (scm/min) at a standard temperature of 20 °C that is greater than or equal to 14.2 scm/min:

TRE = TRE index value.
Qs = Vent stream flow rate (scm/min) at a standard temperature of 20 °C.
HT = Vent stream net heating value (MJ/scm), where the net enthalpy per mole of vent stream is based on combustion at 25 °C and 760 mm Hg, but the standard temperature for determining the volume corresponding to one mole is 20 °C as in the definition of Qs.
Ys = Qs for all vent stream categories listed in table 1 except for Category E vent streams where Ys = (Qs)(HT)/3.6.
ETOC = Hourly emissions of TOC reported in kg/hr.
a, b, c, d, e, and f are coefficients. The set of coefficients that apply to a vent stream can be obtained from table 1.

Table 1 - Total Resource Effectiveness Coefficients for Vent Streams Controlled by an Incinerator Subject to the New Source Performance Standards for Reactor Processes

a b c d e f 19.18370 0.27580 0.75762 −0.13064 0 0.01025 20.00563 0.27580 0.30387 −0.13064 0 0.01025 39.87022 0.29973 0.30387 −0.13064 0 0.01449 59.73481 0.31467 0.30387 −0.13064 0 0.01775 79.59941 0.32572 0.30387 −0.13064 0 0.02049 99.46400 0.33456 0.30387 −0.13064 0 0.02291 18.84466 0.26742 −0.20044 0 0 0.01025 19.66658 0.26742 −0.25332 0 0 0.01025 39.19213 0.29062 −0.25332 0 0 0.01449 58.71768 0.30511 −0.25332 0 0 0.01775 78.24323 0.31582 −0 25332 0 0 0.02049 97.76879 0.32439 −0.25332 0 0 0.02291 8.54245 0.10555 0.09030 −0.17109 0 0.01025 16.94386 0.11470 0.09030 −0.17109 0 0.01449 25.34528 0.12042 0.09030 −0.17109 0 0.01775 9.25233 0.06105 0.31937 −0.16181 0 0.01025 18.36363 0.06635 0.31937 −0.16181 0 0.01449 27.47492 0.06965 0.31937 −0.16181 0 0.01775 6.67868 0.06943 0.02582 0 0 0.01025 13.21633 0.07546 0.02582 0 0 0.01449 19.75398 0.07922 0.02582 0 0 0.01755 6.67868 0 0 −0.00707 0.02220 0.01025 13.21633 0 0 −0.00707 0.02412 0.01449 19.75398 0 0 −0.00707 0.02533 0.01755

(ii) For a vent stream flow rate (scm/min) at a standard temperature of 20 °C that is less than 14.2 scm/min:

TRE = TRE index value.
Qs = 14.2 scm/min.
HT = (FLOW)(HVAL)/14.2
where the following inputs are used:
FLOW = Vent stream flow rate (scm/min), at a standard temperature of 20 °C.
HVAL = Vent stream net heating value (MJ/scm), where the net enthalpy per mole of vent stream is based on combustion at 25 °C and 760 mm Hg, but the standard temperature for determining the volume corresponding to one mole is 20 °C as in definition of Qs.
Ys = 14.2 scm/min for all vent streams except for Category E vent streams, where Ys = (14.2)(HT)/3.6.
ETOC = Hourly emissions of TOC reported in kg/hr.
a, b, c, d, e, and f are coefficients. The set of coefficients that apply to a vent stream can be obtained from table 1.

(2) The equation for calculating the TRE index value of a vent stream controlled by a flare is as follows:

$\mathrm{TRE}=\frac{1}{{E}_{\mathrm{TOC}}}\left[a\left({Q}_{s}\right)+b{\left({Q}_{s}\right)}^{0.8}+c\left({Q}_{s}\right)\left({H}_{T}\right)+d\left({E}_{\mathrm{TOC}}\right)+e\right]$

where:
TRE = TRE index value.
ETOC = Hourly emission rate of TOC reported in kg/hr.
Qs = Vent stream flow rate (scm/min) at a standard temperature of 20 °C.
HT = Vent stream net heating value (MJ/scm) where the net enthalpy per mole of offgas is based on combustion at 25 °C and 760 mm Hg, but the standard temperature for determining the volume corresponding to one mole is 20 °C as in the definition of Qs.
a, b, c, d, and e are coefficients. The set of coefficients that apply to a vent stream can be obtained from table 2.

Table 2 - Total Resource Effectiveness Coefficients for Vent Streams Controlled by a Flare Subject to the New Source Performance Standards for Reactor Processes

a b c d e 2.25 0.288 −0.193 −0.0051 2.08 0.309 0.0619 −0.0043 −0.0034 2.08

(f) Each owner or operator of an affected facility seeking to comply with § 60.700(c)(2) or § 60.702(c) shall recalculate the TRE index value for that affected facility whenever process changes are made. Examples of process changes include changes in production capacity, feedstock type, or catalyst type, or whenever there is replacement, removal, or addition of recovery equipment. The TRE index value shall be recalculated based on test data, or on best engineering estimates of the effects of the change on the recovery system.

(1) Where the recalculated TRE index value is less than or equal to 1.0, the owner or operator shall notify the Administrator within 1 week of the recalculation and shall conduct a performance test according to the methods and procedures required by § 60.704 in order to determine compliance with § 60.702 (a) or (b). Performance tests must be conducted as soon as possible after the process change but no later than 180 days from the time of the process change.

(2) Where the recalculated TRE index value is less than or equal to 8.0 but greater than 1.0, the owner or operator shall conduct a performance test in accordance with §§ 60.8 and 60.704 and shall comply with §§ 60.703, 60.704 and 60.705. Performance tests must be conducted as soon as possible after the process change but no later than 180 days from the time of the process change.

(g) Any owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart seeking to demonstrate compliance with § 60.700(c)(4) shall use Method 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for determination of volumetric flow rate.

(h) Each owner or operator seeking to demonstrate that a reactor process vent stream has a TOC concentration for compliance with the low concentration exemption in § 60.700(c)(8) shall conduct an initial test to measure TOC concentration.

(1) The sampling site shall be selected as specified in paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section.

(2) Method 18 or Method 25A of part 60, appendix A shall be used to measure concentration.

(3) Where Method 18 is used to qualify for the low concentration exclusion in § 60.700(c)(8), the procedures in § 60.704(b)(4) (i) and (iv) shall be used to measure TOC concentration, and the procedures of § 60.704(b)(3) shall be used to correct the TOC concentration to 3 percent oxygen. To qualify for the exclusion, the results must demonstrate that the concentration of TOC, corrected to 3 percent oxygen, is below 300 ppm by volume.

(4) Where Method 25A is used, the following procedures shall be used to calculate ppm by volume TOC concentration, corrected to 3 percent oxygen:

(i) Method 25A shall be used only if a single organic compound is greater than 50 percent of total TOC, by volume, in the reactor process vent stream. This compound shall be the principal organic compound.

(ii) The principal organic compound may be determined by either process knowledge or test data collected using an appropriate EPA Reference Method. Examples of information that could constitute process knowledge include calculations based on material balances, process stoichiometry, or previous test results provided the results are still relevant to the current reactor process vent stream conditions.

(iii) The principal organic compound shall be used as the calibration gas for Method 25A.

(iv) The span value for Method 25A shall be 300 ppmv.

(v) Use of Method 25A is acceptable if the response from the high-level calibration gas is at least 20 times the standard deviation of the response from the zero calibration gas when the instrument is zeroed on the most sensitive scale.

(vi) The owner or operator shall demonstrate that the concentration of TOC including methane and ethane measured by Method 25A, corrected to 3 percent oxygen, is below 150 ppm by volume to qualify for the low concentration exclusion in § 60.700(c)(8).

(vii) The concentration of TOC shall be corrected to 3 percent oxygen using the procedures and equation in paragraph (b)(3) of this section.

[58 FR 45962, Aug. 31, 1993, as amended at 60 FR 58238, Nov. 27, 1995; 65 FR 61778, Oct. 17, 2000]