40 CFR 600.002 - Definitions.
The following definitions apply throughout this part:
3-bag FTP means the Federal Test Procedure specified in part 86 of this chapter, with three sampling portions consisting of the cold-start transient (“Bag 1”), stabilized (“Bag 2”), and hot-start transient phases (“Bag 3”).
4-bag FTP means the 3-bag FTP, with the addition of a sampling portion for the hot-start stabilized phase (“Bag 4”).
5-cycle means the FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests as described in subparts B and C of this part.
Alcohol dual fuel automobile means an automobile:
(2) Which provides equal or greater energy efficiency as calculated in accordance with § 600.510-08(g)(1) or § 600.510-12(g)(1) while operating on alcohol as it does while operating on gasoline or diesel fuel; and
Alternative fuel means any of the following:
(2) Denatured ethanol.
(3) Other alcohols.
(4) A mixture containing at least 85 percent (or an alternative percentage as specified by the Secretary of Transportation under 49 U.S.C. 32901(b)) of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols by volume with gasoline or other fuels.
(5) Natural gas.
(8) Coal derived liquid fuels.
(9) Fuels (except alcohol) derived from biological materials.
(10) Electricity (including electricity from solar energy).
Auxiliary emission control device (AECD) means an element of design as defined in § 86.1803 of this chapter.
Axle ratio means the number of times the input shaft to the differential (or equivalent) turns for each turn of the drive wheels.
Base tire means the tire size specified as standard equipment by the manufacturer on each unique combination of a vehicle's footprint and model type. Standard equipment is defined in 40 CFR 86.1803-01.
Basic engine means a unique combination of manufacturer, engine displacement, number of cylinders, fuel system (e.g., type of fuel injection), catalyst usage, and other engine and emission control system characteristics specified by the Administrator. For electric vehicles, basic engine means a unique combination of manufacturer and electric traction motor, motor controller, battery configuration, electrical charging system, energy storage device, and other components as specified by the Administrator.
Battery configuration means the electrochemical type, voltage, capacity (in Watt-hours at the c/3 rate), and physical characteristics of the battery used as the tractive energy device.
Body style means a level of commonality in vehicle construction as defined by number of doors and roof treatment (e.g., sedan, convertible, fastback, hatchback) and number of seats (i.e., front, second, or third seat) requiring seat belts pursuant to National Highway Traffic Safety Administration safety regulations in 49 CFR part 571. Station wagons and light trucks are identified as car lines.
Calibration means the set of specifications, including tolerances, unique to a particular design, version of application of a component, or component assembly capable of functionally describing its operation over its working range.
Carbon-related exhaust emissions (CREE) means the summation of the carbon-containing constituents of the exhaust emissions, with each constituent adjusted by a coefficient representing the carbon weight fraction of each constituent relative to the CO2 carbon weight fraction, as specified in § 600.113. For example, carbon-related exhaust emissions (weighted 55 percent city and 45 percent highway) are used to demonstrate compliance with fleet average CO2 emission standards outlined in § 86.1818 of this chapter.
Car line means a name denoting a group of vehicles within a make or car division which has a degree of commonality in construction (e.g., body, chassis). Car line does not consider any level of decor or opulence and is not generally distinguished by characteristics as roof line, number of doors, seats, or windows, except for station wagons or light-duty trucks. Station wagons and light-duty trucks are considered to be different car lines than passenger cars.
Certification vehicle means a vehicle which is selected under § 86.1828 of this chapter and used to determine compliance under § 86.1848 of this chapter for issuance of an original certificate of conformity.
City fuel economy means the city fuel economy determined by operating a vehicle (or vehicles) over the driving schedule in the Federal emission test procedure, or determined according to the vehicle-specific 5-cycle or derived 5-cycle procedures.
Cold temperature FTP means the test performed under the provisions of subpart C of part 86 of this chapter.
Combined fuel economy means:
(2) For electric vehicles, for the purpose of calculating average fuel economy pursuant to the provisions of part 600, subpart F, the term means the equivalent petroleum-based fuel economy value as determined by the calculation procedure promulgated by the Secretary of Energy. For the purpose of labeling pursuant to the provisions of part 600, subpart D, the term means the fuel economy value as determined by the procedures specified in § 600.116-12.
Dealer means a person who resides or is located in the United States, any territory of the United States, or the District of Columbia and who is engaged in the sale or distribution of new automobiles to the ultimate purchaser.
Diesel gallon equivalent means an amount of electricity or fuel with the energy equivalence of one gallon of diesel fuel. For purposes of this part, one gallon of diesel fuel is equivalent to 36.7 kilowatt-hours of electricity.
Drive system is determined by the number and location of drive axles (e.g., front wheel drive, rear wheel drive, four wheel drive) and any other feature of the drive system if the Administrator determines that such other features may result in a fuel economy difference.
Dual fueled automobile means an automobile:
(2) Which provides equal or greater energy efficiency as calculated in accordance with § 600.510-08(g)(1) or § 600.510-12(g)(1) while operating on the alternative fuel as it does while operating on gasoline or diesel fuel; and
Electrical charging system means a device to convert 60 Hz alternating electric current, as commonly available in residential electric service in the United States, to a proper form for recharging the energy storage device.
Electric traction motor means an electrically powered motor which provides tractive energy to the wheels of a vehicle.
Electric vehicle has the meaning given in § 86.1803 of this chapter.
Emergency vehicle means a motor vehicle manufactured primarily for use as an ambulance or combination ambulance-hearse or for use by the United States Government or a State or local government for law enforcement.
Energy storage device means a rechargeable means of storing tractive energy on board a vehicle such as storage batteries or a flywheel.
Engine code means one of the following:
(1) For LDV, LDT, and MDPV, engine code means a unique combination, within an engine-system combination (as defined in § 86.1803 of this chapter), of displacement, fuel injection (or carburetion or other fuel delivery system), calibration, distributor calibration, choke calibration, auxiliary emission control devices, and other engine and emission control system components specified by the Administrator. For electric vehicles, engine code means a unique combination of manufacturer, electric traction motor, motor configuration, motor controller, and energy storage device.
(2) For HDV, engine code has the meaning given in § 86.1819-14(d)(12) of this chapter.
Federal emission test procedure (FTP) refers to the dynamometer driving schedule, dynamometer procedure, and sampling and analytical procedures described in part 86 of this chapter for the respective model year, which are used to derive city fuel economy data.
Footprint has the meaning given in § 86.1803 of this chapter.
(1) Gasoline and diesel fuel for gasoline- or diesel-powered automobiles; or
(2) Electrical energy for electrically powered automobiles; or
(5) Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG), commonly referred to as “propane,” for LPG-powered automobiles; or
Fuel cell has the meaning given in § 86.1803 of this chapter.
Fuel cell vehicle has the meaning given in § 86.1803 of this chapter.
Fuel economy means:
(2) For the purpose of calculating average fuel economy pursuant to the provisions of part 600, subpart F, fuel economy for electrically powered automobiles means the equivalent petroleum-based fuel economy as determined by the Secretary of Energy in accordance with the provisions of 10 CFR 474. For the purpose of labeling pursuant to the provisions of part 600, subpart D, the term means the fuel economy value as determined by the procedures specified in § 600.116-12.
Gasoline gallon equivalent means an amount of electricity or fuel with the energy equivalence of one gallon of gasoline. For purposes of this part, one gallon of gasoline is equivalent to 33.705 kilowatt-hours of electricity or 121.5 standard cubic feet of natural gas.
Gross vehicle weight rating means the manufacturer's gross weight rating for the individual vehicle.
Hatchback means a passenger automobile where the conventional luggage compartment, i.e., trunk, is replaced by a cargo area which is open to the passenger compartment and accessed vertically by a rear door which encompasses the rear window.
Highway fuel economy means the highway fuel economy determined either by operating a vehicle (or vehicles) over the driving schedule in the Federal highway fuel economy test procedure, or determined according to either the vehicle-specific 5-cycle equation or the derived 5-cycle equation for highway fuel economy.
Highway fuel economy test procedure (HFET) refers to the dynamometer driving schedule, dynamometer procedure, and sampling and analytical procedures described in subpart B of this part and which are used to derive highway fuel economy data.
Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) has the meaning given in § 86.1803 of this chapter.
Independent Commercial Importer has the meaning given in § 85.1502 of this chapter.
Inertia weight class means the class, which is a group of test weights, into which a vehicle is grouped based on its loaded vehicle weight in accordance with the provisions of part 86 of this chapter.
Light truck means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile, as defined by the Secretary of Transportation at 49 CFR 523.5. This term is interchangeable with “non-passenger automobile.” The term “light truck” includes medium-duty passenger vehicles which are manufactured during 2011 and later model years.
Medium-duty passenger vehicle means a vehicle which would satisfy the criteria for light trucks as defined by the Secretary of Transportation at 49 CFR 523.5 but for its gross vehicle weight rating or its curb weight, which is rated at more than 8,500 lbs GVWR or has a vehicle curb weight of more than 6,000 pounds or has a basic vehicle frontal area in excess of 45 square feet, and which is designed primarily to transport passengers, but does not include a vehicle that:
(1) Is an “incomplete truck” as defined in this subpart; or
(2) Has a seating capacity of more than 12 persons; or
(3) Is designed for more than 9 persons in seating rearward of the driver's seat; or
(4) Is equipped with an open cargo area (for example, a pick-up truck box or bed) of 72.0 inches in interior length or more. A covered box not readily accessible from the passenger compartment will be considered an open cargo area for purposes of this definition.
Minivan means a light truck which is designed primarily to carry no more than eight passengers, having an integral enclosure fully enclosing the driver, passenger, and load-carrying compartments, and rear seats readily removed, folded, stowed, or pivoted to facilitate cargo carrying. A minivan typically includes one or more sliding doors and a rear liftgate. Minivans typically have less total interior volume or overall height than full sized vans and are commonly advertised and marketed as “ minivans.”
Model year means the manufacturer's annual production period (as determined by the Administrator) which includes January 1 of such calendar year. If a manufacturer has no annual production period, the term “model year” means the calendar year.
Motor controller means an electronic or electro-mechanical device to convert energy stored in an energy storage device into a form suitable to power the traction motor.
Natural gas dual fuel automobile means an automobile:
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) has the meaning given in § 86.1803 of this chapter.
Production volume means, for a domestic manufacturer, the number of vehicle units domestically produced in a particular model year but not exported, and for a foreign manufacturer, means the number of vehicle units of a particular model imported into the United States.
QR Code means Quick Response Code, which is a registered trademark of Denso Wave, Incorporated.
Round has the meaning given in § 1065.1001 of this chapter, unless specified otherwise.
SC03 means the test procedure specified in § 86.160 of this chapter.
Sport utility vehicle (SUV) means a light truck with an extended roof line to increase cargo or passenger capacity, cargo compartment open to the passenger compartment, and one or more rear seats readily removed or folded to facilitate cargo carrying.
Station wagon means a passenger automobile with an extended roof line to increase cargo or passenger capacity, cargo compartment open to the passenger compartment, a tailgate, and one or more rear seats readily removed or folded to facilitate cargo carrying.
Subconfiguration means one of the following:
(1) For LDV, LDT, and MDPV, subconfiguration means a unique combination within a vehicle configuration of equivalent test weight, road-load horsepower, and any other operational characteristics or parameters which the Administrator determines may significantly affect fuel economy or CO2 emissions within a vehicle configuration.
(2) For HDV, subconfiguration has the meaning given in § 86.1819-14(d)(12) of this chapter.
Test weight means the weight within an inertia weight class which is used in the dynamometer testing of a vehicle, and which is based on its loaded vehicle weight in accordance with the provisions of part 86 of this chapter.
Track width has the meaning given in § 86.1803 of this chapter.
Transmission class means a group of transmissions having the following common features: Basic transmission type (e.g., automatic, manual, automated manual, semi-automatic, or continuously variable); number of forward gears used in fuel economy testing (e.g., manual four-speed, three-speed automatic, two-speed semi-automatic); drive system (e.g., front wheel drive, rear wheel drive; four wheel drive), type of overdrive, if applicable (e.g., final gear ratio less than 1.00, separate overdrive unit); torque converter type, if applicable (e.g., non-lockup, lockup, variable ratio); and other transmission characteristics that may be determined to be significant by the Administrator.
Transmission configuration means the Administrator may further subdivide within a transmission class if the Administrator determines that sufficient fuel economy differences exist. Features such as gear ratios, torque converter multiplication ratio, stall speed, shift calibration, or shift speed may be used to further distinguish characteristics within a transmission class.
US06 means the test procedure as described in § 86.159 of this chapter.
US06-City means the combined periods of the US06 test that occur before and after the US06-Highway period.
US06-Highway means the period of the US06 test that begins at the end of the deceleration which is scheduled to occur at 130 seconds of the driving schedule and terminates at the end of the deceleration which is scheduled to occur at 495 seconds of the driving schedule.
Usable fuel storage capacity means the amount of fuel that is available to a vehicle starting from a complete refueling event until the vehicle stops (or until driveability deteriorates to the point that further driving is unlikely or impractical). For liquid fuels, the usable fuel storage capacity represents the difference between the total fuel volume after a complete refueling event and the fuel volume that remains in the fuel tank after the vehicle runs out of fuel. For other fuels, use good engineering judgment to determine the full and empty conditions consistent with typical consumer behavior. For example, for natural gas vehicles, the full condition would be the point at which a typical operator would stop refueling based on the increasing system pressures, which are determined by temperature effects related to the refueling process; this does not necessarily represent the maximum amount of fuel the tank can hold under equilibrium conditions. The empty condition would be the point at which fuel pressure drops enough that the engine is unable to maintain stable air-fuel ratios for acceptable continued operation.
Van means any light truck having an integral enclosure fully enclosing the driver compartment and load carrying compartment. The distance from the leading edge of the windshield to the foremost body section of vans is typically shorter than that of pickup trucks and SUVs.
Vehicle configuration means one of the following:
(2) For HDV, vehicle configuration has the meaning given for “configuration” in § 86.1819-14(d)(12) of this chapter.
Vehicle-specific 5-cycle CO2 means the CO2 calculated according to the procedures in § 600.114.
Wheelbase has the meaning given in § 86.1803 of this chapter.
- 40 CFR 600.502 — Definitions.
- 40 CFR 600.510-12 — Calculation of Average Fuel Economy and Average Carbon-Related Exhaust Emissions.
- 40 CFR 600.303-12 — Fuel Economy Label - Special Requirements for Flexible-Fuel Vehicles.
- 40 CFR 600.301 — Labeling Requirements.
- 40 CFR 600.009 — Hearing on Acceptance of Test Data.
- 40 CFR 600.113-12 — Fuel Economy, CO 2 Emissions, and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and Cold Temperature FTP Tests.
- 40 CFR 600.308-12 — Fuel Economy Label Format Requirements - Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles.