(a) As used in this subpart, all terms not defined herein shall have the meaning given them in the Act:
(1) “Act” means part I of title V of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act (15 U.S.C. 1901et seq.).
(2) “Administrator” means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency or his authorized representative.
(3) “Secretary” means the Secretary of Transportation or his authorized representative.
(4) “Automobile” means:
(i) Any four-wheel vehicle propelled by a combustion engine using onboard fuel or by an electric motor drawing current from rechargeable storage batteries or other portable energy storage devices (rechargeable using energy from a source off the vehicle such as residential electric service),
(ii) Which is manufactured primarily for use on public streets, roads, or highways (except any vehicle operated on a rail or rails),
(iii) Which is rated at not more than 8,500 pounds gross vehicle weight, which has a curb weight of not more than 6,000 pounds, and which has a basic vehicle frontal area of not more than 45 square feet, or
(iv) Is a type of vehicle which the Secretary determines is substantially used for the same purposes.
(5) “Passenger Automobile” means any automobile which the Secretary determines is manufactured primarily for use in the transportation of no more than 10 individuals.
(6) “Model Year” means the manufacturer's annual production period (as determined by the Administrator) which includes January 1 of such calendar year. If a manufacturer has no annual production period, the term “model year” means the calendar year.
(7) “Federal Emission Test Procedure” refers to the dynamometer driving schedule, dynamometer procedure, and sampling and analytical procedures described in part 86 for the respective model year, which are used to derive city fuel economy data for gasoline-fueled or diesel vehicles.
(8) “Federal Highway Fuel Economy Test Procedure” refers to the dynamometer driving schedule, dynamometer procedure, and sampling and analytical procedures described in subpart B of this part and which are used to derive highway fuel economy data for gasoline-fueled or diesel vehicles.
(9) “Fuel” means (i) gasoline and diesel fuel for gasoline- or diesel-powered automobiles or (ii) electrical energy for electrically powered automobiles.
(10) “Fuel Economy” means (i) the average number of miles traveled by an automobile or group of automobiles per gallon of gasoline or diesel fuel consumed as computed in § 600.113 or § 600.207 or (ii) the equivalent petroleum-based fuel economy for an electrically powered automobile as determined by the Secretary of Energy.
(11) “City Fuel Economy” means the fuel economy determined by operating a vehicle (or vehicles) over the driving schedule in the Federal emission test procedure.
(12) “Highway Fuel Economy” means the fuel economy determined by operating a vehicle (or vehicles) over the driving schedule in the Federal highway fuel economy test procedure.
(i) “Combined Fuel Economy” means the fuel economy value determined for a vehicle (or vehicles) by harmonically averaging the city and highway fuel economy values, weighted 0.55 and 0.45 respectively, for gasoline-fueled and diesel vehicles.
(ii) For electric vehicles, the term means the equivalent petroleum-based fuel economy value as determined by the calculation procedure promulgated by the Secretary of Energy.
(14) “Average Fuel Economy” means the unique fuel economy value as computed under § 600.510 for a specific class of automobiles produced by a manufacturer that is subject to average fuel economy standards.
(15) “Certification Vehicle” means a vehicle which is selected under 40 CFR 86.084-24(b)(1) or CFR 86.1824-01 as applicable, and is used to determine compliance under 40 CFR 86.084-30 or CFR 86.1844-01 as applicable for issuance of an original certificate of conformity.
(16) “Fuel Economy Data Vehicle” means a vehicle used for the purpose of determining fuel economy which is not a certification vehicle.
(17) “Label” means a sticker that contains fuel economy information and is affixed to new automobiles in accordance with subpart D of this part.
(18) “Dealer” means a person who resides or is located in the United States, any territory of the United States, or the District of Columbia and who is engaged in the sale or distribution of new automobiles to the ultimate purchaser.
(19) “Model Type” means a unique combination of car line, basic engine, and transmission class.
(20) “Car Line” means a name denoting a group of vehicles within a make or car division which has a degree of commonality in construction (e.g., body, chassis). Car line does not consider any level of decor or opulence and is not generally distinguished by characteristics as roof line, number of doors, seats, or windows, except for station wagons or light-duty trucks. Station wagons and light-duty trucks are considered to be different car lines than passenger cars.
(21) “Basic Engine” means a unique combination of manufacturer, engine displacement, number of cylinders, fuel system (as distinguished by number of carburetor barrels or use of fuel injection), catalyst usage, and other engine and emission control system characteristics specified by the Administrator. For electric vehicles, basic engine means a unique combination of manufacturer and electric traction motor, motor controller, battery configuration, electrical charging system, energy storage device, and other components as specified by the Administrator.
(22) “Transmission Class” means a group of transmissions having the following common features: Basic transmission type (manual, automatic, or semi-automatic); number of forward gears used in fuel economy testing (e.g., manual four-speed, three-speed automatic, two-speed semi-automatic); drive system (e.g., front wheel drive, rear wheel drive; four wheel drive), type of overdrive, if applicable (e.g., final gear ratio less than 1.00, separate overdrive unit); torque converter type, if applicable (e.g., non-lockup, lockup, variable ratio); and other transmission characteristics that may be determined to be significant by the Administrator.
(23) “Base Level” means a unique combination of basic engine inertia weight class and transmission class.
(24) “Vehicle Configuration” means a unique combination of basic engine, engine code, inertia weight class, transmission configuration, and axle ratio within a base level.
(25) “Engine Code” means, for gasoline-fueled and diesel vehicles, a unique combination, within an engine-system combination (as defined in part 86 of this chapter), of displacement, carburetor (or fuel injection) calibration, distributor calibration, choke calibration, auxiliary emission control devices, and other engine and emission control system components specified by the Administrator. For electric vehicles, engine code means a unique combination of manufacturer, electric traction motor, motor configuration, motor controller, and energy storage device.
(26) “Inertia Weight Class” means the class, which is a group of test weights, into which a vehicle is grouped based on its loaded vehicle weight in accordance with the provisions of part 86.
(27) “Transmission Configuration” means the Administrator may further subdivide within a transmission class if the Administrator determines that sufficient fuel economy differences exist. Features such as gear ratios, torque converter multiplication ratio, stall speed, shift calibration, or shift speed may be used to further distinguish characteristics within a transmission class.
(28) “Axle Ratio” means the number of times the input shaft to the differential (or equivalent) turns for each turn of the drive wheels.
(29) “Auxiliary Emission Control Device (AECD)” means an element of design as defined in part 86.
(30) “Rounded” means a number shortened to the specific number of decimal places in accordance with the “Round Off Method” specified in ASTM E 29-67.
(31) “Calibration” means the set of specifications, including tolerances, unique to a particular design, version of application of a component, or component assembly capable of functionally describing its operation over its working range.
(32) “Production Volume” means, for a domestic manufacturer, the number of vehicle units domestically produced in a particular model year but not exported, and for a foreign manufacturer, means the number of vehicle units of a particular model imported into the United States.
(33) “Body Style” means a level of commonality in vehicle construction as defined by number of doors and roof treatment (e.g., sedan, convertible, fastback, hatchback) and number of seats (i.e., front, second, or third seat) requiring seat belts pursuant to National Highway Traffic Safety Administration safety regulations. Station wagons and light trucks are identified as car lines.
(34) “Hatchback” means a passenger automobile where the conventional luggage compartment, i.e., trunk, is replaced by a cargo area which is open to the passenger compartment and accessed vertically by a rear door which encompasses the rear window.
(35) “Pickup Truck” means a nonpassenger automobile which has a passenger compartment and an open cargo bed.
(36) “Station Wagon” means a passenger automobile with an extended roof line to increase cargo or passenger capacity, cargo compartment open to the passenger compartment, a tailgate, and one or more rear seats readily removed or folded to facilitate cargo carrying.
(37) “Gross Vehicle Weight Rating” means the manufacturer's gross weight rating for the individual vehicle.
(38) “Ultimate Consumer” means the first person who purchases an automobile for purposes other than resale or leases an automobile.
(39) “Van” means any light truck having an integral enclosure fully enclosing the driver compartment and load-carrying device, and having no body sections protruding more than 30 inches ahead of the leading edge of the windshield.
(40) “Base Vehicle” means the lowest priced version of each body style that makes up a car line.
(41) “Nonpassenger Automobile” means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile, as defined by the Secretary of Transportation at 49 CFR 523.5.
(42) “Four-Wheel-Drive General Utility Vehicle” means a four-wheel-drive, general purpose automobile capable of off-highway operation that has a wheelbase not more than 110 inches and that has a body shape similar to a 1977 Jeep CJ-5 or CJ-7, or the 1977 Toyota Land Cruiser, as defined by the Secretary of Transportation at 49 CFR 553.4.
(43) “Test Weight” means the weight within an inertia weight class which is used in the dynamometer testing of a vehicle, and which is based on its loaded vehicle weight in accordance with the provisions of part 86.
(44) “Secretary of Energy” means the Secretary of Energy or his authorized representative.
(45) “Electric Traction Motor” means an electrically powered motor which provides tractive energy to the wheels of a vehicle.
(46) “Energy Storage Device” means a rechargeable means of storing tractive energy on board a vehicle such as storage batteries or a flywheel.
(47) “Motor Controller” means an electronic or electro-mechanical device to convert energy stored in an energy storage device into a form suitable to power the traction motor.
(48) “Electrical Charging System” means a device to convert 60Hz alternating electric current, as commonly available in residential electric service in the United States, to a proper form for recharging the energy storage device.
(49) “Battery Configuration” means the electrochemical type, voltage, capacity (in Watt-hours at the c/3 rate), and physical characteristics of the battery used as the tractive energy storage device.
(50) “Drive System” is determined by the number and location of drive axles (e.g., front wheel drive, rear wheel drive, four wheel drive) and any other feature of the drive system if the Administrator determines that such other features may result in a fuel economy difference.
(51) “Subconfiguration” means a unique combination, within a vehicle configuration of equivalent test weight, road-load horsepower, and any other operational characteristics or parameters which the Administrator determines may significantly affect fuel economy within a vehicle configuration.
[49 FR 13841, Apr. 6, 1984, as amended at 49 FR 48049, Dec. 10, 1984; 64 FR 23973, May 4, 1999]
Title 40 published on 2014-07-01
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