40 CFR 63.11511 - What definitions apply to this subpart?
Terms used in this subpart are defined in this section.
Batch electrolytic process tank means a tank used for an electrolytic process in which a part or group of parts, typically mounted on racks or placed in barrels, is placed in the tank and immersed in an electrolytic process solution as a single unit (i.e., as a batch) for a predetermined period of time, during which none of the parts are removed from the tank and no other parts are added to the tank, and after which the part or parts are removed from the tank as a unit.
Bath means the liquid contents of a tank, as defined in this section, which is used for electroplating, electroforming, electropolishing, or other metal coating processes at a plating and polishing facility.
Bench-scale means any operation that is small enough to be performed on a bench, table, or similar structure so that the equipment is not directly contacting the floor.
Capture system means the collection of components used to capture gases and fumes released from one or more emissions points and then convey the captured gas stream to a control device, as part of a complete control system. A capture system may include, but is not limited to, the following components as applicable to a given capture system design: duct intake devices, hoods, enclosures, ductwork, dampers, manifolds, plenums, and fans.
Cartridge filter means a type of control device that uses perforated metal cartridges containing a pleated paper or non-woven fibrous filter media to remove PM from a gas stream by sieving and other mechanisms. Cartridge filters can be designed with single use cartridges, which are removed and disposed after reaching capacity, or continuous use cartridges, which typically are cleaned by means of a pulse-jet mechanism.
Composite mesh pad means a type of control device similar to a mesh pad mist eliminator except that the device is designed with multiple pads in series that are woven with layers of material with varying fiber diameters, which produce a coalescing effect on the droplets or PM that impinge upon the pads.
Continuous electrolytic process tank means a tank that uses an electrolytic process and in which a continuous metal strip or other type of continuous substrate is fed into and removed from the tank continuously. This process is also called reel-to-reel electrolytic plating.
Control device means equipment that is part of a control system that collects and/or reduces the quantity of a pollutant that is emitted to the air. The control device receives emissions that are transported from the process by the capture system.
Control system means the combination of a capture system and a control device. The capture system is designed to collect and transport air emissions from the affected source to the control device. The overall control efficiency of any control system is a combination of the ability of the system to capture the air emissions (i.e., the capture efficiency) and the control device efficiency. Consequently, it is important to achieve good capture to ensure good overall control efficiency. Capture devices that are known to provide high capture efficiencies include hoods, enclosures, or any other duct intake devices with ductwork, dampers, manifolds, plenums, or fans.
Conversion coatings are coatings that form a hard metal finish on an object when the object is submerged in a tank bath or solution that contains the conversion coatings. Conversion coatings for the purposes of this rule include coatings composed of chromium, as well as the other plating and polishing metal HAP, where no electrical current is used.
Cyanide plating means plating processes performed in tanks that use cyanide as a major bath ingredient and that operate at pH of 12 or more, and use or emit any of the plating and polishing metal HAP, as defined in this section. Electroplating and electroforming are performed with or without cyanide. The cyanide in the bath works to dissolve the HAP metal added as a cyanide compound (e.g., cadmium cyanide) and creates free cyanide in solution, which helps to corrode the anode. These tanks are self-regulating to a pH of 12 due to the caustic nature of the cyanide bath chemistry. The cyanide in the bath is a major bath constituent and not an additive; however, the self-regulating chemistry of the bath causes the bath to act as if wetting agents/fume suppressants are being used and to ensure an optimum plating process. All cyanide plating baths at pH greater than or equal to 12 have cyanide-metal complexes in solution. The metal HAP to be plated is not emitted because it is either bound in the metal-cyanide complex or reduced at the cathode to elemental metal, and plated onto the immersed parts. Cyanide baths are not intentionally operated at pH less 12 since unfavorable plating conditions would occur in the tank, among other negative effects.
(1) Fails to meet any requirement or obligation established by this rule including, but not limited to, any equipment standard (including emissions and operating limits), management practice, or operation and maintenance requirement;
(2) Fails to meet any term or condition that is adopted to implement an applicable requirement in this rule and that is included in the operating permit for any affected facility required to obtain such a permit; or
(3) Fails to meet any equipment standard (including emission and operating limits), management standard, or operation and maintenance requirement in this rule during startup, shutdown, or malfunction.
Dry mechanical polishing means a process used for removing defects from and smoothing the surface of finished metals and formed products after plating or thermal spraying with any of the plating and polishing metal HAP, as defined in this section, using automatic or manually-operated machines that have hard-faced abrasive wheels or belts and where no liquids or fluids are used to trap the removed metal particles. The affected process does not include polishing with use of pastes, liquids, lubricants, or any other added materials.
Electroforming means an electrolytic process using or emitting any of the plating and polishing metal HAP, as defined in this section, that is used for fabricating metal parts. This process is essentially the same as electroplating except that the plated substrate (mandrel) is removed, leaving only the metal plate. In electroforming, the metal plate is self-supporting and generally thicker than in electroplating.
Electroless plating means a non-electrolytic process that uses or emits any of the plating and polishing metal HAP, as defined in this section, in which metallic ions in a plating bath or solution are reduced to form a metal coating at the surface of a catalytic substrate without the use of external electrical energy. Electroless plating is also called non-electrolytic plating. Examples include, but are not limited to, chromate conversion coating, nickel acetate sealing, sodium dichromate sealing, and manganese phosphate coating.
Electrolytic plating processes means electroplating and electroforming that use or emit any of the plating and polishing metal HAP, as defined in this section, where metallic ions in a plating bath or solution are reduced to form a metal coating on the surface of parts and products using electrical energy.
Electroplating means an electrolytic process that uses or emits any of the plating and polishing metal HAP, as defined in this section, in which metal ions in solution are reduced onto the surface of the work piece (the cathode) via an electrical current. The metal ions in the solution are usually replenished by the dissolution of metal from solid metal anodes fabricated of the same metal being plated, or by direct replenishment of the solution with metal salts or oxides; electroplating is also called electrolytic plating.
Electropolishing means an electrolytic process performed in a tank after plating that uses or emits any of the plating and polishing metal HAP, as defined in this section, in which a work piece is attached to an anode immersed in a bath, and the metal substrate is dissolved electrolytically, thereby removing the surface contaminant; electropolishing is also called electrolytic polishing. For the purposes of this subpart, electropolishing does not include bench-scale operations.
Filters, for the purposes of this part, include cartridge, fabric, or HEPA filters, as defined in this section.
Flash electroplating means an electrolytic process performed in a tank that uses or emits any of the plating and polishing metal HAP, as defined in this section, and that is used no more than 3 cumulative minutes per hour or no more than 1 cumulative hour per day.
General Provisions of this part ( 40 CFR part 63, subpart A) means the section of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) that addresses air pollution rules that apply to all HAP sources addressed in part 63, which includes the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP).
HAP means hazardous air pollutant as defined from the list of 188 chemicals and compounds specified in the CAA Amendments of 1990; HAP are also called “air toxics.” The five plating and polishing metal HAP, as defined in this section, are on this list of 188 chemicals.
High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter means a type of control device that uses a filter composed of a mat of randomly arranged fibers and is designed to remove at least 99.97 percent of airborne particles that are 0.3 micrometers or larger in diameter.
Major facility for HAP is any facility that emits greater than 10 tpy of any HAP, or that emits a combined total of all HAP of over 25 tpy, where the HAP used to determine the total facility emissions are not restricted to only plating and polishing metal HAP or from only plating and polishing operations.
Mesh pad mist eliminator means a type of control device, consisting of layers of interlocked filaments densely packed between two supporting grids that remove liquid droplets and PM from the gas stream through inertial impaction and direct interception.
Metal coating operation means any process performed either in a tank that contains liquids or as part of a thermal spraying operation, that applies one or more plating and polishing metal HAP, as defined in this section, to the surface of parts and products used in manufacturing. These processes include but are not limited to: non-chromium electroplating; electroforming; electropolishing; non-electrolytic metal coating processes, such as chromate conversion coating, electroless nickel plating, nickel acetate sealing, sodium dichromate sealing, and manganese phosphate coating; and thermal or flame spraying.
Metal HAP content of material used in plating and polishing is the HAP content as determined from an analysis or engineering estimate of the HAP contents of the tank bath or solution, in the case of plating, metal coating, or electropolishing; or the HAP content of the metal coating being applied in the case of thermal spraying. Safety data sheet (SDS) information may be used in lieu of testing or engineering estimates but is not required to be used.
Non-cyanide electrolytic plating and electropolishing processes means electroplating, electroforming, and electropolishing that uses or emits any of the plating and polishing metal HAP, as defined in this section, performed without cyanide in the tank. These processes do not use cyanide in the tank and operate at pH values less than 12. These processes use electricity and add or remove metals such as metal HAP from parts and products used in manufacturing. Both electroplating and electroforming can be performed with cyanide as well.
Non-electrolytic plating means a process that uses or emits any of the plating and polishing metal HAP, as defined in this section, in which metallic ions in a plating bath or solution are reduced to form a metal coating at the surface of a catalytic substrate without the use of external electrical energy. Non-electrolytic plating is also called electroless plating. Examples include chromate conversion coating, nickel acetate sealing, electroless nickel plating, sodium dichromate sealing, and manganese phosphate coating.
Packed-bed scrubber means a type of control device that includes a single or double packed bed that contains packing media on which PM and droplets impinge and are removed from the gas stream. The packed-bed section of the scrubber is followed by a mist eliminator to remove any water entrained from the packed-bed section.
Plating and polishing facility means a facility engaged in one or more of the following processes that uses or emits any of the plating and polishing metal HAP, as defined in this section: electroplating processes other than chromium electroplating (i.e., non-chromium electroplating); electroless plating; other non-electrolytic metal coating processes performed in a tank, such as chromate conversion coating, nickel acetate sealing, sodium dichromate sealing, and manganese phosphate coating; thermal spraying; and the dry mechanical polishing of finished metals and formed products after plating or thermal spraying. Plating is performed in a tank or thermally sprayed so that a metal coating is irreversibly applied to an object. Plating and polishing does not include any bench-scale processes.
Plating and polishing metal HAP means any compound of any of the following metals: cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, and nickel, or any of these metals in the elemental form, with the exception of lead. Any material that does not contain cadmium, chromium, lead, or nickel in amounts greater than or equal to 0.1 percent by weight (as the metal), and does not contain manganese in amounts greater than or equal to 1.0 percent by weight (as the metal), as reported on the Material Safety Data Sheet for the material, is not considered to be a plating and polishing metal HAP.
Plating and polishing process tanks means any tank in which a process is performed at an affected plating and polishing facility that uses or has the potential to emit any of the plating and polishing metal HAP, as defined in this section. The processes performed in plating and polishing tanks include the following: electroplating processes other than chromium electroplating (i.e., non-chromium electroplating) performed in a tank; electroless plating; and non-electrolytic metal coating processes, such as chromate conversion coating, nickel acetate sealing, sodium dichromate sealing, and manganese phosphate coating; and electropolishing. This term does not include tanks containing solutions that are used to clean, rinse or wash parts prior to placing the parts in a plating and polishing process tank, or subsequent to removing the parts from a plating and polishing process tank. This term also does not include any bench-scale operations.
PM means solid or particulate matter that is emitted into the air.
Repair means any process used to return a finished object or tool back to its original function or shape.
Research and development process unit means any process unit that is used for conducting research and development for new processes and products and is not used to manufacture products for commercial sale, except in a de minimis manner.
Short-term plating means an electroplating process that uses or emits any of the plating and polishing metal HAP, as defined in this section, and that is used no more than 3 cumulative minutes per hour or 1 hour cumulative per day.
Startup of the tank bath is when the components or relative proportions of the various components in the bath have been altered from the most recent operating period. Startup of the bath does not include events where only the tank's heating or agitation and other mechanical operations are turned back on after being turned off for a period of time.
Tank cover for batch process units means a solid structure made of an impervious material that is designed to cover the entire open surface of a tank or process unit that is used for plating or other metal coating processes.
Tank cover for continuous process units, means a solid structure or combination of structures, made of an impervious material that is designed to cover at least 75 percent of the open surface of the tank or process unit that is used for continuous plating or other continuous metal coating processes.
Temporary thermal spraying means a thermal spraying operation that uses or emits any of the plating and polishing metal HAP, as defined in this section, and that lasts no more than 1 hour in duration during any one day and is conducted in situ. Thermal spraying that is conducted in a dedicated thermal spray booth or structure is not considered to be temporary thermal spraying.
Thermal spraying (also referred to as metal spraying or flame spraying) is a process that uses or emits any of the plating and polishing metal HAP, as defined in this section, in which a metallic coating is applied by projecting heated, molten, or semi-molten metal particles onto a substrate. Commonly-used thermal spraying methods include high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spraying, flame spraying, electric arc spraying, plasma arc spraying, and detonation gun spraying. This operation does not include spray painting at ambient temperatures.
Water curtain means a type of control device that draws the exhaust stream through a continuous curtain of moving water to scrub out suspended PM.