40 CFR 63.1272 - Startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions.

§ 63.1272 Startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions.
(a) The provisions set forth in this subpart shall apply at all times except during startups or shutdowns, during malfunctions, and during periods of non-operation of the affected sources (or specific portion thereof) resulting in cessation of the emissions to which this subpart applies. However, during the startup, shutdown, malfunction, or period of non-operation of one portion of an affected source, all emission points which can comply with the specific provisions to which they are subject must do so during the startup, shutdown, malfunction, or period of non-operation.
(b) The owner or operator shall not shut down items of equipment that are required or utilized for compliance with the provisions of this subpart during times when emissions are being routed to such items of equipment, if the shutdown would contravene requirements of this subpart applicable to such items of equipment. This paragraph does not apply if the item of equipment is malfunctioning, or if the owner or operator must shut down the equipment to avoid damage due to a contemporaneous startup, shutdown, or malfunction of the affected source or a portion thereof.
(c) During startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions when the requirements of this subpart do not apply pursuant to paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, the owner or operator shall implement, to the extent reasonably available, measures to prevent or minimize excess emissions to the maximum extent practical. For purposes of this paragraph, the term “excess emissions” means emissions in excess of those that would have occurred if there were no startup, shutdown, or malfunction, and the owner or operator complied with the relevant provisions of this subpart. The measures to be taken shall be identified in the applicable startup, shutdown, and malfunction plan, and may include, but are not limited to, air pollution control technologies, recovery technologies, work practices, pollution prevention, monitoring, and/or changes in the manner of operation of the source. Back-up control devices are not required, but may be used if available.
(d) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, the owner or operator shall prepare a startup, shutdown, or malfunction plan as required in § 63.6(e)(3), except that the plan is not required to be incorporated by reference into the source's title V permit as specified in § 63.6(e)(3)(i). Instead, the owner or operator shall keep the plan on record as required by § 63.6(e)(3)(v). The failure of the plan to adequately minimize emissions during the startup, shutdown, or malfunction does not shield an owner or operator from enforcement actions.
(e) Owners or operators are exempt from the requirements to prepare a startup, shutdown, or malfunction plan for any facility where all of the affected sources meet the exemption criteria specified in § 63.1274(d).
[64 FR 32648, June 17, 1999, as amended at 66 FR 34555, June 29, 2001]
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§ 63.1272 Affirmative defense for violations of emission standards during malfunction.

(a) The provisions set forth in this subpart shall apply at all times.

(b)-(c) [Reserved]

(d) In response to an action to enforce the standards set forth in this subpart, you may assert an affirmative defense to a claim for civil penalties for violations of such standards that are caused by malfunction, as defined at § 63.2. Appropriate penalties may be assessed; however, if you fail to meet your burden of proving all of the requirements in the affirmative defense, the affirmative defense shall not be available for claims for injunctive relief.

(1) To establish the affirmative defense in any action to enforce such a standard, you must timely meet the reporting requirements in paragraph (d)(2) of this section, and must prove by a preponderance of evidence that:

(i) The violation:

(A) Was caused by a sudden, infrequent, and unavoidable failure of air pollution control equipment, process equipment, or a process to operate in a normal or usual manner; and

(B) Could not have been prevented through careful planning, proper design or better operation and maintenance practices; and

(C) Did not stem from any activity or event that could have been foreseen and avoided, or planned for; and

(D) Was not part of a recurring pattern indicative of inadequate design, operation, or maintenance; and

(ii) Repairs were made as expeditiously as possible when a violation occurred. Off-shift and overtime labor were used, to the extent practicable to make these repairs; and

(iii) The frequency, amount and duration of the violation (including any bypass) were minimized to the maximum extent practicable; and

(iv) If the violation resulted from a bypass of control equipment or a process, then the bypass was unavoidable to prevent loss of life, personal injury, or severe property damage; and

(v) All possible steps were taken to minimize the impact of the violation on ambient air quality, the environment, and human health; and

(vi) All emissions monitoring and control systems were kept in operation if at all possible, consistent with safety and good air pollution control practices; and

(vii) All of the actions in response to the violation were documented by properly signed, contemporaneous operating logs; and

(viii) At all times, the affected source was operated in a manner consistent with good practices for minimizing emissions; and

(ix) A written root cause analysis has been prepared, the purpose of which is to determine, correct, and eliminate the primary causes of the malfunction and the violation resulting from the malfunction event at issue. The analysis shall also specify, using best monitoring methods and engineering judgment, the amount of any emissions that were the result of the malfunction.

(2) Report. The owner or operator seeking to assert an affirmative defense shall submit a written report to the Administrator with all necessary supporting documentation, that it has met the requirements set forth in paragraph (d)(1) of this section. This affirmative defense report shall be included in the first periodic compliance, deviation report or excess emission report otherwise required after the initial occurrence of the violation of the relevant standard (which may be the end of any applicable averaging period). If such compliance, deviation report or excess emission report is due less than 45 days after the initial occurrence of the violation, the affirmative defense report may be included in the second compliance, deviation report or excess emission report due after the initial occurrence of the violation of the relevant standard.

[77 FR 49585, Aug. 16, 2012]

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United States Code

Title 40 published on 2015-07-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 40 CFR Part 63 after this date.

  • 2015-12-07; vol. 80 # 234 - Monday, December 7, 2015
    1. 80 FR 76152 - National Emission Standards for Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities Risk and Technology Review
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      Final rule.
      This final action is effective on December 7, 2015.
      40 CFR Part 63