40 CFR 63.441 - Definitions.
All terms used in this subpart shall have the meaning given them in the CAA, in subpart A of this part, and in this section as follows:
Affirmative defense means, in the context of an enforcement proceeding, a response or defense put forward by a defendant, regarding which the defendant has the burden of proof, and the merits of which are independently and objectively evaluated in a judicial or administrative proceeding.
Black liquor means spent cooking liquor that has been separated from the pulp produced by the kraft, soda, or semi-chemical pulping process.
Bleaching means brightening of pulp by the addition of oxidizing chemicals or reducing chemicals.
Bleaching stage means all process equipment associated with a discrete step of chemical application and removal in the bleaching process including chemical and steam mixers, bleaching towers, washers, seal (filtrate) tanks, vacuum pumps, and any other equipment serving the same function as those previously listed.
Bleaching system means all process equipment after high-density pulp storage prior to the first application of oxidizing chemicals or reducing chemicals following the pulping system, up to and including the final bleaching stage.
Chip steamer means a vessel used for the purpose of preheating or pretreating wood chips prior to the digester, using flash steam from the digester or live steam.
Closed-vent system means a system that is not open to the atmosphere and is composed of piping, ductwork, connections, and, if necessary, flow-inducing devices that transport gas or vapor from an emission point to a control device.
Combustion device means an individual unit of equipment, including but not limited to, a thermal oxidizer, lime kiln, recovery furnace, process heater, or boiler, used for the thermal oxidation of organic hazardous air pollutant vapors.
Decker system means all equipment used to thicken the pulp slurry or reduce its liquid content after the pulp washing system and prior to high-density pulp storage. The decker system includes decker vents, filtrate tanks, associated vacuum pumps, and any other equipment serving the same function as those previously listed.
Digester system means each continuous digester or each batch digester used for the chemical treatment of wood or non-wood fibers. The digester system equipment includes associated flash tank(s), blow tank(s), chip steamer(s) not using fresh steam, blow heat recovery accumulator(s), relief gas condenser(s), prehydrolysis unit(s) preceding the pulp washing system, and any other equipment serving the same function as those previously listed. The digester system includes any of the liquid streams or condensates associated with batch or continuous digester relief, blow, or flash steam processes.
Emission point means any part of a stationary source that emits hazardous air pollutants regulated under this subpart, including emissions from individual process vents, stacks, open pieces of process equipment, equipment leaks, wastewater and condensate collection and treatment system units, and those emissions that could reasonably be conveyed through a stack, chimney, or duct where such emissions first reach the environment.
Evaporator system means all equipment associated with increasing the solids content and/or concentrating spent cooking liquor from the pulp washing system including pre-evaporators, multi-effect evaporators, concentrators, and vacuum systems, as well as associated condensers, hotwells, and condensate streams, and any other equipment serving the same function as those previously listed.
Flow indicator means any device that indicates gas or liquid flow in an enclosed system.
High volume, low concentration or HVLC collection system means the gas collection and transport system used to convey gases from the HVLC system to a control device.
High volume, low concentration or HVLC system means the collection of equipment including the pulp washing, knotter, screen, decker, and oxygen delignification systems, weak liquor storage tanks, and any other equipment serving the same function as those previously listed.
Knotter system means equipment where knots, oversized material, or pieces of uncooked wood are removed from the pulp slurry after the digester system and prior to the pulp washing system. The knotter system equipment includes the knotter, knot drainer tanks, ancillary tanks, and any other equipment serving the same function as those previously listed.
Kraft pulping means a chemical pulping process that uses a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide as the cooking liquor.
Lime kiln means an enclosed combustion device used to calcine lime mud, which consists primarily of calcium carbonate, into calcium oxide.
Low volume, high concentration or LVHC collection system means the gas collection and transport system used to convey gases from the LVHC system to a control device.
Low volume, high concentration or LVHC system means the collection of equipment including the digester, turpentine recovery, evaporator, steam stripper systems, and any other equipment serving the same function as those previously listed.
Mechanical pulping means a pulping process that only uses mechanical and thermo-mechanical processes to reduce wood to a fibrous mass. The mechanical pulping processes include, but are not limited to, stone groundwood, pressurized groundwood, refiner mechanical, thermal refiner mechanical, thermo-mechanical, and tandem thermo-mechanical.
Non-wood pulping means the production of pulp from fiber sources other than trees. The non-wood fiber sources include, but are not limited to, bagasse, cereal straw, cotton, flax straw, hemp, jute, kenaf, and leaf fibers.
Oven-dried pulp or ODP means a pulp sample at zero percent moisture content by weight. Pulp samples for applicability or compliance determinations for both the pulping and bleaching systems shall be unbleached pulp. For purposes of complying with mass emission limits in this subpart, megagram of ODP shall be measured to represent the amount of pulp entering and processed by the equipment system under the specified mass limit. For equipment that does not process pulp, megagram of ODP shall be measured to represent the amount of pulp that was processed to produce the gas and liquid streams.
Oxygen delignification system means the equipment that uses oxygen to remove lignin from pulp after high-density stock storage and prior to the bleaching system. The oxygen delignification system equipment includes the blow tank, washers, filtrate tanks, any interstage pulp storage tanks, and any other equipment serving the same function as those previously listed.
Primary fuel means the fuel that provides the principal heat input to the combustion device. To be considered primary, the fuel must be able to sustain operation of the combustion device without the addition of other fuels.
Process wastewater treatment system means a collection of equipment, a process, or specific technique that removes or destroys the HAPs in a process wastewater stream. Examples include, but are not limited to, a steam stripping unit, wastewater thermal oxidizer, or biological treatment unit.
Pulp washing system means all equipment used to wash pulp and separate spent cooking chemicals following the digester system and prior to the bleaching system, oxygen delignification system, or paper machine system (at unbleached mills). The pulp washing system equipment includes vacuum drum washers, diffusion washers, rotary pressure washers, horizontal belt filters, intermediate stock chests, and their associated vacuum pumps, filtrate tanks, foam breakers or tanks, and any other equipment serving the same function as those previously listed. The pulp washing system does not include deckers, screens, knotters, stock chests, or pulp storage tanks following the last stage of pulp washing.
Pulping line means a group of equipment arranged in series such that the wood chips are digested and the resulting pulp progresses through a sequence of steps that may include knotting, refining, washing, thickening, blending, storing, oxygen delignification, and any other equipment serving the same function as those previously listed.
Pulping process condensates means any HAP-containing liquid that results from contact of water with organic compounds in the pulping process. Examples of process condensates include digester system condensates, turpentine recovery system condensates, evaporator system condensates, LVHC system condensates, HVLC system condensates, and any other condensates from equipment serving the same function as those previously listed. Liquid streams that are intended for byproduct recovery are not considered process condensate streams.
Pulping system means all process equipment, beginning with the digester system, and up to and including the last piece of pulp conditioning equipment prior to the bleaching system, including treatment with ozone, oxygen, or peroxide before the first application of a chemical bleaching agent intended to brighten pulp. The pulping system includes pulping process condensates and can include multiple pulping lines.
Recovery furnace means an enclosed combustion device where concentrated spent liquor is burned to recover sodium and sulfur, produce steam, and dispose of unwanted dissolved wood components in the liquor.
Secondary fiber pulping means a pulping process that converts a fibrous material, that has previously undergone a manufacturing process, into pulp stock through the addition of water and mechanical energy. The mill then uses that pulp as the raw material in another manufactured product. These mills may also utilize chemical, heat, and mechanical processes to remove ink particles from the fiber stock.
Semi-chemical pulping means a pulping process that combines both chemical and mechanical pulping processes. The semi-chemical pulping process produces intermediate yields ranging from 55 to 90 percent.
Soda pulping means a chemical pulping process that uses sodium hydroxide as the active chemical in the cooking liquor.
Steam stripper system means a column (including associated stripper feed tanks, condensers, or heat exchangers) used to remove compounds from wastewater or condensates using steam. The steam stripper system also contains all equipment associated with a methanol rectification process including rectifiers, condensers, decanters, storage tanks, and any other equipment serving the same function as those previously listed.
Sulfite pulping means a chemical pulping process that uses a mixture of sulfurous acid and bisulfite ion as the cooking liquor.
Temperature monitoring device means a piece of equipment used to monitor temperature and having an accuracy of ±1.0 percent of the temperature being monitored expressed in degrees Celsius or ±0.5 degrees Celsius ((°C), whichever is greater.
Thermal oxidizer means an enclosed device that destroys organic compounds by thermal oxidation.
Turpentine recovery system means all equipment associated with recovering turpentine from digester system gases including condensers, decanters, storage tanks, and any other equipment serving the same function as those previously listed. The turpentine recovery system includes any liquid streams associated with the turpentine recovery process such as turpentine decanter underflow. Liquid streams that are intended for byproduct recovery are not considered turpentine recovery system condensate streams.