40 CFR § 63.548 - Monitoring requirements.
(a) You must prepare, and at all times operate according to, a standard operating procedures manual that describes in detail procedures for inspection, maintenance, and bag leak detection and corrective action plans for all baghouses (fabric filters or cartridge filters) that are used to control process vents, process fugitive, or fugitive dust emissions from any source subject to the lead emissions standards in §§ 63.543, 63.544, and 63.545, including those used to control emissions from building ventilation.
(c) The procedures that you specify in the standard operating procedures manual for inspections and routine maintenance must, at a minimum, include the requirements of paragraphs (c)(1) through (9) of this section.
(1) Daily monitoring of pressure drop across each baghouse cell.
(2) Weekly confirmation that dust is being removed from hoppers through visual inspection, or equivalent means of ensuring the proper functioning of removal mechanisms.
(3) Daily check of compressed air supply for pulse-jet baghouses.
(4) An appropriate methodology for monitoring cleaning cycles to ensure proper operation.
(5) Monthly check of bag cleaning mechanisms for proper functioning through visual inspection or equivalent means.
(7) Quarterly confirmation of the physical integrity of the baghouse through visual inspection of the baghouse interior for air leaks.
(8) Quarterly inspection of fans for wear, material buildup, and corrosion through visual inspection, vibration detectors, or equivalent means.
(9) Except as provided in paragraphs (g) and (h) of this section, continuous operation of a bag leak detection system, unless a system meeting the requirements of paragraph (m) of this section for a continuous emissions monitoring system is installed for monitoring the concentration of lead.
(d) The procedures you specify in the standard operating procedures manual for baghouse maintenance must include, at a minimum, a preventative maintenance schedule that is consistent with the baghouse manufacturer's instructions for routine and long-term maintenance.
(1) The bag leak detection system must be certified by the manufacturer to be capable of detecting particulate matter emissions at concentrations of 1.0 milligram per actual cubic meter (0.00044 grains per actual cubic foot) or less.
(3) The bag leak detection system must be equipped with an alarm system that will alarm when an increase in relative particulate loadings is detected over a preset level.
(4) You must install and operate the bag leak detection system in a manner consistent with the guidance provided in “Office of Air quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) Fabric Filter Bag Leak Detection Guidance” EPA-454/R-98-015, September 1997 (incorporated by reference, see § 63.14) and the manufacturer's written specifications and recommendations for installation, operation, and adjustment of the system.
(5) The initial adjustment of the system must, at a minimum, consist of establishing the baseline output by adjusting the sensitivity (range) and the averaging period of the device, and establishing the alarm set points and the alarm delay time.
(6) Following initial adjustment, you must not adjust the sensitivity or range, averaging period, alarm set points, or alarm delay time, except as detailed in the approved standard operating procedures manual required under paragraph (a) of this section. You cannot increase the sensitivity by more than 100 percent or decrease the sensitivity by more than 50 percent over a 365 day period unless such adjustment follows a complete baghouse inspection that demonstrates that the baghouse is in good operating condition.
(7) For negative pressure, induced air baghouses, and positive pressure baghouses that are discharged to the atmosphere through a stack, you must install the bag leak detector downstream of the baghouse and upstream of any wet acid gas scrubber.
(8) Where multiple detectors are required, the system's instrumentation and alarm may be shared among detectors.
(f) You must include in the standard operating procedures manual required by paragraph (a) of this section a corrective action plan that specifies the procedures to be followed in the case of a bag leak detection system alarm. The corrective action plan must include, at a minimum, the procedures that you will use to determine and record the time and cause of the alarm as well as the corrective actions taken to minimize emissions as specified in paragraphs (f)(1) and (f)(2) of this section.
(1) The procedures used to determine the cause of the alarm must be initiated within 30 minutes of the alarm.
(2) The cause of the alarm must be alleviated by taking the necessary corrective action(s) that may include, but not be limited to, those listed in paragraphs (f)(2)(i) through (vi) of this section.
(iv) Sealing off a defective baghouse compartment.
(vi) Shutting down the process producing the particulate emissions.
(g) Baghouses equipped with high efficiency particulate air (or HEPA) filters as a secondary filter used to control emissions from any source subject to the lead emission standards in § 65.543(a) or (b), are exempt from the requirement to be equipped with a bag leak detection system. You must monitor and record the pressure drop across each HEPA filter system daily. If the pressure drop is outside the limit(s) specified by the filter manufacturer, you must take appropriate corrective measures, which may include but not be limited to those given in paragraphs (g)(1) through (4) of this section.
(4) Shutting down the process producing the particulate emissions.
(h) Baghouses followed by a wet electrostatic precipitator used as a secondary control device for any source subject to the lead emission standards in § 63.543(a) or (b), are exempt from the requirement to be equipped with a bag leak detection system.
(i) If you use a wet scrubber to control particulate matter and metal hazardous air pollutant emissions from a process vent to demonstrate continuous compliance with the emissions standards, you must monitor and record the pressure drop and water flow rate of the wet scrubber during the initial performance or compliance test conducted to demonstrate compliance with the lead emissions limit under § 63.543(a) or (b). Thereafter, you must monitor and record the pressure drop and water flow rate values at least once every hour and you must maintain the pressure drop and water flow rate at levels no lower than 30 percent below the pressure drop and water flow rate measured during the initial performance or compliance test.
(j) You must comply with the requirements specified in paragraphs (j)(1) through (4) of this section to demonstrate continuous compliance with the total hydrocarbons and dioxins and furans emissions standards. During periods of startup and shutdown, the requirements of paragraph (j)(4) of this section do not apply. Instead, you must demonstrate compliance with the standard for total hydrocarbon by meeting the requirements of § 63.543(l).
(1) Continuous temperature monitoring. You must install, calibrate, maintain, and continuously operate a device to monitor and record the temperature of the afterburner or furnace exhaust streams consistent with the requirements for continuous monitoring systems in § 63.8.
(2) Prior to or in conjunction with the initial performance or compliance test to determine compliance with § 63.543(c), you must conduct a performance evaluation for the temperature monitoring device according to § 63.8(e). The definitions, installation specifications, test procedures, and data reduction procedures for determining calibration drift, relative accuracy, and reporting described in Performance Specification 2, 40 CFR part 60, appendix B, sections 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, and 10 must be used to conduct the evaluation. The temperature monitoring device must meet the following performance and equipment specifications:
(i) The recorder response range must include zero and 1.5 times the average temperature identified in paragraph (j)(3) of this section.
(iii) The monitoring system relative accuracy must not exceed 20 percent.
(iv) The reference method must be a National Institute of Standards and Technology calibrated reference thermocouple-potentiometer system or an alternate reference, subject to the approval of the Administrator.
(3) You must monitor and record the temperature of the afterburner or the furnace exhaust streams every 15 minutes during the initial performance or compliance test for total hydrocarbons and dioxins and furans and determine an arithmetic average for the recorded temperature measurements.
(4) To demonstrate continuous compliance with the standards for total hydrocarbons and dioxins and furans, you must maintain an afterburner or exhaust temperature such that the average temperature in any 3-hour period does not fall more than 28 °Celsius (50 °Fahrenheit) below the average established in paragraph (j)(3) of this section.
(k) You must install, operate, and maintain a digital differential pressure monitoring system to continuously monitor each total enclosure as described in paragraphs (k)(1) through (5) of this section.
(1) You must install and maintain a minimum of one building digital differential pressure monitoring system at each of the following three walls in each total enclosure that has a total ground surface area of 10,000 square feet or more:
(i) The leeward wall.
(ii) The windward wall.
(iii) An exterior wall that connects the leeward and windward wall at a location defined by the intersection of a perpendicular line between a point on the connecting wall and a point on its furthest opposite exterior wall, and intersecting within plus or minus 10 meters of the midpoint of a straight line between the two other monitors specified. The midpoint monitor must not be located on the same wall as either of the other two monitors. If approved by the permitting authority, this third monitor may be placed in an alternative location on the midpoint wall or an exterior wall that is not the windward wall, leeward wall or midpoint wall.
(2) You must install and maintain a minimum of one building digital differential pressure monitoring system at the leeward wall of each total enclosure that has a total ground surface area of less than 10,000 square feet.
(3) The digital differential pressure monitoring systems must be certified by the manufacturer to be capable of measuring and displaying negative pressure containing values in the range of 0.01 to 0.2 millimeters mercury (0.005 to 0.11 inches of water) and capable of recording data in increments of 0.002 millimeters of mercury (0.001 inches of water).
(4) You must equip each digital differential pressure monitoring system with a continuous recorder. To demonstrate compliance with the standard for differential pressure, you must maintain the pressure in total enclosures such that the average pressure in any 15-minute period does not fall below the level specified in § 63.544(c)(1). The 15-minute averages must include at least one reading per minute.
(5) You must calibrate each digital differential pressure monitoring system in accordance with manufacturer's specifications.
(l) Except as provided in paragraphs (l)(2) or (3) of this section, all new or reconstructed sources subject to the requirements under § 63.543 must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a CEMS for measuring lead emissions. In addition to the General Provisions requirements for CEMS in § 63.8(c) that are referenced in Table 1 to this subpart, you must comply with the requirements for CEMS specified in paragraph (m) of this section.
(1) Sources subject to the emissions limits for lead compounds under § 63.543(b) must install a CEMS for measuring lead emissions within 180 days of promulgation by the EPA of performance specifications for lead CEMS.
(2) Prior to 180 days after the EPA promulgates performance specifications for CEMS used to measure lead concentrations, you must use the procedure described in § 63.543(g)(1) to determine compliance.
(m) If a CEMS is used to measure lead emissions, you must install a continuous emissions monitoring system with a sensor in a location that provides representative measurement of the exhaust gas flow rate at the sampling location of the CEMS used to measure lead emissions, taking into account the manufacturer's recommendations. The flow rate sensor is that portion of the system that senses the volumetric flow rate and generates an output proportional to that flow rate.
(1) The continuous emissions monitoring system must be designed to measure the exhaust gas flow rate over a range that extends from a value of at least 20 percent less than the lowest expected exhaust flow rate to a value of at least 20 percent greater than the highest expected exhaust gas flow rate.
(2) The continuous emissions monitoring system must be equipped with a data acquisition and recording system that is capable of recording values over the entire range specified in paragraph (m)(1) of this section.
(3) You must perform an initial relative accuracy test of the continuous emissions monitoring system in accordance with the applicable Performance Specification in appendix B to part 60 of this chapter.
(4) You must operate the continuous emissions monitoring system and record data during all periods of operation of the affected facility including periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction, except for periods of monitoring system malfunctions, repairs associated with monitoring system malfunctions, and required monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities including, as applicable, calibration checks and required zero and span adjustments.
(6) When the continuous emissions monitoring system is unable to provide quality assured data, the following apply:
(i) When data are not available for periods of up to 48 hours, the highest recorded hourly emissions rate from the previous 24 hours must be used.
(ii) When data are not available for 48 or more hours, the maximum daily emissions rate based on the previous 30 days must be used.
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