40 CFR 63.5935 - What definitions apply to this subpart?
Terms used in this subpart are defined in the CAA, in 40 CFR 63.2, and in this section as follows:
Atomized mechanical application means application of resin or gel coat with spray equipment that separates the liquid into a fine mist. This fine mist may be created by forcing the liquid under high pressure through an elliptical orifice, bombarding a liquid stream with directed air jets, or a combination of these techniques.
Bulk molding compound (BMC) means a putty-like molding compound containing resin(s) in a form that is ready to mold. In addition to resins, BMC may contain catalysts, fillers, and reinforcements. Bulk molding compound can be used in compression molding and injection molding operations to manufacture reinforced plastic composites products.
BMC manufacturing means a process that involves the preparation of BMC.
Centrifugal casting means a process for fabricating cylindrical composites, such as pipes, in which composite materials are positioned inside a rotating hollow mandrel and held in place by centrifugal forces until the part is sufficiently cured to maintain its physical shape.
Clear production gel coat means an unpigmented, quick-setting resin used to improve the surface appearance and/or performance of composites. It can be used to form the surface layer of any composites other than those used for molds in tooling operations.
Closed molding means a grouping of processes for fabricating composites in a way that HAP-containing materials are not exposed to the atmosphere except during the material loading stage (e.g., compression molding, injection molding, and resin transfer molding). Processes where the mold is covered with plastic (or equivalent material) prior to resin application, and the resin is injected into the covered mold are also considered closed molding.
Composite means a shaped and cured part produced by using composite materials.
Composite materials means the raw materials used to make composites. The raw materials include styrene containing resins. They may also include gel coat, monomer, catalyst, pigment, filler, and reinforcement.
Compression molding means a closed molding process for fabricating composites in which composite materials are placed inside matched dies that are used to cure the materials under heat and pressure without exposure to the atmosphere. The addition of mold paste or in-mold coating is considered part of the closed molding process. The composite materials used in this process are generally SMC or BMC.
Continuous lamination means a continuous process for fabricating composites in which composite materials are typically sandwiched between plastic films, pulled through compaction rollers, and cured in an oven. This process is generally used to produce flat or corrugated products on an in-line conveyor.
Corrosion-resistant end-use applications means applications where the product is manufactured specifically for an application that requires a level of chemical inertness or resistance to chemical attack above that required for typical reinforced plastic composites products. These applications include, but are not limited to, chemical processing and storage; pulp and paper production; sewer and wastewater treatment; power generation; potable water transfer and storage; food and drug processing; pollution or odor control; metals production and plating; semiconductor manufacturing; petroleum production, refining, and storage; mining; textile production; nuclear materials storage; swimming pools; and cosmetic production, as well as end-use applications that require high strength resins.
Corrosion-resistant industry standard includes the following standards: ASME RTP-1 or Sect. X; ASTM D5364, D3299, D4097, D2996, D2997, D3262, D3517, D3754, D3840, D4024, D4160, D4161, D4162, D4184, D3982, or D3839; ANSI/AWWA C950; UL 215, 1316 or 1746, IAPMO PS-199, or written customer requirements for resistance to specified chemical environments.
Corrosion-resistant product means a product made with a corrosion-resistant resin and is manufactured to a corrosion-resistant industry standard, or a food contact industry standard, or is manufactured for corrosion-resistant end-use applications involving continuous or temporary chemical exposures.
Corrosion-resistant resin means a resin that either:
(1) Displays substantial retention of mechanical properties when undergoing ASTM C-581 coupon testing, where the resin is exposed for 6 months or more to one of the following materials: Material with a pH ≥2.0 or ≤3.0, oxidizing or reducing agents, organic solvents, or fuels or additives as defined in 40 CFR 79.2. In the coupon testing, the exposed resin needs to demonstrate a minimum of 50 percent retention of the relevant mechanical property compared to the same resin in unexposed condition. In addition, the exposed resin needs to demonstrate an increased retention of the relevant mechanical property of at least 20 percentage points when compared to a similarly exposed general-purpose resin. For example, if the general-purpose resin retains 45 percent of the relevant property when tested as specified above, then a corrosion-resistant resin needs to retain at least 65 percent (45 percent plus 20 percent) of its property. The general-purpose resin used in the test needs to have an average molecular weight of greater than 1,000, be formulated with a 1:2 ratio of maleic anhydride to phthalic anhydride and 100 percent diethylene glycol, and a styrene content between 43 to 48 percent; or
(2) Complies with industry standards that require specific exposure testing to corrosive media, such as UL 1316, UL 1746, or ASTM F-1216.
Doctor box means the box or trough on an SMC machine into which the liquid resin paste is delivered before it is metered onto the carrier film.
Filament application means an open molding process for fabricating composites in which reinforcements are fed through a resin bath and wound onto a rotating mandrel. The materials on the mandrel may be rolled out or worked by using nonmechanical tools prior to curing. Resin application to the reinforcement on the mandrel by means other than the resin bath, such as spray guns, pressure-fed rollers, flow coaters, or brushes is not considered filament application.
Filled Resin means that fillers have been added to a resin such that the amount of inert substances is at least 10 percent by weight of the total resin plus filler mixture. Filler putty made from a resin is considered a filled resin.
Fillers means inert substances dispersed throughout a resin, such as calcium carbonate, alumina trihydrate, hydrous aluminum silicate, mica, feldspar, wollastonite, silica, and talc. Materials that are not considered to be fillers are glass fibers or any type of reinforcement and microspheres.
Fluid impingement technology means a spray gun that produces an expanding non-misting curtain of liquid by the impingement of low-pressure uninterrupted liquid streams.
Gel Coat means a quick-setting resin used to improve surface appearance and/or performance of composites. It can be used to form the surface layer of any composites other than those used for molds in tooling operations.
Gel coat application means a process where either clear production, pigmented production, white/off-white or tooling gel coat is applied.
HAP-containing materials storage means an ancillary process which involves keeping HAP-containing materials, such as resins, gel coats, catalysts, monomers, and cleaners, in containers or bulk storage tanks for any length of time. Containers may include small tanks, totes, vessels, and buckets.
High strength resins means polyester resins which have a casting tensile strength of 10,000 pounds per square inch or more and which are used for manufacturing products that have high strength requirements such as structural members and utility poles.
Injection molding means a closed molding process for fabricating composites in which composite materials are injected under pressure into a heated mold cavity that represents the exact shape of the product. The composite materials are cured in the heated mold cavity.
Low Flame Spread/Low Smoke Products means products that meet the following requirements. The products must meet both the applicable flame spread requirements and the applicable smoke requirements. Interior or exterior building application products must meet an ASTM E-84 Flame Spread Index of less than or equal to 25, and Smoke Developed Index of less than or equal to 450, or pass National Fire Protection Association 286 Room Corner Burn Test with no flash over and total smoke released not exceeding 1000 meters square. Mass transit application products must meet an ASTM E-162 Flame Spread Index of less than or equal to 35 and ASTM E662 Smoke Density Ds @ 1.5 minutes less than or equal to 100 and Ds @ 4 minutes less than to equal to 200. Duct application products must meet ASTM E084 Flame Spread Index less than or equal to 25 and Smoke Developed Index less than or equal to 50 on the interior and/or exterior of the duct.
Manual resin application means an open molding process for fabricating composites in which composite materials are applied to the mold by pouring or by using hands and nonmechanical tools, such as brushes and rollers. Materials are rolled out or worked by using nonmechanical tools prior to curing. The use of pressure-fed rollers and flow coaters to apply resin is not considered manual resin application.
Mechanical resin application means an open molding process for fabricating composites in which composite materials (except gel coat) are applied to the mold by using mechanical tools such as spray guns, pressure-fed rollers, and flow coaters. Materials are rolled out or worked by using nonmechanical tools prior to curing.
Mixing means the blending or agitation of any HAP-containing materials in vessels that are 5.00 gallons (18.9 liters) or larger, and includes the mixing of putties or polyputties. Mixing may involve the blending of resin, gel coat, filler, reinforcement, pigments, catalysts, monomers, and any other additives.
Neat gel coat means the resin as purchased for the supplier, but not including any inert fillers.
Neat gel coat plus means neat gel coat plus any organic HAP-containing materials that are added to the gel coat by the supplier or the facility, excluding catalysts and promoters. Neat gel coat plus does include any additions of styrene or methyl methacrylate monomer in any form, including in catalysts and promoters.
Neat resin means the resin as purchased from the supplier, but not including any inert fillers.
Neat resin plus means neat resin plus any organic HAP-containing materials that are added to the resin by the supplier or the facility. Neat resin plus does not include any added filler, reinforcements, catalysts, or promoters. Neat resin plus does include any additions of styrene or methyl methacrylate monomer in any form, including in catalysts and promoters.
Nonatomized mechanical application means the use of application tools other than brushes to apply resin and gel coat where the application tool has documentation provided by its manufacturer or user that this design of the application tool has been organic HAP emissions tested, and the test results showed that use of this application tool results in organic HAP emissions that are no greater than the organic HAP emissions predicted by the applicable nonatomized application equation(s) in Table 1 to this subpart. In addition, the device must be operated according to the manufacturer's directions, including instructions to prevent the operation of the device at excessive spray pressures. Examples of nonatomized application include flow coaters, pressure fed rollers, and fluid impingement spray guns.
Non-routine manufacture means that you manufacture parts to replace worn or damaged parts of a reinforced plastic composites product, or a product containing reinforced plastic composite parts, that was originally manufactured in another facility. For a part to qualify as non-routine manufacture, it must be used for repair or replacement, and the manufacturing schedule must be based on the current or anticipated repair needs of the reinforced plastic composites product, or a product containing reinforced plastic composite parts.
Operation means a specific process typically found at a reinforced plastic composites facility. Examples of operations are noncorrosion-resistant manual resin application, corrosion-resistant mechanical resin application, pigmented gel coat application, mixing and HAP-containing materials storage.
Open molding means a process for fabricating composites in a way that HAP-containing materials are exposed to the atmosphere. Open molding includes processes such as manual resin application, mechanical resin application, filament application, and gel coat application. Open molding also includes application of resins and gel coats to parts that have been removed from the open mold.
Pigmented gel coat means a gel coat that has a color, but does not contain 10 percent of more titanium dioxide by weight. It can be used to form the surface layer of any composites other than those used for molds in tooling operations.
Polymer casting means a process for fabricating composites in which composite materials are ejected from a casting machine or poured into an open, partially open, or closed mold and cured. After the composite materials are poured into the mold, they are not rolled out or worked while the mold is open, except for smoothing the material and/or vibrating the mold to remove bubbles. The composite materials may or may not include reinforcements. Products produced by the polymer casting process include cultured marble products and polymer concrete.
Preform Injection means a form of pultrusion where liquid resin is injected to saturate reinforcements in an enclosed system containing one or more chambers with openings only large enough to admit reinforcements. Resin, which drips out of the chamber(s) during the process, is collected in closed piping or covered troughs and then into a covered reservoir for recycle. Resin storage vessels, reservoirs, transfer systems, and collection systems are covered or shielded from the ambient air. Preform injection differs from direct die injection in that the injection chambers are not directly attached to the die.
Prepreg materials means reinforcing fabric received precoated with resin which is usually cured through the addition of heat.
Pultrusion means a continuous process for manufacturing composites that have a uniform cross-sectional shape. The process consists of pulling a fiber-reinforcing material through a resin impregnation chamber or bath and through a shaping die, where the resin is subsequently cured. There are several types of pultrusion equipment, such as open bath, resin injection, and direct die injection equipment.
Repair means application of resin or gel coat to a part to correct a defect, where the resin or gel coat application occurs after the part has gone through all the steps of its typical production process, or the application occurs outside the normal production area. For purposes of this subpart, rerouting a part back through the normal production line, or part of the normal production line, is not considered repair.
Sheet molding compound (SMC) means a ready-to-mold putty-like molding compound that contains resin(s) processed into sheet form. The molding compound is sandwiched between a top and a bottom film. In addition to resin(s), it may also contain catalysts, fillers, chemical thickeners, mold release agents, reinforcements, and other ingredients. Sheet molding compound can be used in compression molding to manufacture reinforced plastic composites products.
Shrinkage controlled resin means a resin that when promoted, catalyzed, and filled according to the resin manufacturer's recommendations demonstrates less than 0.3 percent linear shrinkage when tested according to ASTM D2566.
SMC manufacturing means a process which involves the preparation of SMC.
Tooling gel coat means a gel coat that is used to form the surface layer of molds. Tooling gel coats generally have high heat distortion temperatures, low shrinkage, high barcol hardness, and high dimensional stability.
Tooling resin means a resin that is used to produce molds. Tooling resins generally have high heat distortion temperatures, low shrinkage, high barcol hardness, and high dimensional stability.
Uncontrolled oven organic HAP emissions means those organic HAP emissions emitted from the oven through closed vent systems to the atmosphere and not to a control device. These organic HAP emissions do not include organic HAP emissions that may escape into the workplace through the opening of panels or doors on the ovens or other similar fugitive organic HAP emissions in the workplace.
Uncontrolled wet-out area organic HAP emissions means any or all of the following: Organic HAP emissions from wet-out areas that do not have any capture and control, organic HAP emissions that escape from wet-out area enclosures, and organic HAP emissions from wet-out areas that are captured by an enclosure but are vented to the atmosphere and not to an add-on control device.
Vapor suppressant means an additive, typically a wax, that migrates to the surface of the resin during curing and forms a barrier to seal in the styrene and reduce styrene emissions.