40 CFR § 63.641 - Definitions.
All terms used in this subpart shall have the meaning given them in the Clean Air Act, subpart A of this part, and in this section. If the same term is defined in subpart A and in this section, it shall have the meaning given in this section for purposes of this subpart.
Aliphatic means open-chained structure consisting of paraffin, olefin and acetylene hydrocarbons and derivatives.
Annual average true vapor pressure means the equilibrium partial pressure exerted by the stored liquid at the temperature equal to the annual average of the liquid storage temperature for liquids stored above or below the ambient temperature or at the local annual average temperature reported by the National Weather Service for liquids stored at the ambient temperature, as determined:
(2) From standard reference texts; or
(3) By any other method approved by the Administrator.
Assist air means all air that intentionally is introduced prior to or at a flare tip through nozzles or other hardware conveyance for the purposes including, but not limited to, protecting the design of the flare tip, promoting turbulence for mixing or inducing air into the flame. Assist air includes premix assist air and perimeter assist air. Assist air does not include the surrounding ambient air.
Assist steam means all steam that intentionally is introduced prior to or at a flare tip through nozzles or other hardware conveyance for the purposes including, but not limited to, protecting the design of the flare tip, promoting turbulence for mixing or inducing air into the flame. Assist steam includes, but is not necessarily limited to, center steam, lower steam and upper steam.
By compound means by individual stream components, not by carbon equivalents.
Car-seal means a seal that is placed on a device that is used to change the position of a valve (e.g., from opened to closed) in such a way that the position of the valve cannot be changed without breaking the seal.
Closed blowdown system means a system used for depressuring process vessels that is not open to the atmosphere and is configured of piping, ductwork, connections, accumulators/knockout drums, and, if necessary, flow inducing devices that transport gas or vapor from a process vessel to a control device or back into the process.
Closed vent system means a system that is not open to the atmosphere and is configured of piping, ductwork, connections, and, if necessary, flow inducing devices that transport gas or vapor from an emission point to a control device or back into the process. If gas or vapor from regulated equipment is routed to a process (e.g., to a petroleum refinery fuel gas system), the process shall not be considered a closed vent system and is not subject to closed vent system standards.
Connector means flanged, screwed, or other joined fittings used to connect two pipe lines or a pipe line and a piece of equipment. A common connector is a flange. Joined fittings welded completely around the circumference of the interface are not considered connectors for the purpose of this regulation. For the purpose of reporting and recordkeeping, connector means joined fittings that are accessible.
Continuous record means documentation, either in hard copy or computer readable form, of data values measured at least once every hour and recorded at the frequency specified in § 63.655(i).
Continuous recorder means a data recording device recording an instantaneous data value or an average data value at least once every hour.
Control device means any equipment used for recovering, removing, or oxidizing organic hazardous air pollutants. Such equipment includes, but is not limited to, absorbers, carbon adsorbers, condensers, incinerators, flares, boilers, and process heaters. For miscellaneous process vents (as defined in this section), recovery devices (as defined in this section) are not considered control devices.
Cooling tower means a heat removal device used to remove the heat absorbed in circulating cooling water systems by transferring the heat to the atmosphere using natural or mechanical draft.
Cooling tower return line means the main water trunk lines at the inlet to the cooling tower before exposure to the atmosphere.
Decoking operations means the sequence of steps conducted at the end of the delayed coking unit's cooling cycle to open the coke drum to the atmosphere in order to remove coke from the coke drum. Decoking operations begin at the end of the cooling cycle when steam released from the coke drum is no longer discharged via the unit's blowdown system but instead is vented directly to the atmosphere. Decoking operations include atmospheric depressuring (venting), deheading, draining, and decoking (coke cutting).
Delayed coking unit means a refinery process unit in which high molecular weight petroleum derivatives are thermally cracked and petroleum coke is produced in a series of closed, batch system reactors. A delayed coking unit includes, but is not limited to, all of the coke drums associated with a single fractionator; the fractionator, including the bottoms receiver and the overhead condenser; the coke drum cutting water and quench system, including the jet pump and coker quench water tank; and the coke drum blowdown recovery compressor system.
Delayed coker vent means a miscellaneous process vent that contains uncondensed vapors from the delayed coking unit's blowdown system. Venting from the delayed coker vent is typically intermittent in nature, and occurs primarily during the cooling cycle of a delayed coking unit coke drum when vapor from the coke drums cannot be sent to the fractionator column for product recovery. The emissions from the decoking operations, which include direct atmospheric venting, deheading, draining, or decoking (coke cutting), are not considered to be delayed coker vents.
Distillate receiver means overhead receivers, overhead accumulators, reflux drums, and condenser(s) including ejector-condenser(s) associated with a distillation unit.
Distillation unit means a device or vessel in which one or more feed streams are separated into two or more exit streams, each exit stream having component concentrations different from those in the feed stream(s). The separation is achieved by the redistribution of the components between the liquid and the vapor phases by vaporization and condensation as they approach equilibrium within the distillation unit. Distillation unit includes the distillate receiver, reboiler, and any associated vacuum pump or steam jet.
Emission point means an individual miscellaneous process vent, storage vessel, wastewater stream, equipment leak, decoking operation or heat exchange system associated with a petroleum refining process unit; an individual storage vessel or equipment leak associated with a bulk gasoline terminal or pipeline breakout station classified under Standard Industrial Classification code 2911; a gasoline loading rack classified under Standard Industrial Classification code 2911; or a marine tank vessel loading operation located at a petroleum refinery.
Equipment leak means emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants from a pump, compressor, pressure relief device, sampling connection system, open-ended valve or line, valve, or instrumentation system “in organic hazardous air pollutant service” as defined in this section. Vents from wastewater collection and conveyance systems (including, but not limited to wastewater drains, sewer vents, and sump drains), tank mixers, and sample valves on storage tanks are not equipment leaks.
Flare means a combustion device lacking an enclosed combustion chamber that uses an uncontrolled volume of ambient air to burn gases. For the purposes of this rule, the definition of flare includes, but is not necessarily limited to, air-assisted flares, steam-assisted flares and non-assisted flares.
Flare purge gas means gas introduced between a flare header's water seal and the flare tip to prevent oxygen infiltration (backflow) into the flare tip or for other safety reasons. For a flare with no water seal, the function of flare purge gas is performed by flare sweep gas and, therefore, by definition, such a flare has no flare purge gas.
Flare sweep gas means, for a flare with a flare gas recovery system, the gas intentionally introduced into the flare header system to maintain a constant flow of gas through the flare header in order to prevent oxygen buildup in the flare header; flare sweep gas in these flares is introduced prior to and recovered by the flare gas recovery system. For a flare without a flare gas recovery system, flare sweep gas means the gas intentionally introduced into the flare header system to maintain a constant flow of gas through the flare header and out the flare tip in order to prevent oxygen buildup in the flare header and to prevent oxygen infiltration (backflow) into the flare tip.
Flare vent gas means all gas found just prior to the flare tip. This gas includes all flare waste gas (i.e., gas from facility operations that is directed to a flare for the purpose of disposing of the gas), that portion of flare sweep gas that is not recovered, flare purge gas and flare supplemental gas, but does not include pilot gas, total steam or assist air.
Flexible enclosure device means a seal made of an elastomeric fabric (or other material) which completely encloses a slotted guidepole or ladder and eliminates the vapor emission pathway from inside the storage vessel through the guidepole slots or ladder slots to the outside air.
Flexible operation unit means a process unit that manufactures different products periodically by alternating raw materials or operating conditions. These units are also referred to as campaign plants or blocked operations.
Flow indicator means a device that indicates whether gas is flowing, or whether the valve position would allow gas to flow, in a line.
Force majeure event means a release of HAP, either directly to the atmosphere from a pressure relief device or discharged via a flare, that is demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Administrator to result from an event beyond the refinery owner or operator's control, such as natural disasters; acts of war or terrorism; loss of a utility external to the refinery (e.g., external power curtailment), excluding power curtailment due to an interruptible service agreement; and fire or explosion originating at a near or adjoining facility outside of the refinery that impacts the refinery's ability to operate.
Fuel gas system means the offsite and onsite piping and control system that gathers gaseous streams generated by refinery operations, may blend them with sources of gas, if available, and transports the blended gaseous fuel at suitable pressures for use as fuel in heaters, furnaces, boilers, incinerators, gas turbines, and other combustion devices located within or outside of the refinery. The fuel is piped directly to each individual combustion device, and the system typically operates at pressures over atmospheric. The gaseous streams can contain a mixture of methane, light hydrocarbons, hydrogen and other miscellaneous species.
Gasoline means any petroleum distillate or petroleum distillate/alcohol blend having a Reid vapor pressure of 27.6 kilopascals or greater that is used as a fuel for internal combustion engines.
Gasoline loading rack means the loading arms, pumps, meters, shutoff valves, relief valves, and other piping and valves necessary to fill gasoline cargo tanks.
Group 1 gasoline loading rack means any gasoline loading rack classified under Standard Industrial Classification code 2911 that is located within a bulk gasoline terminal that has a gasoline throughput greater than 75,700 liters per day. Gasoline throughput shall be the maximum calculated design throughput for the terminal as may be limited by compliance with enforceable conditions under Federal, State, or local law and discovered by the Administrator and any other person.
Group 1 marine tank vessel means a vessel at an existing source loaded at any land- or sea-based terminal or structure that loads liquid commodities with vapor pressures greater than or equal to 10.3 kilopascals in bulk onto marine tank vessels, that emits greater than 9.1 megagrams of any individual HAP or 22.7 megagrams of any combination of HAP annually after August 18, 1999, or a vessel at a new source loaded at any land- or sea-based terminal or structure that loads liquid commodities with vapor pressures greater than or equal to 10.3 kilopascals onto marine tank vessels.
Group 1 miscellaneous process vent means a miscellaneous process vent for which the total organic HAP concentration is greater than or equal to 20 parts per million by volume, and the total volatile organic compound emissions are greater than or equal to 33 kilograms per day for existing sources and 6.8 kilograms per day for new sources at the outlet of the final recovery device (if any) and prior to any control device and prior to discharge to the atmosphere.
Group 1 storage vessel means:
(1) Prior to February 1, 2016:
(i) A storage vessel at an existing source that has a design capacity greater than or equal to 177 cubic meters and stored-liquid maximum true vapor pressure greater than or equal to 10.4 kilopascals and stored-liquid annual average true vapor pressure greater than or equal to 8.3 kilopascals and annual average HAP liquid concentration greater than 4 percent by weight total organic HAP;
(ii) A storage vessel at a new source that has a design storage capacity greater than or equal to 151 cubic meters and stored-liquid maximum true vapor pressure greater than or equal to 3.4 kilopascals and annual average HAP liquid concentration greater than 2 percent by weight total organic HAP; or
(iii) A storage vessel at a new source that has a design storage capacity greater than or equal to 76 cubic meters and less than 151 cubic meters and stored-liquid maximum true vapor pressure greater than or equal to 77 kilopascals and annual average HAP liquid concentration greater than 2 percent by weight total organic HAP.
(2) On and after February 1, 2016:
(i) A storage vessel at an existing source that has a design capacity greater than or equal to 151 cubic meters (40,000 gallons) and stored-liquid maximum true vapor pressure greater than or equal to 5.2 kilopascals (0.75 pounds per square inch) and annual average HAP liquid concentration greater than 4 percent by weight total organic HAP;
(ii) A storage vessel at an existing source that has a design storage capacity greater than or equal to 76 cubic meters (20,000 gallons) and less than 151 cubic meters (40,000 gallons) and stored-liquid maximum true vapor pressure greater than or equal to 13.1 kilopascals (1.9 pounds per square inch) and annual average HAP liquid concentration greater than 4 percent by weight total organic HAP;
(iii) A storage vessel at a new source that has a design storage capacity greater than or equal to 151 cubic meters (40,000 gallons) and stored-liquid maximum true vapor pressure greater than or equal to 3.4 kilopascals (0.5 pounds per square inch) and annual average HAP liquid concentration greater than 2 percent by weight total organic HAP; or
(iv) A storage vessel at a new source that has a design storage capacity greater than or equal to 76 cubic meters (20,000 gallons) and less than 151 cubic meters (40,000 gallons) and stored-liquid maximum true vapor pressure greater than or equal to 13.1 kilopascals (1.9 pounds per square inch) and annual average HAP liquid concentration greater than 2 percent by weight total organic HAP.
Group 1 wastewater stream means a wastewater stream at a petroleum refinery with a total annual benzene loading of 10 megagrams per year or greater as calculated according to the procedures in 40 CFR 61.342 of subpart FF of part 61 that has a flow rate of 0.02 liters per minute or greater, a benzene concentration of 10 parts per million by weight or greater, and is not exempt from control requirements under the provisions of 40 CFR part 61, subpart FF.
Hazardous air pollutant or HAP means one of the chemicals listed in section 112(b) of the Clean Air Act.
Heat exchange system means a device or collection of devices used to transfer heat from process fluids to water without intentional direct contact of the process fluid with the water (i.e., non-contact heat exchanger) and to transport and/or cool the water in a closed-loop recirculation system (cooling tower system) or a once-through system (e.g., river or pond water). For closed-loop recirculation systems, the heat exchange system consists of a cooling tower, all petroleum refinery process unit heat exchangers that are in organic HAP service, as defined in this subpart, serviced by that cooling tower, and all water lines to and from these petroleum refinery process unit heat exchangers. For once-through systems, the heat exchange system consists of all heat exchangers that are in organic HAP service, as defined in this subpart, servicing an individual petroleum refinery process unit and all water lines to and from these heat exchangers. Sample coolers or pump seal coolers are not considered heat exchangers for the purpose of this definition and are not part of the heat exchange system. Intentional direct contact with process fluids results in the formation of a wastewater.
Heat exchanger exit line means the cooling water line from the exit of one or more heat exchangers (where cooling water leaves the heat exchangers) to either the entrance of the cooling tower return line or prior to exposure to the atmosphere, in, as an example, a once-through cooling system, whichever occurs first.
Incinerator means an enclosed combustion device that is used for destroying organic compounds. Auxiliary fuel may be used to heat waste gas to combustion temperatures. Any energy recovery section present is not physically formed into one manufactured or assembled unit with the combustion section; rather, the energy recovery section is a separate section following the combustion section and the two are joined by ducts or connections carrying flue gas.
In organic hazardous air pollutant service or in organic HAP service means that a piece of equipment either contains or contacts a fluid (liquid or gas) that is at least 5 percent by weight of total organic HAP as determined according to the provisions of § 63.180(d) of this part and table 1 of this subpart. The provisions of § 63.180(d) also specify how to determine that a piece of equipment is not in organic HAP service.
Leakless valve means a valve that has no external actuating mechanism.
Lower steam means the portion of assist steam piped to an exterior annular ring near the lower part of a flare tip, which then flows through tubes to the flare tip, and ultimately exits the tubes at the flare tip.
Maximum true vapor pressure means the equilibrium partial pressure exerted by the stored liquid at the temperature equal to the highest calendar-month average of the liquid storage temperature for liquids stored above or below the ambient temperature or at the local maximum monthly average temperature as reported by the National Weather Service for liquids stored at the ambient temperature, as determined:
(2) From standard reference texts; or
(3) By any other method approved by the Administrator.
Miscellaneous process vent means a gas stream containing greater than 20 parts per million by volume organic HAP that is continuously or periodically discharged from a petroleum refining process unit meeting the criteria specified in § 63.640(a). Miscellaneous process vents include gas streams that are discharged directly to the atmosphere, gas streams that are routed to a control device prior to discharge to the atmosphere, or gas streams that are diverted through a product recovery device prior to control or discharge to the atmosphere. Miscellaneous process vents include vent streams from: Caustic wash accumulators, distillation tower condensers/accumulators, flash/knockout drums, reactor vessels, scrubber overheads, stripper overheads, vacuum pumps, steam ejectors, hot wells, high point bleeds, wash tower overheads, water wash accumulators, blowdown condensers/accumulators, and delayed coker vents. Miscellaneous process vents do not include:
(2) Pressure relief device discharges;
(5) In situ sampling systems (onstream analyzers) until February 1, 2016. After this date, these sampling systems will be included in the definition of miscellaneous process vents and sampling systems determined to be Group 1 miscellaneous process vents must comply with the requirements in §§ 63.643 and 63.644 no later than January 30, 2019;
(6) Catalytic cracking unit catalyst regeneration vents;
(7) Catalytic reformer regeneration vents;
(8) Sulfur plant vents;
(9) Vents from control devices such as scrubbers, boilers, incinerators, and electrostatic precipitators applied to catalytic cracking unit catalyst regeneration vents, catalytic reformer regeneration vents, and sulfur plant vents;
(11) Emissions associated with delayed coking unit decoking operations;
(12) Vents from storage vessels;
(14) Hydrogen production plant vents through which carbon dioxide is removed from process streams or through which steam condensate produced or treated within the hydrogen plant is degassed or deaerated.
Net heating value means the energy released as heat when a compound undergoes complete combustion with oxygen to form gaseous carbon dioxide and gaseous water (also referred to as lower heating value).
Organic hazardous air pollutant or organic HAP in this subpart, means any of the organic chemicals listed in table 1 of this subpart.
Perimeter assist air means the portion of assist air introduced at the perimeter of the flare tip or above the flare tip. Perimeter assist air includes air intentionally entrained in lower and upper steam. Perimeter assist air includes all assist air except premix assist air.
Periodically discharged means discharges that are intermittent and associated with routine operations, maintenance activities, startups, shutdowns, malfunctions, or process upsets.
Petroleum-based solvents means mixtures of aliphatic hydrocarbons or mixtures of one and two ring aromatic hydrocarbons.
Petroleum refining process unit means a process unit used in an establishment primarily engaged in petroleum refining as defined in the Standard Industrial Classification code for petroleum refining (2911), and used primarily for the following:
(2) Separating petroleum; or
(3) Separating, cracking, reacting, or reforming intermediate petroleum streams.
(4) Examples of such units include, but are not limited to, petroleum-based solvent units, alkylation units, catalytic hydrotreating, catalytic hydrorefining, catalytic hydrocracking, catalytic reforming, catalytic cracking, crude distillation, lube oil processing, hydrogen production, isomerization, polymerization, thermal processes, and blending, sweetening, and treating processes. Petroleum refining process units also include sulfur plants.
Plant site means all contiguous or adjoining property that is under common control including properties that are separated only by a road or other public right-of-way. Common control includes properties that are owned, leased, or operated by the same entity, parent entity, subsidiary, or any combination thereof.
Premix assist air means the portion of assist air that is introduced to the flare vent gas, whether injected or induced, prior to the flare tip. Premix assist air also includes any air intentionally entrained in center steam.
Pressure relief device means a valve, rupture disk, or similar device used only to release an unplanned, nonroutine discharge of gas from process equipment in order to avoid safety hazards or equipment damage. A pressure relief device discharge can result from an operator error, a malfunction such as a power failure or equipment failure, or other unexpected cause. Such devices include conventional, spring-actuated relief valves, balanced bellows relief valves, pilot-operated relief valves, rupture disks, and breaking, buckling, or shearing pin devices.
Primary fuel means the fuel that provides the principal heat input (i.e., more than 50 percent) to the device. To be considered primary, the fuel must be able to sustain operation without the addition of other fuels.
Process heater means an enclosed combustion device that primarily transfers heat liberated by burning fuel directly to process streams or to heat transfer liquids other than water.
Process unit means the equipment assembled and connected by pipes or ducts to process raw and/or intermediate materials and to manufacture an intended product. A process unit includes any associated storage vessels. For the purpose of this subpart, process unit includes, but is not limited to, chemical manufacturing process units and petroleum refining process units.
Process unit shutdown means a work practice or operational procedure that stops production from a process unit or part of a process unit during which it is technically feasible to clear process material from a process unit or part of a process unit consistent with safety constraints and during which repairs can be accomplished. An unscheduled work practice or operational procedure that stops production from a process unit or part of a process unit for less than 24 hours is not considered a process unit shutdown. An unscheduled work practice or operational procedure that would stop production from a process unit or part of a process unit for a shorter period of time than would be required to clear the process unit or part of the process unit of materials and start up the unit, or would result in greater emissions than delay of repair of leaking components until the next scheduled process unit shutdown is not considered a process unit shutdown. The use of spare equipment and technically feasible bypassing of equipment without stopping production are not considered process unit shutdowns.
Recovery device means an individual unit of equipment capable of and used for the purpose of recovering chemicals for use, reuse, or sale. Recovery devices include, but are not limited to, absorbers, carbon adsorbers, and condensers.
Reference control technology for gasoline loading racks means a vapor collection and processing system used to reduce emissions due to the loading of gasoline cargo tanks to 10 milligrams of total organic compounds per liter of gasoline loaded or less.
Reference control technology for marine vessels means a vapor collection system and a control device that reduces captured HAP emissions by 97 percent.
Reference control technology for miscellaneous process vents means a combustion device used to reduce organic HAP emissions by 98 percent, or to an outlet concentration of 20 parts per million by volume.
Reference control technology for storage vessels means either:
(v) For purposes of emissions averaging, these four technologies are considered equivalent.
(2) For all other storage vessels:
(v) For purposes of emissions averaging, these four technologies are considered equivalent.
Reference control technology for wastewater means the use of:
(1) Controls specified in §§ 61.343 through 61.347 of subpart FF of part 61;
(2) A treatment process that achieves the emission reductions specified in table 7 of this subpart for each individual HAP present in the wastewater stream or is a steam stripper that meets the specifications in § 63.138(g) of subpart G of this part; and
(3) A control device to reduce by 95 percent (or to an outlet concentration of 20 parts per million by volume for combustion devices) the organic HAP emissions in the vapor streams vented from treatment processes (including the steam stripper described in paragraph (2) of this definition) managing wastewater.
Refinery fuel gas means a gaseous mixture of methane, light hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and other miscellaneous species (nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, etc.) that is produced in the refining of crude oil and/or petrochemical processes and that is separated for use as a fuel in boilers and process heaters throughout the refinery.
Regulated material means any stream associated with emission sources listed in § 63.640(c) required to meet control requirements under this subpart as well as any stream for which this subpart or a cross-referencing subpart specifies that the requirements for flare control devices in § 63.670 must be met.
Relief valve means a type of pressure relief device that is designed to re-close after the pressure relief.
Research and development facility means laboratory and pilot plant operations whose primary purpose is to conduct research and development into new processes and products, where the operations are under the close supervision of technically trained personnel, and is not engaged in the manufacture of products for commercial sale, except in a de minimis manner.
Shutdown means the cessation of a petroleum refining process unit or a unit operation (including, but not limited to, a distillation unit or reactor) within a petroleum refining process unit for purposes including, but not limited to, periodic maintenance, replacement of equipment, or repair.
Startup means the setting into operation of a petroleum refining process unit for purposes of production. Startup does not include operation solely for purposes of testing equipment. Startup does not include changes in product for flexible operation units.
(1) Vessels permanently attached to motor vehicles such as trucks, railcars, barges, or ships;
(2) Pressure vessels designed to operate in excess of 204.9 kilopascals and without emissions to the atmosphere;
(3) Vessels with capacities smaller than 40 cubic meters;
(4) Bottoms receiver tanks; or
Temperature monitoring device means a unit of equipment used to monitor temperature and having an accuracy of ±1 percent of the temperature being monitored expressed in degrees Celsius or ±0.5 °C, whichever is greater.
Thermal expansion relief valve means a pressure relief valve designed to protect equipment from excess pressure due to thermal expansion of blocked liquid-filled equipment or piping due to ambient heating or heat from a heat tracing system. Pressure relief valves designed to protect equipment from excess pressure due to blockage against a pump or compressor or due to fire contingency are not thermal expansion relief valves.
Total organic compounds or TOC, as used in this subpart, means those compounds excluding methane and ethane measured according to the procedures of Method 18 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A. Method 25A may be used alone or in combination with Method 18 to measure TOC as provided in § 63.645 of this subpart.
Wastewater means water or wastewater that, during production or processing, comes into direct contact with or results from the production or use of any raw material, intermediate product, finished product, byproduct, or waste product and is discharged into any individual drain system. Examples are feed tank drawdown; water formed during a chemical reaction or used as a reactant; water used to wash impurities from organic products or reactants; water used to cool or quench organic vapor streams through direct contact; and condensed steam from jet ejector systems pulling vacuum on vessels containing organics.