40 CFR 63.654 - Heat exchange systems.

§ 63.654 Heat exchange systems.
(a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, the owner or operator of a heat exchange system that meets the criteria in § 63.640(c)(8) must comply with the requirements of paragraphs (c) through (g) of this section.
(b) A heat exchange system is exempt from the requirements in paragraphs (c) through (g) of this section if it meets any one of the criteria in paragraphs (b)(1) through (2) of this section.
(1) All heat exchangers that are in organic HAP service within the heat exchange system that either:
(i) Operate with the minimum pressure on the cooling water side at least 35 kilopascals greater than the maximum pressure on the process side; or
(ii) Employ an intervening cooling fluid, containing less than 5 percent by weight of total HAP listed in Table 1 to this subpart, between the process and the cooling water. This intervening fluid must serve to isolate the cooling water from the process fluid and must not be sent through a cooling tower or discharged. For purposes of this section, discharge does not include emptying for maintenance purposes.
(2) The heat exchange system cools process fluids that contain less than 5 percent by weight of total HAP listed in Table 1 to this subpart (i.e., the heat exchange system does not contain any heat exchangers that are in organic HAP service as defined in this subpart).
(c) The owner or operator must perform monthly monitoring to identify leaks of total strippable volatile organic compound (VOC) from each heat exchange system subject to the requirements of this subpart according to the procedures in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section.
(1) Collect and analyze a sample from each cooling tower return line prior to exposure to air for each heat exchange system in organic HAP service or from each heat exchanger exit line for each heat exchanger or group of heat exchangers in organic HAP service within that heat exchange system to determine the total strippable VOC concentration (as methane) from the air stripping testing system using “Air Stripping Method (Modified El Paso Method) for Determination of Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Water Sources” Revision Number One, dated January 2003, Sampling Procedures Manual, Appendix P: Cooling Tower Monitoring, prepared by Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, January 31, 2003 (incorporated by reference—see § 63.14). The owner or operator of a once-through heat exchange system may elect to also monitor monthly (in addition to monitoring each heat exchanger exit line) the fresh water feed line prior to any heat exchanger to determine the total strippable VOC concentration (as methane) prior to the heat exchange system using the Modified El Paso Method.
(2) For a heat exchange system at an existing source, a leak is a total strippable VOC concentration (as methane) in the stripping gas of 6.2 ppmv or greater. For a heat exchange system at a new source, a leak is a total strippable VOC concentration (as methane) in the stripping gas of 3.1 ppmv or greater.
(d) If a leak is detected, the owner or operator must repair the leak to reduce the measured concentration to below the applicable action level as soon as practicable, but no later than 45 days after identifying the leak, except as specified in paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section. Actions that can be taken to achieve repair include but are not limited to:
(1) Physical modifications to the leaking heat exchanger, such as welding the leak or replacing a tube;
(2) Blocking the leaking tube within the heat exchanger;
(3) Changing the pressure so that water flows into the process fluid;
(4) Replacing the heat exchanger or heat exchanger bundle; or
(5) Isolating, bypassing, or otherwise removing the leaking heat exchanger from service until it is otherwise repaired.
(e) If the owner or operator detects a leak when monitoring a cooling tower return line under paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the owner or operator may conduct additional monitoring to identify leaks of total strippable VOC emissions using Modified El Paso Method from each heat exchanger or group of heat exchangers in organic HAP service associated with the heat exchange system for which the leak was detected. If the additional monitoring shows that the total strippable VOC concentration in the stripped air at the heat exchanger exit line for each heat exchanger in organic HAP service is less than 6.2 ppmv for existing sources or less than 3.1 ppmv for new sources, the heat exchange system is excluded from repair requirements in paragraph (d) of this section.
(f) The owner or operator may delay the repair of a leaking heat exchanger when one of the conditions in paragraphs (f)(1) and (2) of this section is met. The owner or operator must determine if a delay of repair is necessary as soon as practicable, but no later than 45 days after first identifying the leak.
(1) If the repair is technically infeasible without a shutdown and the total strippable VOC concentration (as methane) is initially and remains less than 62 ppmv for all monthly monitoring periods during the delay of repair, the owner or operator may delay repair until the next scheduled shutdown of the heat exchange system. If, during subsequent monthly monitoring, the total strippable VOC concentration (as methane) is 62 ppmv or greater, the owner or operator must repair the leak within 30 days of the monitoring event in which the leak was equal to or exceeded 62 ppmv total strippable VOC (as methane), except as provided in paragraph (f)(3) of this section.
(2) If the necessary equipment, parts, or personnel are not available and the total strippable VOC concentration (as methane) is initially and remains less than 62 ppmv for all monthly monitoring periods during the delay of repair, the owner or operator may delay the repair for a maximum of 120 calendar days. The owner or operator must demonstrate that the necessary equipment, parts, or personnel were not available. If, during subsequent monthly monitoring, the total strippable VOC concentration (as methane) is 62 ppmv or greater, the owner or operator must repair the leak within 30 days of the monitoring event in which the leak was equal to or exceeded 62 ppmv total strippable VOC (as methane).
(g) To delay the repair under paragraph (f) of this section, the owner or operator must record the information in paragraphs (g)(1) through (g)(4) of this section.
(1) The reason(s) for delaying repair.
(2) A schedule for completing the repair as soon as practical.
(3) The date and concentration of the leak as first identified and the results of all subsequent monthly monitoring events during the delay of repair.
(4) An estimate of the potential emissions from the leaking heat exchange system or heat exchanger following the procedures in paragraphs (g)(4)(i) and (g)(4)(ii) of this section.
(i) Determine the total strippable VOC concentration in the cooling water, in parts per million by weight (ppmw), using equation 7-1 from “Air Stripping Method (Modified El Paso Method) for Determination of Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Water Sources” Revision Number One, dated January 2003, Sampling Procedures Manual, Appendix P: Cooling Tower Monitoring, prepared by Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, January 31, 2003 (incorporated by reference—see § 63.14), based on the total strippable concentration in the stripped air, ppmv, from monitoring.
(ii) Calculate the VOC emissions for the leaking heat exchange system or heat exchanger by multiplying the VOC concentration in the cooling water, ppmw, by the flow rate of the cooling water from the leaking tower or heat exchanger and by the expected duration of the delay.
[74 FR 55686, Oct. 28, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 37731, June 30, 2010]
Beta! The text on the eCFR tab represents the unofficial eCFR text at ecfr.gov.
§ 63.654 Heat exchange systems.

(a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, the owner or operator of a heat exchange system that meets the criteria in § 63.640(c)(8) must comply with the requirements of paragraphs (c) through (g) of this section.

(b) A heat exchange system is exempt from the requirements in paragraphs (c) through (g) of this section if all heat exchangers within the heat exchange system either:

(1) Operate with the minimum pressure on the cooling water side at least 35 kilopascals greater than the maximum pressure on the process side; or

(2) Employ an intervening cooling fluid containing less than 5 percent by weight of total organic HAP, as determined according to the provisions of § 63.180(d) of this part and table 1 of this subpart, between the process and the cooling water. This intervening fluid must serve to isolate the cooling water from the process fluid and must not be sent through a cooling tower or discharged. For purposes of this section, discharge does not include emptying for maintenance purposes.

(c) The owner or operator must perform monitoring to identify leaks of total strippable volatile organic compounds (VOC) from each heat exchange system subject to the requirements of this subpart according to the procedures in paragraphs (c)(1) through (6) of this section.

(1) Monitoring locations for closed-loop recirculation heat exchange systems. For each closed loop recirculating heat exchange system, collect and analyze a sample from the location(s) described in either paragraph (c)(1)(i) or (c)(1)(ii) of this section.

(i) Each cooling tower return line or any representative riser within the cooling tower prior to exposure to air for each heat exchange system.

(ii) Selected heat exchanger exit line(s) so that each heat exchanger or group of heat exchangers within a heat exchange system is covered by the selected monitoring location(s).

(2) Monitoring locations for once-through heat exchange systems. For each once-through heat exchange system, collect and analyze a sample from the location(s) described in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section. The owner or operator may also elect to collect and analyze an additional sample from the location(s) described in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section.

(i) Selected heat exchanger exit line(s) so that each heat exchanger or group of heat exchangers within a heat exchange system is covered by the selected monitoring location(s). The selected monitoring location may be at a point where discharges from multiple heat exchange systems are combined provided that the combined cooling water flow rate at the monitoring location does not exceed 40,000 gallons per minute.

(ii) The inlet water feed line for a once-through heat exchange system prior to any heat exchanger. If multiple heat exchange systems use the same water feed (i.e., inlet water from the same primary water source), the owner or operator may monitor at one representative location and use the monitoring results for that sampling location for all heat exchange systems that use that same water feed.

(3) Monitoring method. Determine the total strippable hydrocarbon concentration (in parts per million by volume (ppmv) as methane) at each monitoring location using the “Air Stripping Method (Modified El Paso Method) for Determination of Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Water Sources” Revision Number One, dated January 2003, Sampling Procedures Manual, Appendix P: Cooling Tower Monitoring, prepared by Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, January 31, 2003 (incorporated by reference - see § 63.14) using a flame ionization detector (FID) analyzer for on-site determination as described in Section 6.1 of the Modified El Paso Method.

(4) Monitoring frequency and leak action level for existing sources. For a heat exchange system at an existing source, the owner or operator must comply with the monitoring frequency and leak action level as defined in paragraph (c)(4)(i) of this section or comply with the monitoring frequency and leak action level as defined in paragraph (c)(4)(ii) of this section. The owner or operator of an affected heat exchange system may choose to comply with paragraph (c)(4)(i) of this section for some heat exchange systems at the petroleum refinery and comply with paragraph (c)(4)(ii) of this section for other heat exchange systems. However, for each affected heat exchange system, the owner or operator of an affected heat exchange system must elect one monitoring alternative that will apply at all times. If the owner or operator intends to change the monitoring alternative that applies to a heat exchange system, the owner or operator must notify the Administrator 30 days in advance of such a change. All “leaks” identified prior to changing monitoring alternatives must be repaired. The monitoring frequencies specified in paragraphs (c)(4)(i) and (ii) of this section also apply to the inlet water feed line for a once-through heat exchange system, if monitoring of the inlet water feed is elected as provided in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section.

(i) Monitor monthly using a leak action level defined as a total strippable hydrocarbon concentration (as methane) in the stripping gas of 6.2 ppmv.

(ii) Monitor quarterly using a leak action level defined as a total strippable hydrocarbon concentration (as methane) in the stripping gas of 3.1 ppmv unless repair is delayed as provided in paragraph (f) of this section. If a repair is delayed as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, monitor monthly.

(5) Monitoring frequency and leak action level for new sources. For a heat exchange system at a new source, the owner or operator must monitor monthly using a leak action level defined as a total strippable hydrocarbon concentration (as methane) in the stripping gas of 3.1 ppmv.

(6) Leak definition. A leak is defined as described in paragraph (c)(6)(i) or (c)(6)(ii) of this section, as applicable.

(i) For once-through heat exchange systems for which the inlet water feed is monitored as described in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, a leak is detected if the difference in the measurement value of the sample taken from a location specified in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section and the measurement value of the corresponding sample taken from the location specified in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section equals or exceeds the leak action level.

(ii) For all other heat exchange systems, a leak is detected if a measurement value of the sample taken from a location specified in either paragraph (c)(1)(i), (c)(1)(ii), or (c)(2)(i) of this section equals or exceeds the leak action level.

(d) If a leak is detected, the owner or operator must repair the leak to reduce the measured concentration to below the applicable action level as soon as practicable, but no later than 45 days after identifying the leak, except as specified in paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section. Repair includes re-monitoring at the monitoring location where the leak was identified according to the method specified in paragraph (c)(3) of this section to verify that the measured concentration is below the applicable action level. Actions that can be taken to achieve repair include but are not limited to:

(1) Physical modifications to the leaking heat exchanger, such as welding the leak or replacing a tube;

(2) Blocking the leaking tube within the heat exchanger;

(3) Changing the pressure so that water flows into the process fluid;

(4) Replacing the heat exchanger or heat exchanger bundle; or

(5) Isolating, bypassing, or otherwise removing the leaking heat exchanger from service until it is otherwise repaired.

(e) If the owner or operator detects a leak when monitoring a cooling tower return line under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section, the owner or operator may conduct additional monitoring of each heat exchanger or group of heat exchangers associated with the heat exchange system for which the leak was detected as provided under paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section. If no leaks are detected when monitoring according to the requirements of paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section, the heat exchange system is considered to meet the repair requirements through re-monitoring of the heat exchange system as provided in paragraph (d) of this section.

(f) The owner or operator may delay the repair of a leaking heat exchanger when one of the conditions in paragraph (f)(1) or (f)(2) of this section is met and the leak is less than the delay of repair action level specified in paragraph (f)(3) of this section. The owner or operator must determine if a delay of repair is necessary as soon as practicable, but no later than 45 days after first identifying the leak.

(1) If the repair is technically infeasible without a shutdown and the total strippable hydrocarbon concentration is initially and remains less than the delay of repair action level for all monthly monitoring periods during the delay of repair, the owner or operator may delay repair until the next scheduled shutdown of the heat exchange system. If, during subsequent monthly monitoring, the delay of repair action level is exceeded, the owner or operator must repair the leak within 30 days of the monitoring event in which the leak was equal to or exceeded the delay of repair action level.

(2) If the necessary equipment, parts, or personnel are not available and the total strippable hydrocarbon concentration is initially and remains less than the delay of repair action level for all monthly monitoring periods during the delay of repair, the owner or operator may delay the repair for a maximum of 120 calendar days. The owner or operator must demonstrate that the necessary equipment, parts, or personnel were not available. If, during subsequent monthly monitoring, the delay of repair action level is exceeded, the owner or operator must repair the leak within 30 days of the monitoring event in which the leak was equal to or exceeded the delay of repair action level.

(3) The delay of repair action level is a total strippable hydrocarbon concentration (as methane) in the stripping gas of 62 ppmv. The delay of repair action level is assessed as described in paragraph (f)(3)(i) or (f)(3)(ii) of this section, as applicable.

(i) For once-through heat exchange systems for which the inlet water feed is monitored as described in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, the delay of repair action level is exceeded if the difference in the measurement value of the sample taken from a location specified in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section and the measurement value of the corresponding sample taken from the location specified in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section equals or exceeds the delay of repair action level.

(ii) For all other heat exchange systems, the delay of repair action level is exceeded if a measurement value of the sample taken from a location specified in either paragraphs (c)(1)(i), (c)(1)(ii), or (c)(2)(i) of this section equals or exceeds the delay of repair action level.

(g) To delay the repair under paragraph (f) of this section, the owner or operator must record the information in paragraphs (g)(1) through (4) of this section.

(1) The reason(s) for delaying repair.

(2) A schedule for completing the repair as soon as practical.

(3) The date and concentration of the leak as first identified and the results of all subsequent monthly monitoring events during the delay of repair.

(4) An estimate of the potential strippable hydrocarbon emissions from the leaking heat exchange system or heat exchanger for each required delay of repair monitoring interval following the procedures in paragraphs (g)(4)(i) through (iv) of this section.

(i) Determine the leak concentration as specified in paragraph (c) of this section and convert the stripping gas leak concentration (in ppmv as methane) to an equivalent liquid concentration, in parts per million by weight (ppmw), using equation 7-1 from “Air Stripping Method (Modified El Paso Method) for Determination of Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Water Sources” Revision Number One, dated January 2003, Sampling Procedures Manual, Appendix P: Cooling Tower Monitoring, prepared by Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, January 31, 2003 (incorporated by reference - see § 63.14) and the molecular weight of 16 grams per mole (g/mol) for methane.

(ii) Determine the mass flow rate of the cooling water at the monitoring location where the leak was detected. If the monitoring location is an individual cooling tower riser, determine the total cooling water mass flow rate to the cooling tower. Cooling water mass flow rates may be determined using direct measurement, pump curves, heat balance calculations, or other engineering methods. Volumetric flow measurements may be used and converted to mass flow rates using the density of water at the specific monitoring location temperature or using the default density of water at 25 degrees Celsius, which is 997 kilograms per cubic meter or 8.32 pounds per gallon.

(iii) For delay of repair monitoring intervals prior to repair of the leak, calculate the potential strippable hydrocarbon emissions for the leaking heat exchange system or heat exchanger for the monitoring interval by multiplying the leak concentration in the cooling water, ppmw, determined in (g)(4)(i) of this section, by the mass flow rate of the cooling water determined in (g)(4)(ii) of this section and by the duration of the delay of repair monitoring interval. The duration of the delay of repair monitoring interval is the time period starting at midnight on the day of the previous monitoring event or at midnight on the day the repair would have had to be completed if the repair had not been delayed, whichever is later, and ending at midnight of the day the of the current monitoring event.

(iv) For delay of repair monitoring intervals ending with a repaired leak, calculate the potential strippable hydrocarbon emissions for the leaking heat exchange system or heat exchanger for the final delay of repair monitoring interval by multiplying the duration of the final delay of repair monitoring interval by the leak concentration and cooling water flow rates determined for the last monitoring event prior to the re-monitoring event used to verify the leak was repaired. The duration of the final delay of repair monitoring interval is the time period starting at midnight of the day of the last monitoring event prior to re-monitoring to verify the leak was repaired and ending at the time of the re-monitoring event that verified that the leak was repaired.

[74 FR 55686, Oct. 28, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 37731, June 30, 2010; 78 FR 37146, June 20, 2013]

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Title 40 published on 2015-07-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 40 CFR Part 63 after this date.

  • 2015-12-07; vol. 80 # 234 - Monday, December 7, 2015
    1. 80 FR 76152 - National Emission Standards for Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities Risk and Technology Review
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      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
      Final rule.
      This final action is effective on December 7, 2015.
      40 CFR Part 63