40 CFR 63.7525 - What are my monitoring, installation, operation, and maintenance requirements?

Beta! The text on the eCFR tab represents the unofficial eCFR text at ecfr.gov.
§ 63.7525 What are my monitoring, installation, operation, and maintenance requirements?

(a) If your boiler or process heater is subject to a CO emission limit in Tables 1, 2, or 11 through 13 to this subpart, you must install, operate, and maintain an oxygen analyzer system, as defined in § 63.7575, or install, certify, operate and maintain continuous emission monitoring systems for CO and oxygen (or carbon dioxide (CO2)) according to the procedures in paragraphs (a)(1) through (6) of this section.

(1) Install the CO CEMS and oxygen (or CO2) analyzer by the compliance date specified in § 63.7495. The CO and oxygen (or CO2) levels shall be monitored at the same location at the outlet of the boiler or process heater. An owner or operator may request an alternative test method under § 63.7 of this chapter, in order that compliance with the CO emissions limit be determined using CO2 as a diluent correction in place of oxygen at 3 percent. EPA Method 19 F-factors and EPA Method 19 equations must be used to generate the appropriate CO2 correction percentage for the fuel type burned in the unit, and must also take into account that the 3 percent oxygen correction is to be done on a dry basis. The alternative test method request must account for any CO2 being added to, or removed from, the emissions gas stream as a result of limestone injection, scrubber media, etc.

(2) To demonstrate compliance with the applicable alternative CO CEMS emission standard listed in Tables 1, 2, or 11 through 13 to this subpart, you must install, certify, operate, and maintain a CO CEMS and an oxygen analyzer according to the applicable procedures under Performance Specification 4, 4A, or 4B at 40 CFR part 60, appendix B; part 75 of this chapter (if an CO2 analyzer is used); the site-specific monitoring plan developed according to § 63.7505(d); and the requirements in § 63.7540(a)(8) and paragraph (a) of this section. Any boiler or process heater that has a CO CEMS that is compliant with Performance Specification 4, 4A, or 4B at 40 CFR part 60, appendix B, a site-specific monitoring plan developed according to § 63.7505(d), and the requirements in § 63.7540(a)(8) and paragraph (a) of this section must use the CO CEMS to comply with the applicable alternative CO CEMS emission standard listed in Tables 1, 2, or 11 through 13 to this subpart.

(i) You must conduct a performance evaluation of each CO CEMS according to the requirements in § 63.8(e) and according to Performance Specification 4, 4A, or 4B at 40 CFR part 60, appendix B.

(ii) During each relative accuracy test run of the CO CEMS, you must be collect emission data for CO concurrently (or within a 30- to 60-minute period) by both the CO CEMS and by Method 10, 10A, or 10B at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-4. The relative accuracy testing must be at representative operating conditions.

(iii) You must follow the quality assurance procedures (e.g., quarterly accuracy determinations and daily calibration drift tests) of Procedure 1 of appendix F to part 60. The measurement span value of the CO CEMS must be two times the applicable CO emission limit, expressed as a concentration.

(iv) Any CO CEMS that does not comply with § 63.7525(a) cannot be used to meet any requirement in this subpart to demonstrate compliance with a CO emission limit listed in Tables 1, 2, or 11 through 13 to this subpart.

(v) For a new unit, complete the initial performance evaluation no later than July 30, 2013, or 180 days after the date of initial startup, whichever is later. For an existing unit, complete the initial performance evaluation no later than July 29, 2016.

(vi) When CO2 is used to correct CO emissions and CO2 is measured on a wet basis, correct for moisture as follows: Install, operate, maintain, and quality assure a continuous moisture monitoring system for measuring and recording the moisture content of the flue gases, in order to correct the measured hourly volumetric flow rates for moisture when calculating CO concentrations. The following continuous moisture monitoring systems are acceptable: A continuous moisture sensor; an oxygen analyzer (or analyzers) capable of measuring O2 both on a wet basis and on a dry basis; or a stack temperature sensor and a moisture look-up table, i.e., a psychrometric chart (for saturated gas streams following wet scrubbers or other demonstrably saturated gas streams, only). The moisture monitoring system shall include as a component the automated data acquisition and handling system (DAHS) for recording and reporting both the raw data (e.g., hourly average wet-and dry basis O2 values) and the hourly average values of the stack gas moisture content derived from those data. When a moisture look-up table is used, the moisture monitoring system shall be represented as a single component, the certified DAHS, in the monitoring plan for the unit or common stack.

(3) Complete a minimum of one cycle of CO and oxygen (or CO2) CEMS operation (sampling, analyzing, and data recording) for each successive 15-minute period. Collect CO and oxygen (or CO2) data concurrently. Collect at least four CO and oxygen (or CO2) CEMS data values representing the four 15-minute periods in an hour, or at least two 15-minute data values during an hour when CEMS calibration, quality assurance, or maintenance activities are being performed.

(4) Reduce the CO CEMS data as specified in § 63.8(g)(2).

(5) Calculate one-hour arithmetic averages, corrected to 3 percent oxygen (or corrected to an CO2 percentage determined to be equivalent to 3 percent oxygen) from each hour of CO CEMS data in parts per million CO concentration. The one-hour arithmetic averages required shall be used to calculate the 30-day or 10-day rolling average emissions. Use Equation 19-19 in section 12.4.1 of Method 19 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7 for calculating the average CO concentration from the hourly values.

(6) For purposes of collecting CO data, operate the CO CEMS as specified in § 63.7535(b). You must use all the data collected during all periods in calculating data averages and assessing compliance, except that you must exclude certain data as specified in § 63.7535(c). Periods when CO data are unavailable may constitute monitoring deviations as specified in § 63.7535(d).

(7) Operate an oxygen trim system with the oxygen level set no lower than the lowest hourly average oxygen concentration measured during the most recent CO performance test as the operating limit for oxygen according to Table 7 to this subpart.

(b) If your boiler or process heater is in the unit designed to burn coal/solid fossil fuel subcategory or the unit designed to burn heavy liquid subcategory and has an average annual heat input rate greater than 250 MMBtu per hour from solid fossil fuel and/or heavy liquid, and you demonstrate compliance with the PM limit instead of the alternative TSM limit, you must install, maintain, and operate a PM CPMS monitoring emissions discharged to the atmosphere and record the output of the system as specified in paragraphs (b)(1) through (4) of this section. As an alternative to use of a PM CPMS to demonstrate compliance with the PM limit, you may choose to use a PM CEMS. If you choose to use a PM CEMS to demonstrate compliance with the PM limit instead of the alternative TSM limit, you must install, certify, maintain, and operate a PM CEMS monitoring emissions discharged to the atmosphere and record the output of the system as specified in paragraph (b)(5) through (8) of this section. For other boilers or process heaters, you may elect to use a PM CPMS or PM CEMS operated in accordance with this section in lieu of using other CMS for monitoring PM compliance (e.g., bag leak detectors, ESP secondary power, and PM scrubber pressure). Owners of boilers and process heaters who elect to comply with the alternative TSM limit are not required to install a PM CPMS.

(1) Install, operate, and maintain your PM CPMS according to the procedures in your approved site-specific monitoring plan developed in accordance with § 63.7505(d), the requirements in § 63.7540(a)(9), and paragraphs (b)(1)(i) through (iii) of this section.

(i) The operating principle of the PM CPMS must be based on in-stack or extractive light scatter, light scintillation, beta attenuation, or mass accumulation detection of PM in the exhaust gas or representative exhaust gas sample. The reportable measurement output from the PM CPMS must be expressed as milliamps.

(ii) The PM CPMS must have a cycle time (i.e., period required to complete sampling, measurement, and reporting for each measurement) no longer than 60 minutes.

(iii) The PM CPMS must have a documented detection limit of 0.5 milligram per actual cubic meter, or less.

(2) For a new unit, complete the initial performance evaluation no later than July 30, 2013, or 180 days after the date of initial startup, whichever is later. For an existing unit, complete the initial performance evaluation no later than July 29, 2016.

(3) Collect PM CPMS hourly average output data for all boiler or process heater operating hours except as indicated in § 63.7535(a) through (d). Express the PM CPMS output as milliamps.

(4) Calculate the arithmetic 30-day rolling average of all of the hourly average PM CPMS output data collected during all boiler or process heater operating hours (milliamps).

(5) Install, certify, operate, and maintain your PM CEMS according to the procedures in your approved site-specific monitoring plan developed in accordance with § 63.7505(d), the requirements in § 63.7540(a)(9), and paragraphs (b)(5)(i) through (iv) of this section.

(i) You shall conduct a performance evaluation of the PM CEMS according to the applicable requirements of § 60.8(e), and Performance Specification 11 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix B of this chapter.

(ii) During each PM correlation testing run of the CEMS required by Performance Specification 11 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix B of this chapter, you shall collect PM and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) data concurrently (or within a 30-to 60-minute period) by both the CEMS and conducting performance tests using Method 5 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-3 or Method 17 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-6 of this chapter.

(iii) You shall perform quarterly accuracy determinations and daily calibration drift tests in accordance with Procedure 2 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix F of this chapter. You must perform Relative Response Audits annually and perform Response Correlation Audits every 3 years.

(iv) Within 60 days after the date of completing each CEMS relative accuracy test audit or performance test conducted to demonstrate compliance with this subpart, you must submit the relative accuracy test audit data and performance test data to the EPA by successfully submitting the data electronically into the EPA's Central Data Exchange by using the Electronic Reporting Tool (see http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ert/erttool.html/).

(6) For a new unit, complete the initial performance evaluation no later than July 30, 2013, or 180 days after the date of initial startup, whichever is later. For an existing unit, complete the initial performance evaluation no later than July 29, 2016.

(7) Collect PM CEMS hourly average output data for all boiler or process heater operating hours except as indicated in § 63.7535(a) through (d).

(8) Calculate the arithmetic 30-day rolling average of all of the hourly average PM CEMS output data collected during all boiler or process heater operating hours.

(c) If you have an applicable opacity operating limit in this rule, and are not otherwise required or elect to install and operate a PM CPMS, PM CEMS, or a bag leak detection system, you must install, operate, certify and maintain each COMS according to the procedures in paragraphs (c)(1) through (7) of this section by the compliance date specified in § 63.7495.

(1) Each COMS must be installed, operated, and maintained according to Performance Specification 1 at appendix B to part 60 of this chapter.

(2) You must conduct a performance evaluation of each COMS according to the requirements in § 63.8(e) and according to Performance Specification 1 at appendix B to part 60 of this chapter.

(3) As specified in § 63.8(c)(4)(i), each COMS must complete a minimum of one cycle of sampling and analyzing for each successive 10-second period and one cycle of data recording for each successive 6-minute period.

(4) The COMS data must be reduced as specified in § 63.8(g)(2).

(5) You must include in your site-specific monitoring plan procedures and acceptance criteria for operating and maintaining each COMS according to the requirements in § 63.8(d). At a minimum, the monitoring plan must include a daily calibration drift assessment, a quarterly performance audit, and an annual zero alignment audit of each COMS.

(6) You must operate and maintain each COMS according to the requirements in the monitoring plan and the requirements of § 63.8(e). You must identify periods the COMS is out of control including any periods that the COMS fails to pass a daily calibration drift assessment, a quarterly performance audit, or an annual zero alignment audit. Any 6-minute period for which the monitoring system is out of control and data are not available for a required calculation constitutes a deviation from the monitoring requirements.

(7) You must determine and record all the 6-minute averages (and daily block averages as applicable) collected for periods during which the COMS is not out of control.

(d) If you have an operating limit that requires the use of a CMS other than a PM CPMS or COMS, you must install, operate, and maintain each CMS according to the procedures in paragraphs (d)(1) through (5) of this section by the compliance date specified in § 63.7495.

(1) The CPMS must complete a minimum of one cycle of operation every 15-minutes. You must have a minimum of four successive cycles of operation, one representing each of the four 15-minute periods in an hour, to have a valid hour of data.

(2) You must operate the monitoring system as specified in § 63.7535(b), and comply with the data calculation requirements specified in § 63.7535(c).

(3) Any 15-minute period for which the monitoring system is out-of-control and data are not available for a required calculation constitutes a deviation from the monitoring requirements. Other situations that constitute a monitoring deviation are specified in § 63.7535(d).

(4) You must determine the 30-day rolling average of all recorded readings, except as provided in § 63.7535(c).

(5) You must record the results of each inspection, calibration, and validation check.

(e) If you have an operating limit that requires the use of a flow monitoring system, you must meet the requirements in paragraphs (d) and (e)(1) through (4) of this section.

(1) You must install the flow sensor and other necessary equipment in a position that provides a representative flow.

(2) You must use a flow sensor with a measurement sensitivity of no greater than 2 percent of the design flow rate.

(3) You must minimize, consistent with good engineering practices, the effects of swirling flow or abnormal velocity distributions due to upstream and downstream disturbances.

(4) You must conduct a flow monitoring system performance evaluation in accordance with your monitoring plan at the time of each performance test but no less frequently than annually.

(f) If you have an operating limit that requires the use of a pressure monitoring system, you must meet the requirements in paragraphs (d) and (f)(1) through (6) of this section.

(1) Install the pressure sensor(s) in a position that provides a representative measurement of the pressure (e.g., PM scrubber pressure drop).

(2) Minimize or eliminate pulsating pressure, vibration, and internal and external corrosion consistent with good engineering practices.

(3) Use a pressure sensor with a minimum tolerance of 1.27 centimeters of water or a minimum tolerance of 1 percent of the pressure monitoring system operating range, whichever is less.

(4) Perform checks at least once each process operating day to ensure pressure measurements are not obstructed (e.g., check for pressure tap pluggage daily).

(5) Conduct a performance evaluation of the pressure monitoring system in accordance with your monitoring plan at the time of each performance test but no less frequently than annually.

(6) If at any time the measured pressure exceeds the manufacturer's specified maximum operating pressure range, conduct a performance evaluation of the pressure monitoring system in accordance with your monitoring plan and confirm that the pressure monitoring system continues to meet the performance requirements in you monitoring plan. Alternatively, install and verify the operation of a new pressure sensor.

(g) If you have an operating limit that requires a pH monitoring system, you must meet the requirements in paragraphs (d) and (g)(1) through (4) of this section.

(1) Install the pH sensor in a position that provides a representative measurement of scrubber effluent pH.

(2) Ensure the sample is properly mixed and representative of the fluid to be measured.

(3) Calibrate the pH monitoring system in accordance with your monitoring plan and according to the manufacturer's instructions. Clean the pH probe at least once each process operating day. Maintain on-site documentation that your calibration frequency is sufficient to maintain the specified accuracy of your device.

(4) Conduct a performance evaluation (including a two-point calibration with one of the two buffer solutions having a pH within 1 of the pH of the operating limit) of the pH monitoring system in accordance with your monitoring plan at the time of each performance test but no less frequently than annually.

(h) If you have an operating limit that requires a secondary electric power monitoring system for an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) operated with a wet scrubber, you must meet the requirements in paragraphs (h)(1) and (2) of this section.

(1) Install sensors to measure (secondary) voltage and current to the precipitator collection plates.

(2) Conduct a performance evaluation of the electric power monitoring system in accordance with your monitoring plan at the time of each performance test but no less frequently than annually.

(i) If you have an operating limit that requires the use of a monitoring system to measure sorbent injection rate (e.g., weigh belt, weigh hopper, or hopper flow measurement device), you must meet the requirements in paragraphs (d) and (i)(1) through (2) of this section.

(1) Install the system in a position(s) that provides a representative measurement of the total sorbent injection rate.

(2) Conduct a performance evaluation of the sorbent injection rate monitoring system in accordance with your monitoring plan at the time of each performance test but no less frequently than annually.

(j) If you are not required to use a PM CPMS and elect to use a fabric filter bag leak detection system to comply with the requirements of this subpart, you must install, calibrate, maintain, and continuously operate the bag leak detection system as specified in paragraphs (j)(1) through (6) of this section.

(1) You must install a bag leak detection sensor(s) in a position(s) that will be representative of the relative or absolute PM loadings for each exhaust stack, roof vent, or compartment (e.g., for a positive pressure fabric filter) of the fabric filter.

(2) Conduct a performance evaluation of the bag leak detection system in accordance with your monitoring plan and consistent with the guidance provided in EPA-454/R-98-015 (incorporated by reference, see § 63.14).

(3) Use a bag leak detection system certified by the manufacturer to be capable of detecting PM emissions at concentrations of 10 milligrams per actual cubic meter or less.

(4) Use a bag leak detection system equipped with a device to record continuously the output signal from the sensor.

(5) Use a bag leak detection system equipped with a system that will alert plant operating personnel when an increase in relative PM emissions over a preset level is detected. The alert must easily recognizable (e.g., heard or seen) by plant operating personnel.

(6) Where multiple bag leak detectors are required, the system's instrumentation and alert may be shared among detectors.

(k) For each unit that meets the definition of limited-use boiler or process heater, you must keep fuel use records for the days the boiler or process heater was operating.

(l) For each unit for which you decide to demonstrate compliance with the mercury or HCl emissions limits in Tables 1 or 2 or 11 through 13 of this subpart by use of a CEMS for mercury or HCl, you must install, certify, maintain, and operate a CEMS measuring emissions discharged to the atmosphere and record the output of the system as specified in paragraphs (l)(1) through (8) of this section. For HCl, this option for an affected unit takes effect on the date a final performance specification for a HCl CEMS is published in the Federal Register or the date of approval of a site-specific monitoring plan.

(1) Notify the Administrator one month before starting use of the CEMS, and notify the Administrator one month before stopping use of the CEMS.

(2) Each CEMS shall be installed, certified, operated, and maintained according to the requirements in § 63.7540(a)(14) for a mercury CEMS and § 63.7540(a)(15) for a HCl CEMS.

(3) For a new unit, you must complete the initial performance evaluation of the CEMS by the latest of the dates specified in paragraph (l)(3)(i) through (iii) of this section.

(i) No later than July 30, 2013.

(ii) No later 180 days after the date of initial startup.

(iii) No later 180 days after notifying the Administrator before starting to use the CEMS in place of performance testing or fuel analysis to demonstrate compliance.

(4) For an existing unit, you must complete the initial performance evaluation by the latter of the two dates specified in paragraph (l)(4)(i) and (ii) of this section.

(i) No later than July 29, 2016.

(ii) No later 180 days after notifying the Administrator before starting to use the CEMS in place of performance testing or fuel analysis to demonstrate compliance.

(5) Compliance with the applicable emissions limit shall be determined based on the 30-day rolling average of the hourly arithmetic average emissions rates using the continuous monitoring system outlet data. The 30-day rolling arithmetic average emission rate (lb/MMBtu) shall be calculated using the equations in EPA Reference Method 19 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7, but substituting the mercury or HCl concentration for the pollutant concentrations normally used in Method 19.

(6) Collect CEMS hourly averages for all operating hours on a 30-day rolling average basis. Collect at least four CMS data values representing the four 15-minute periods in an hour, or at least two 15-minute data values during an hour when CMS calibration, quality assurance, or maintenance activities are being performed.

(7) The one-hour arithmetic averages required shall be expressed in lb/MMBtu and shall be used to calculate the boiler 30-day and 10-day rolling average emissions.

(8) You are allowed to substitute the use of the PM, mercury or HCl CEMS for the applicable fuel analysis, annual performance test, and operating limits specified in Table 4 to this subpart to demonstrate compliance with the PM, mercury or HCl emissions limit, and if you are using an acid gas wet scrubber or dry sorbent injection control technology to comply with the HCl emission limit, you are allowed to substitute the use of a sulfur dioxide (SO2) CEMS for the applicable fuel analysis, annual performance test, and operating limits specified in Table 4 to this subpart to demonstrate compliance with HCl emissions limit.

(m) If your unit is subject to a HCl emission limit in Tables 1, 2, or 11 through 13 of this subpart and you have an acid gas wet scrubber or dry sorbent injection control technology and you elect to use an SO2 CEMS to demonstrate continuous compliance with the HCl emission limit, you must install the monitor at the outlet of the boiler or process heater, downstream of all emission control devices, and you must install, certify, operate, and maintain the CEMS according to either part 60 or part 75 of this chapter.

(1) The SO2 CEMS must be installed by the compliance date specified in § 63.7495.

(2) For on-going quality assurance (QA), the SO2 CEMS must meet either the applicable daily and quarterly requirements in Procedure 1 of appendix F of part 60 or the applicable daily, quarterly, and semiannual or annual requirements in sections 2.1 through 2.3 of appendix B to part 75 of this chapter, with the following addition: You must perform the linearity checks required in section 2.2 of appendix B to part 75 of this chapter if the SO2 CEMS has a span value of 30 ppm or less.

(3) For a new unit, the initial performance evaluation shall be completed no later than July 30, 2013, or 180 days after the date of initial startup, whichever is later. For an existing unit, the initial performance evaluation shall be completed no later than July 29, 2016.

(4) For purposes of collecting SO2 data, you must operate the SO2 CEMS as specified in § 63.7535(b). You must use all the data collected during all periods in calculating data averages and assessing compliance, except that you must exclude certain data as specified in § 63.7535(c). Periods when SO2 data are unavailable may constitute monitoring deviations as specified in § 63.7535(d).

(5) Collect CEMS hourly averages for all operating hours on a 30-day rolling average basis.

(6) Use only unadjusted, quality-assured SO2 concentration values in the emissions calculations; do not apply bias adjustment factors to the part 75 SO2 data and do not use part 75 substitute data values.

[76 FR 15664, Mar. 21, 2011, as amended at 78 FR 7171, Jan. 31, 2013; 80 FR 72810, Nov. 20, 2015]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code

Title 40 published on 2015-07-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 40 CFR Part 63 after this date.

  • 2015-12-07; vol. 80 # 234 - Monday, December 7, 2015
    1. 80 FR 76152 - National Emission Standards for Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities Risk and Technology Review
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
      Final rule.
      This final action is effective on December 7, 2015.
      40 CFR Part 63