40 CFR 63.848 - Emission monitoring requirements.

§ 63.848 Emission monitoring requirements.
(a) TF emissions from potlines. Using the procedures in § 63.847 and in the approved test plan, the owner or operator shall monitor emissions of TF from each potline by conducting monthly performance tests. The owner or operator shall compute and record the monthly average from at least three runs for secondary emissions and the previous 12-month average of all runs for the primary control system to determine compliance with the applicable emission limit. The owner or operator must include all valid runs in the monthly average. The duration of each run for secondary emissions must represent a complete operating cycle.
(b) POM emissions from Soderberg potlines. Using the procedures in § 63.847 and in the approved test plan, the owner or operator shall monitor emissions of POM from each Soderberg (HSS, VSS1, and VSS2) potline every three months. The owner or operator shall compute and record the quarterly (3-month) average from at least one run per month for secondary emissions and the previous 12-month average of all runs for the primary control systems to determine compliance with the applicable emission limit. The owner or operator must include all valid runs in the quarterly (3-month) average. The duration of each run for secondary emissions must represent a complete operating cycle. The primary control system must be sampled over an 8-hour period, unless site-specific factors dictate an alternative sampling time subject to the approval of the regulatory authority.
(c) TF and POM emissions from anode bake furnaces. Using the procedures in § 63.847 and in the approved test plan, the owner or operator shall monitor TF and POM emissions from each anode bake furnace on an annual basis. The owner or operator shall compute and record the annual average of TF and POM emissions from at least three runs to determine compliance with the applicable emission limits. The owner or operator must include all valid runs in the annual average.
(d) Similar potlines. As an alternative to monthly monitoring of TF or POM secondary emissions from each potline using the test methods in § 63.849, the owner or operator may perform monthly monitoring of TF or POM secondary emissions from one potline using the test methods in §§ 63.849 (a) or (b) to represent the performance of similar potline(s). The similar potline(s) shall be monitored using an alternative method that meets the requirements of paragraphs (d)(1) through (d)(7) of this section. Two or more potlines are similar if the owner or operator demonstrates that their structure, operability, type of emissions, volume of emissions, and concentration of emissions are substantially equivalent.
(1) To demonstrate (to the satisfaction of the regulatory authority) that the level of emission control performance is the same or better, the owner or operator shall perform an emission test using an alternative monitoring procedure for the similar potline simultaneously with an emission test using the applicable test methods. The results of the emission test using the applicable test methods must be in compliance with the applicable emission limit for existing or new potlines in § 63.843 or § 63.844. An alternative method:
(i) For TF emissions, must account for or include gaseous fluoride and cannot be based on measurement of particulate matter or particulate fluoride alone; and
(ii) For TF and POM emissions, must meet or exceed Method 14 criteria.
(2) An HF continuous emission monitoring system is an approved alternative for the monitoring of TF secondary emissions.
(3) An owner or operator electing to use an alternative monitoring procedure shall establish an alternative emission limit based on at least nine simultaneous runs using the applicable test methods and the alternative monitoring method. All runs must represent a full process cycle.
(4) The owner or operator shall derive an alternative emission limit for the HF continuous emission monitor or an alternative method using either of the following procedures:
(i) Use the highest value from the alternative method associated with a simultaneous run by the applicable test method that does not exceed the applicable emission limit; or
(ii) Correlate the results of the two methods (the applicable test method results and the alternative monitoring method results) and establish an emission limit for the alternative monitoring system that corresponds to the applicable emission limit.
(5) The owner or operator shall submit the results required in paragraph (d)(4) of this section and all supporting documentation to the applicable regulatory authority for review and approval.
(6) The regulatory authority shall review and approve or disapprove the request for an alternative method and alternative emission limit. The criterion for approval shall be a demonstration (to the satisfaction of the regulatory authority) that the alternative method and alternative emission limit achieve a level of emission control that is the same as or better than the level that would have otherwise been achieved by the applicable method and emission limit.
(7) If the alternative method is approved by the applicable regulatory authority, the owner or operator shall perform monthly emission monitoring using the approved alternative monitoring procedure to demonstrate compliance with the alternative emission limit for each similar potline.
(e) Reduced sampling frequency. The owner or operator may submit a written request to the applicable regulatory authority to establish an alternative testing requirement to reduce the sampling of secondary TF emissions from potlines from monthly to quarterly.
(1) In the request, the owner or operator shall provide information and data demonstrating, to the satisfaction of the applicable regulatory authority, that secondary emissions of TF from potlines have low variability during normal operations using the procedures in paragraphs (e)(1)(i) or (e)(1)(ii) of this section.
(i) Submit data from 24 consecutive months of sampling that show the average TF emissions are less than 60 percent of the applicable limit and that no monthly performance test in the 24 months of sampling exceeds 75 percent of the applicable limit; or
(ii) Submit data and a statistical analysis that the regulatory authority may evaluate based on the approach used in “Primary Aluminum: Statistical Analysis of Potline Fluoride Emissions and Alternative Sampling Frequency” (EPA-450-86-012, October 1986), which is available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161.
(2) An approved alternative requirement must include a test schedule and the method to be used to measure emissions for performance tests.
(3) The owner or operator of a plant that has received approval of an alternative sampling frequency under § 60.194 of this chapter is deemed to have approval of the alternative sampling frequency under this subpart.
(4) If emissions in excess of the applicable TF limit occur while performing quarterly sampling approved under paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this section, the owner or operator shall return to monthly sampling for at least 12 months and may reduce to quarterly sampling when:
(i) The average of all tests performed over the most recent 24-month period does not exceed 60 percent of the applicable limit, and
(ii) No more than one monthly performance test in the most recent 24-month period exceeds 75 percent of the applicable limit.
(5) If emissions in excess of the applicable TF limit occur while performing quarterly sampling approved under paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section, the owner or operator shall immediately return to the monthly sampling schedule required by paragraph (a) of this section until another request for an alternative sampling frequency is approved by the applicable regulatory authority.
(f) Monitoring parameters for emission control devices. The owner or operator shall install, operate, calibrate, and maintain a continuous parameter monitoring system for each emission control device. The owner or operator shall submit for approval by the regulatory authority a description of the parameter(s) to be monitored, the operating limits, and the monitoring frequency to ensure that the control device is being properly operated and maintained. An explanation of the criteria used for selection of the parameter(s), the operating limits, and the monitoring frequency, including how these relate to emission control also shall be submitted to the regulatory authority. Except as provided in paragraph (l) of this section, the following monitoring devices shall be installed:
(1) For dry alumina scrubbers, devices for the measurement of alumina flow and air flow;
(2) For dry coke scrubbers, devices for the measurement of coke flow and air flow;
(3) For wet scrubbers as the primary control system, devices for the measurement of water flow and air flow;
(4) For electrostatic precipitators, devices for the measurement of voltage and secondary current; and
(5) For wet roof scrubbers for secondary emission control:
(i) A device for the measurement of total water flow; and
(ii) The owner or operator shall inspect each control device at least once each operating day to ensure the control device is operating properly and record the results of each inspection.
(g) Visible emissions. The owner or operator shall visually inspect the exhaust stack(s) of each control device on a daily basis for evidence of any visible emissions indicating abnormal operation.
(h) Corrective action. If a monitoring device for a primary control device measures an operating parameter outside the limit(s) established pursuant to § 63.847(h), if visible emissions indicating abnormal operation are observed from the exhaust stack of a control device during a daily inspection, or if a problem is detected during the daily inspection of a wet roof scrubber for potline secondary emission control, the owner or operator shall initiate corrective action procedures within 1 hour. Failure to initiate the corrective action procedures within 1 hour or to take the necessary corrective actions to remedy the problem is a violation.
(i) Exceedances. If the limit for a given operating parameter associated with monitoring a specific control device is exceeded six times in any semiannual reporting period, then any subsequent exceedance in that reporting period is a violation. For the purpose of determining the number of exceedances, no more than one exceedance shall be attributed in any given 24-hour period.
(j) Weight of aluminum and green anodes. The owner or operator of a new or existing potline or anode bake furnace shall install, operate, and maintain a monitoring device to determine the daily weight of aluminum produced and the weight of green anode material placed in the anode bake furnace. The weight of green anode material may be determined by monitoring the weight of all anodes or by monitoring the number of anodes placed in the furnace and determining an average weight from measurements of a representative sample of anodes.
(k) Accuracy and calibration. The owner or operator shall submit recommended accuracy requirements to the regulatory authority for review and approval. All monitoring devices required by this section must be certified by the owner or operator to meet the accuracy requirements and must be calibrated in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
(l) Alternative operating parameters. The owner or operator may monitor alternative control device operating parameters subject to prior written approval by the applicable regulatory authority.
(m) Other control systems. An owner or operator using a control system not identified in this section shall request that the applicable regulatory authority include the recommended parameters for monitoring in the facility's part 70 permit.
[62 FR 52407, Oct. 7, 1997, as amended at 71 FR 20458, Apr. 20, 2006]
Beta! The text on the eCFR tab represents the unofficial eCFR text at ecfr.gov.
§ 63.848 Emission monitoring requirements.

(a) TF and PM emissions from potlines. Using the procedures in § 63.847 and in the approved test plan, the owner or operator shall monitor emissions of TF and PM from each potline by conducting annual performance tests on the primary control system and semiannual performance tests on the secondary emissions. The owner or operator shall compute and record the average semiannually from at least three runs for secondary emissions and the average from at least three runs for the primary control system to determine compliance with the applicable emission limit. The owner or operator must include all valid runs in the semiannual average. The duration of each run for secondary emissions must represent a complete operating cycle. Potline emissions shall be recorded as the sum of the average of at least three runs from the primary control system and the average of at least three runs from the roof monitor or secondary emissions control device.

(b) POM emissions from potlines. Using the procedures in § 63.847 and in the approved test plan, the owner or operator must monitor emissions of POM from each potline stack annually and secondary potline POM emissions semiannually. The owner or operator must compute and record the semiannual average from at least three runs for secondary emissions and at least three runs for the primary control systems to determine compliance with the applicable emission limit. The owner or operator must include all valid runs in the semiannual average. The duration of each run for secondary emissions must represent a complete operating cycle. The primary control system must be sampled over an 8-hour period, unless site-specific factors dictate an alternative sampling time subject to the approval of the regulatory authority. Potline emissions shall be recorded as the sum of the average of at least three runs from the primary control system and the average of at least three runs from the roof monitor or secondary emissions control device.

(c) TF, PM, Hg and POM emissions from anode bake furnaces. Using the procedures in § 63.847 and in the approved test plan, the owner or operator shall determine TF, PM, Hg and POM emissions from each anode bake furnace on an annual basis. The owner or operator shall compute and record the annual average of TF, PM, Hg and POM emissions from at least three runs to determine compliance with the applicable emission limits. A minimum of four dscm per run must be collected for monitoring of Hg emissions. The owner or operator must include all valid runs in the annual average.

(d) Similar potlines. As an alternative to semiannual monitoring of TF, POM or PM secondary emissions from each potline using the methods in § 63.849, the owner or operator may perform semiannual monitoring of TF, POM or PM secondary emissions from one potline using the test methods in § 63.849(a) or (b) to represent the performance of similar potline(s). The similar potline(s) must be monitored using an alternative method that meets the requirements of paragraphs (d)(1) through (7) of this section. Two or more potlines are similar if the owner or operator demonstrates that their structure, operability, type of emissions, volume of emissions and concentration of emissions are substantially equivalent.

(1) To demonstrate (to the satisfaction of the regulatory authority) that the level of emission control performance is the same or better, the owner or operator shall perform an emission test using an alternative monitoring procedure for the similar potline simultaneously with an emission test using the applicable test methods. The results of the emission test using the applicable test methods must be in compliance with the applicable emission limit for existing or new potlines in § 63.843 or § 63.844. An alternative method:

(i) For TF emissions, must account for or include gaseous fluoride and cannot be based on measurement of particulate matter or particulate fluoride alone; and

(ii) For TF, POM and PM emissions, must meet or exceed Method 14 criteria.

(2) An HF continuous emission monitoring system is an approved alternative for the monitoring of TF secondary emissions.

(3) An owner or operator electing to use an alternative monitoring procedure shall establish an alternative emission limit based on at least nine simultaneous runs using the applicable test methods and the alternative monitoring method. All runs must represent a full process cycle.

(4) The owner or operator shall derive an alternative emission limit for the HF continuous emission monitor or an alternative method using either of the following procedures:

(i) Use the highest value from the alternative method associated with a simultaneous run by the applicable test method that does not exceed the applicable emission limit; or

(ii) Correlate the results of the two methods (the applicable test method results and the alternative monitoring method results) and establish an emission limit for the alternative monitoring system that corresponds to the applicable emission limit.

(5) The owner or operator shall submit the results required in paragraph (d)(4) of this section and all supporting documentation to the applicable regulatory authority for review and approval.

(6) The regulatory authority shall review and approve or disapprove the request for an alternative method and alternative emission limit. The criterion for approval shall be a demonstration (to the satisfaction of the regulatory authority) that the alternative method and alternative emission limit achieve a level of emission control that is the same as or better than the level that would have otherwise been achieved by the applicable method and emission limit.

(7) If the alternative method is approved by the applicable regulatory authority, the owner or operator must perform semiannual emission monitoring using the approved alternative monitoring procedure to demonstrate compliance with the alternative emission limit for each similar potline.

(e) [Reserved]

(f) Monitoring parameters for emission control devices. The owner or operator shall install, operate, calibrate, and maintain a continuous parameter monitoring system for each emission control device. The owner or operator shall submit for approval by the regulatory authority a description of the parameter(s) to be monitored, the operating limits, and the monitoring frequency to ensure that the control device is being properly operated and maintained. An explanation of the criteria used for selection of the parameter(s), the operating limits, and the monitoring frequency, including how these relate to emission control also shall be submitted to the regulatory authority. Except as provided in paragraph (l) of this section, the following monitoring devices shall be installed:

(1) For dry alumina scrubbers, devices for the measurement of alumina flow and air flow;

(2) For dry coke scrubbers, devices for the measurement of coke flow and air flow;

(3) For wet scrubbers as the primary control system, devices for the measurement of water flow and air flow;

(4) For electrostatic precipitators, devices for the measurement of voltage and secondary current; and

(5) For wet roof scrubbers for secondary emission control:

(i) A device for the measurement of total water flow; and

(ii) The owner or operator shall inspect each control device at least once each operating day to ensure the control device is operating properly and record the results of each inspection.

(6) For emission sources control device exhaust streams for which the owner or operator chooses to demonstrate continuous compliance through bag leak detection systems you must install and operate a bag leak detection system according to the requirements in paragraph (o) of this section, and you must set your operating limit such that the sum of the durations of bag leak detection system alarms does not exceed 5 percent of the process operating time during a 6-month period.

(7) For emission sources control device exhaust streams for which the owner or operator chooses to demonstrate continuous compliance through a PM CEMS, you must install and operate a PM CEMS according to the requirements in paragraph (p) of this section. You must determine continuous compliance averaged on a rolling 30 operating day basis, updated at the end of each new operating day. All valid hours of data from 30 successive operating days shall be included in the arithmetic average. Compliance is demonstrated when the 30 operating day PM emissions are equal to or less than the applicable emission limits in § 63.843, § 63.844, or § 63.846.

(g) The owner or operator of a new or reconstructed affected source that is subject to a PM limit shall comply with the requirements of either paragraph (f)(6) or (7) of this section. The owner or operator of an existing affected source that is equipped with a control device and is subject to a PM limit shall:

(1) Install and operate a bag leak detection system in accordance with paragraph (f)(6) of this section; or

(2) Install and operate a PM CEMS in accordance with paragraph (f)(7) of this section; or

(3) Visually inspect the exhaust stack(s) of each fabric filter using Method 22 on a twice daily basis (at least 4 hours apart) for evidence of any visible emissions indicating abnormal operations and, must initiate corrective actions within 1 hour of a visible emissions inspection that indicates abnormal operation. Corrective actions shall include, at a minimum, isolating, shutting down and conducting an internal inspection of the baghouse compartment that is the source of the visible emissions that indicate abnormal operations.

(h) Corrective action. If a monitoring device for a primary control device measures an operating parameter outside the limit(s) established pursuant to § 63.847(h), if visible emissions indicating abnormal operation are observed from the exhaust stack of a control device during a daily inspection, or if a problem is detected during the daily inspection of a wet roof scrubber for potline secondary emission control, the owner or operator shall initiate corrective action procedures within 1 hour. Failure to initiate the corrective action procedures within 1 hour or to take the necessary corrective actions to remedy the problem is a violation.

(i) Exceedances. If the limit for a given operating parameter associated with monitoring a specific control device is exceeded six times in any semiannual reporting period, then any subsequent exceedance in that reporting period is a violation. For the purpose of determining the number of exceedances, no more than one exceedance shall be attributed in any given 24-hour period.

(j) Weight of aluminum and green anodes. The owner or operator of a new or existing potline or anode bake furnace shall install, operate, and maintain a monitoring device to determine the daily weight of aluminum produced and the weight of green anode material placed in the anode bake furnace. The weight of green anode material may be determined by monitoring the weight of all anodes or by monitoring the number of anodes placed in the furnace and determining an average weight from measurements of a representative sample of anodes.

(k) Accuracy and calibration. The owner or operator shall submit recommended accuracy requirements to the regulatory authority for review and approval. All monitoring devices required by this section must be certified by the owner or operator to meet the accuracy requirements and must be calibrated in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

(l) Alternative operating parameters. The owner or operator may monitor alternative control device operating parameters subject to prior written approval by the applicable regulatory authority.

(m) Other control systems. An owner or operator using a control system not identified in this section shall request that the applicable regulatory authority include the recommended parameters for monitoring in the facility's part 70 permit.

(n) PM emissions from paste production plants. Using the procedures in § 63.847 and in the approved test plan, the owner or operator shall monitor PM emissions from each paste production plant on an annual basis. The owner or operator shall compute and record the annual average of PM emissions from at least three runs to determine compliance with the applicable emission limits. The owner or operator must include all valid runs in the annual average.

(o) Bag leak detection system. For each new affected source subject to a PM emissions limit, you must install, operate and maintain a bag leak detection system according to paragraphs (o)(1) through (3) of this section, unless a system meeting the requirements of paragraph (p) of this section, for a CEMS, is installed for monitoring the concentration of PM.

(1) You must develop and implement written procedures for control device maintenance that include, at a minimum, a preventative maintenance schedule that is consistent with the control device manufacturer's instructions for routine and long-term maintenance.

(2) Each bag leak detection system must meet the specifications and requirements in paragraphs (o)(2)(i) through (viii) of this section.

(i) The bag leak detection system must be certified by the manufacturer to be capable of detecting PM emissions at concentrations of 1.0 milligram per dry standard cubic meter (0.00044 grains per actual cubic foot) or less.

(ii) The bag leak detection system sensor must provide output of relative PM loadings.

(iii) The bag leak detection system must be equipped with an alarm system that will alarm when an increase in relative particulate loadings is detected over a preset level.

(iv) You must install, calibrate, operate and maintain the bag leak detection system according to the manufacturer's written specifications and recommendations.

(v) The initial adjustment of the system must, at a minimum, consist of establishing the baseline output by adjusting the sensitivity (range) and the averaging period of the device and establishing the alarm set points and the alarm delay time.

(vi) Following initial adjustment, you must not adjust the sensitivity or range, averaging period, alarm set points, or alarm delay time, except in accordance with the procedures developed under paragraph (o)(1) of this section. You cannot increase the sensitivity by more than 100 percent or decrease the sensitivity by more than 50 percent over a 365-day period unless such adjustment follows a complete PM control device inspection that demonstrates that the PM control device is in good operating condition.

(vii) You must install the bag leak detector downstream of the PM control device.

(viii) Where multiple detectors are required, the system's instrumentation and alarm may be shared among detectors.

(3) You must include in the written procedures required by paragraph (o)(1) of this section a corrective action plan that specifies the procedures to be followed in the case of a bag leak detection system alarm. The corrective action plan must include, at a minimum, the procedures that you will use to determine and record the time and cause of the alarm as well as the corrective actions taken to minimize emissions as specified in paragraphs (o)(3)(i) and (ii) of this section.

(i) The procedures used to determine the cause of the alarm must be initiated within 1 hour of the alarm.

(ii) The cause of the alarm must be alleviated by taking the necessary corrective action(s) that may include, but not be limited to, those listed in paragraphs (o)(3)(ii)(A) through (F) of this section.

(A) Inspecting the PM control device for air leaks, torn or broken filter elements, or any other malfunction that may cause an increase in emissions.

(B) Sealing off defective bags or filter media.

(C) Replacing defective bags or filter media, or otherwise repairing the control device.

(D) Sealing off a defective baghouse compartment.

(E) Cleaning the bag leak detection system probe, or otherwise repairing the bag leak detection system.

(F) Shutting down the process producing the particulate emissions.

(p) Particulate Matter CEMS. If you are using a CEMS to measure particulate matter emissions to meet requirements of this subpart, you must install, certify, operate and maintain the particulate matter CEMS as specified in paragraphs (p)(1) through (4) of this section.

(1) You must conduct a performance evaluation of the PM CEMS according to the applicable requirements of § 60.13, and Performance Specification 11 at 40 CFR part 60, Appendix B of this chapter.

(2) During each PM correlation testing run of the CEMS required by Performance Specification 11 at 40 CFR part 60, Appendix B of this chapter, collect data concurrently by both the CEMS and by conducting performance tests using Method 5, 5D or 5I at 40 CFR part 60, Appendix A-3.

(3) Operate and maintain the CEMS in accordance with Procedure 2 at 40 CFR part 60, Appendix F of this chapter. Relative Response Audits must be performed annually and Response Correlation Audits must be performed every three years.

[62 FR 52407, Oct. 7, 1997, as amended at 71 FR 20458, Apr. 20, 2006; 80 FR 62420, Oct. 15, 2015]

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United States Code

Title 40 published on 2015-07-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 40 CFR Part 63 after this date.

  • 2015-12-07; vol. 80 # 234 - Monday, December 7, 2015
    1. 80 FR 76152 - National Emission Standards for Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities Risk and Technology Review
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      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
      Final rule.
      This final action is effective on December 7, 2015.
      40 CFR Part 63