40 CFR § 761.30 - Authorizations.

§ 761.30 Authorizations.

The following non-totally enclosed PCB activities are authorized pursuant to section 6(e)(2)(B) of TSCA:

(a) Use in and servicing of transformers (other than railroad transformers). PCBs at any concentration may be used in transformers (other than in railroad locomotives and self-propelled railroad cars) and may be used for purposes of servicing including rebuilding these transformers for the remainder of their useful lives, subject to the following conditions:

(1) Use conditions.

(i) As of October 1, 1985, the use and storage for reuse of PCB Transformers that pose an exposure risk to food or feed is prohibited.

(ii) As of October 1, 1990, the use of network PCB Transformers with higher secondary voltages (secondary voltages equal to or greater than 480 volts, including 480/277 volt systems) in or near commercial buildings is prohibited. Network PCB Transformers with higher secondary voltages which are removed from service in accordance with this requirement must either be reclassified to PCB Contaminated or non PCB status, placed into storage for disposal, or disposed.

(iii) Except as otherwise provided, as of October 1, 1985, the installation of PCB Transformers, which have been placed into storage for reuse or which have been removed from another location, in or near commercial buildings is prohibited.

(A) Retrofilled mineral oil PCB Transformers may be installed for reclassification purposes indefinitely after October 1, 1990.

(B) Once a retrofilled transformer has been installed for reclassification purposes, it must be tested 3 months after installation to ascertain the concentration of PCBs. If the PCB concentration is below 50 ppm, the transformer can be reclassified as a non-PCB Transformer. If the PCB concentration is between 50 and 500 ppm, the transformer can be reclassified as a PCB-Contaminated transformer. If the PCB concentration remains at 500 ppm or greater, the entire process must either be repeated until the transformer has been reclassified to a non-PCB or PCB-Contaminated transformer in accordance with paragraph (a)(2)(v) of this section or the transformer must be removed from service.

(iv) As of October 1, 1990, all higher secondary voltage radial PCB Transformers, in use in or near commercial buildings, and lower secondary voltage network PCB Transformers not located in sidewalk vaults in or near commercial buildings (network transformers with secondary voltages below 480 volts) that have not been removed from service as provided in paragraph (a)(1)(iv)(B) of this section, must be equipped with electrical protection to avoid transformer ruptures caused by high current faults. As of February 25, 1991, all lower secondary voltage radial PCB Transformers, in use in or near commercial buildings, must be equipped with electrical protection to avoid transformer ruptures caused by high current faults.

(A) Current-limiting fuses or other equivalent technology must be used to detect sustained high current faults and provide for the complete deenergization of the transformer (within several hundredths of a second in the case of higher secondary voltage radial PCB Transformers and within tenths of a second in the case of lower secondary voltage network PCB Transformers), before transformer rupture occurs. Lower secondary voltage radial PCB Transformers must be equipped with electrical protection as provided in paragraph (a)(1)(iv)(E) of this section. The installation, setting, and maintenance of current-limiting fuses or other equivalent technology to avoid PCB Transformer ruptures from sustained high current faults must be completed in accordance with good engineering practices.

(B) All lower secondary voltage network PCB Transformers not located in sidewalk vaults (network transformers with secondary voltages below 480 volts), in use in or near commercial buildings, which have not been protected as specified in paragraph (a)(1)(iv)(A) of this section by October 1, 1990, must be removed from service by October 1, 1993.

(C) As of October 1, 1990, owners of lower secondary voltage network PCB Transformers, in use in or near commercial buildings which have not been protected as specified in paragraph (a)(1)(iv)(A) of this section and which are not located in sidewalk vaults, must register in writing those transformers with the EPA Regional Administrator in the appropriate region. The information required to be provided in writing to the Regional Administrator includes:

(1) The specific location of the PCB Transformer(s).

(2) The address(es) of the building(s) and the physical location of the PCB Transformer(s) on the building site(s).

(3) The identification number(s) of the PCB Transformer(s).

(D) As of October 1, 1993, all lower secondary voltage network PCB Transformers located in sidewalk vaults (network transformers with secondary voltages below 480 volts) in use near commercial buildings must be removed from service.

(E) As of February 25, 1991, all lower secondary voltage radial PCB Transformers must be equipped with electrical protection, such as current-limiting fuses or other equivalent technology, to detect sustained high current faults and provide for the complete deenergization of the transformer or complete deenergization of the faulted phase of the transformer within several hundredths of a second. The installation, setting, and maintenance of current-limiting fuses or other equivalent technology to avoid PCB Transformer ruptures from sustained high current faults must be completed in accordance with good engineering practices.

(v) As of October 1, 1990, all radial PCB Transformers with higher secondary voltages (480 volts and above, including 480/277 volt systems) in use in or near commercial buildings must, in addition to the requirements of paragraph (a)(1)(iv)(A) of this section, be equipped with protection to avoid transformer ruptures caused by sustained low current faults.

(A) Pressure and temperature sensors (or other equivalent technology which has been demonstrated to be effective in early detection of sustained low current faults) must be used in these transformers to detect sustained low current faults.

(B) Disconnect equipment must be provided to insure complete deenergization of the transformer in the event of a sensed abnormal condition (e.g., an overpressure or overtemperature condition in the transformer), caused by a sustained low current fault. The disconnect equipment must be configured to operate automatically within 30 seconds to 1 minute of the receipt of a signal indicating an abnormal condition from a sustained low current fault, or can be configured to allow for manual deenergization from a manned on-site control center upon the receipt of an audio or visual signal indicating an abnormal condition caused by a sustained low current fault. Manual deenergization from a manned on-site control center must occur within 1 minute of the receipt of the audio or visual signal indicating an abnormal condition caused by a sustained low current fault. If automatic operation is selected and a circuit breaker is utilized for disconnection, it must also have the capability to be manually opened if necessary.

(C) The enhanced electrical protective system required for the detection of sustained low current faults and the complete and rapid deenergization of transformers must be properly installed, maintained, and set sensitive enough (in accordance with good engineering practices) to detect sustained low current faults and allow for rapid and total deenergization prior to PCB Transformer rupture (either violent or non violent rupture) and release of PCBs.

(vi)

(A) No later than December 28, 1998 all owners of PCB Transformers, including those in storage for reuse, must register their transformers with the Environmental Protection Agency, National Program Chemicals Division, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (7404), 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460. This registration requirement is subject to the limitations in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(1) A transformer owner who assumes a transformer is a PCB-Contaminated transformer, and discovers after December 28, 1998 that it is a PCB-Transformer, must register the newly-identified PCB Transformer, in writing, with the Environmental Protection Agency no later than 30 days after it is identified as such. This requirement does not apply to transformer owners who have previously registered with the EPA PCB Transformers located at the same address as the transformer that they assumed to be PCB-Contaminated and later determined to be a PCB Transformer.

(2) A person who takes possession of a PCB Transformer after December 28, 1998 is not required to register or re-register the transformer with the EPA.

(B) Any person submitting a registration under this section must include:

(1) Company name and address.

(2) Contact name and telephone number.

(3) Address where these transformers are located. For mobile sources such as ships, provide the name of the ship.

(4) Number of PCB Transformers and the total weight in kilograms of PCBs contained in the transformers.

(5) Whether any transformers at this location contain flammable dielectric fluid (optional).

(6) Signature of the owner, operator, or other authorized representative certifying the accuracy of the information submitted.

(C) A transformer owner must retain a record of each PCB Transformer's registration (e.g., a copy of the registration and the return receipt signed by EPA) with the inspection and maintenance records required for each PCB Transformer under paragraph (a)(1)(xii)(I) of this section.

(D) A transformer owner must comply with all requirements of paragraph (a)(1)(vi)(A) of this section to continue the PCB-Transformer's authorization for use, or storage for reuse, pursuant to this section and TSCA section 6(e)(2)(B).

(vii) As of December 1, 1985, PCB Transformers in use in or near commercial buildings must be registered with building owners. For PCB Transformers located in commercial buildings, PCB Transformer owners must register the transformers with the building owner of record. For PCB Transformers located near commercial buildings, PCB Transformer owners must register the transformers with all owners of buildings located within 30 meters of the PCB Transformer(s). Information required to be provided to building owners by PCB Transformer owners includes but is not limited to:

(A) The specific location of the PCB Transformer(s).

(B) The principal constituent of the dielectric fluid in the transformer(s) (e.g., PCBs, mineral oil, or silicone oil).

(C) The type of transformer installation (e.g., 208/120 volt network, 208/120 volt radial, 208 volt radial, 480 volt network, 480/277 volt network, 480 volt radial, 480/277 volt radial).

(viii) As of December 1, 1985, combustible materials, including, but not limited to paints, solvents, plastics, paper, and sawn wood must not be stored within a PCB Transformer enclosure (i.e., in a transformer vault or in a partitioned area housing a transformer); within 5 meters of a transformer enclosure, or, if unenclosed (unpartitioned), within 5 meters of a PCB Transformer.

(ix) A visual inspection of each PCB Transformer (as defined in the definition of “PCB Transformer” under § 761.3) in use or stored for reuse shall be performed at least once every 3 months. These inspections may take place any time during the 3-month periods: January-March, April-June, July-September, and October-December as long as there is a minimum of 30 days between inspections. The visual inspection must include investigation for any leak of dielectric fluid on or around the transformer. The extent of the visual inspections will depend on the physical constraints of each transformer installation and should not require an electrical shutdown of the transformer being inspected.

(x) If a PCB Transformer is found to have a leak which results in any quantity of PCBs running off or about to run off the external surface of the transformer, then the transformer must be repaired or replaced to eliminate the source of the leak. In all cases any leaking material must be cleaned up and properly disposed of according to disposal requirements of subpart D of this part. Cleanup of the released PCBs must be initiated as soon as possible, but in no case later than 48 hours of its discovery. Until appropriate action is completed, any active leak of PCBs must be contained to prevent exposure of humans or the environment and inspected daily to verify containment of the leak. Trenches, dikes, buckets, and pans are examples of proper containment measures.

(xi) If a PCB Transformer is involved in a fire-related incident, the owner of the transformer must immediately report the incident to the National Response Center (toll-free 1-800-424-8802; in Washington, DC 202-426-2675). A fire-related incident is defined as any incident involving a PCB Transformer which involves the generation of sufficient heat and/or pressure (by any source) to result in the violent or non-violent rupture of a PCB Transformer and the release of PCBs. Information must be provided regarding the type of PCB Transformer installation involved in the fire-related incident (e.g., high or low secondary voltage network transformer, high or low secondary voltage simple radial system, expanded radial system, primary selective system, primary loop system, or secondary selective system or other systems) and the readily ascertainable cause of the fire-related incident (e.g., high current fault in the primary or secondary or low current fault in secondary). The owner of the PCB Transformer must also take measures as soon as practically and safely possible to contain and control any potential releases of PCBs and incomplete combustion products into water. These measures include, but are not limited to:

(A) The blocking of all floor drains in the vicinity of the transformer.

(B) The containment of water runoff.

(C) The control and treatment (prior to release) of any water used in subsequent cleanup operations.

(xii) Records of inspection and maintenance history shall be maintained at least 3 years after disposing of the transformer and shall be made available for inspection, upon request by EPA. Such records shall contain the following information for each PCB Transformer:

(A) Its location.

(B) The date of each visual inspection and the date that leak was discovered, if different from the inspection date.

(C) The person performing the inspection.

(D) The location of any leak(s).

(E) An estimate of the amount of dielectric fluid released from any leak.

(F) The date of any cleanup, containment, repair, or replacement.

(G) A description of any cleanup, containment, or repair performed.

(H) The results of any containment and daily inspection required for uncorrected active leaks.

(I) Record of the registration of PCB Transformer(s).

(J) Records of transfer of ownership in compliance with § 761.180(a)(2)(ix).

(xiii) A reduced visual inspection frequency of at least once every 12 months applies to PCB Transformers that utilize either of the following risk reduction measures. These inspections may take place any time during the calendar year as long as there is a minimum of 180 days between inspections.

(A) A PCB Transformer which has impervious, undrained, secondary containment capacity of at least 100 percent of the total dielectric fluid volume of all transformers so contained or

(B) A PCB Transformer which has been tested and found to contain less than 60,000 ppm PCBs (after 3 months of in service use if the transformer has been serviced for purposes of reducing the PCB concentration).

(xiv) An increased visual inspection frequency of at least once every week applies to any PCB Transformer in use or stored for reuse which poses an exposure risk to food or feed. The user of a PCB Transformer posing an exposure risk to food is responsible for the inspection, recordkeeping, and maintenance requirements under this section until the user notifies the owner that the transformer may pose an exposure risk to food or feed. Following such notification, it is the owner's ultimate responsibility to determine whether the PCB Transformer poses an exposure risk to food or feed.

(xv) In the event a mineral oil transformer, assumed to contain less than 500 ppm of PCBs as provided in § 761.2, is tested and found to be contaminated at 500 ppm or greater PCBs, it will be subject to all the requirements of this part 761. In addition, efforts must be initiated immediately to bring the transformer into compliance in accordance with the following schedule:

(A) Report fire-related incidents, effective immediately after discovery.

(B) Mark the PCB transformer within 7 days after discovery.

(C) Mark the vault door, machinery room door, fence, hallway or other means of access to the PCB Transformer within 7 days after discovery.

(D) Register the PCB Transformer in writing with the building owner within 30 days of discovery.

(E) Install electrical protective equipment on a radial PCB Transformer and a non-sidewalk vault, lower secondary voltage network PCB Transformer in or near a commercial building within 18 months of discovery or by October 1, 1990, whichever is later.

(F) Remove a non-sidewalk vault, lower secondary voltage network PCB Transformer in or near a commercial building, if electrical protective equipment is not installed, within 18 months of discovery or by October 1, 1993, whichever is later.

(G) Remove a lower secondary voltage network PCB Transformer located in a sidewalk vault in or near a commercial building, within 18 months of discovery or by October 1, 1993, whichever is later.

(H) Retrofill and reclassify a radial PCB Transformer or a lower or higher secondary voltage network PCB Transformer, located in other than a sidewalk vault in or near a commercial building, within 18 months or by October 1, 1990, whichever is later. This is an option in lieu of installing electrical protective equipment on a radial or lower secondary voltage network PCB Transformer located in other than a sidewalk vault or of removing a higher secondary voltage network PCB Transformer or a lower secondary voltage network PCB Transformer, located in a sidewalk vault, from service.

(I) Retrofill and reclassify a lower secondary voltage network PCB Transformer, located in a sidewalk vault, in or near a commercial building within 18 months or by October 1, 1993, whichever is later. This is an option in lieu of installing electrical protective equipment or removing the transformer from service.

(J) Retrofill and reclassify a higher secondary voltage network PCB Transformer, located in a sidewalk vault, in or near a commercial building within 18 months or by October 1, 1990, whichever is later. This is an option in lieu of other requirements.

(2) Servicing conditions.

(i) Transformers classified as PCB-Contaminated Electrical Equipment (as defined in the definition of “PCB-Contaminated Electrical Equipment” under § 761.3) may be serviced (including rebuilding) only with dielectric fluid containing less than 500 ppm PCB.

(ii) Any servicing (including rebuilding) of PCB Transformers (as defined in the definition of “PCB Transformer” under § 761.3) that requires the removal of the transformer coil from the transformer casing is prohibited. PCB Transformers may be serviced (including topping off) with dielectric fluid at any PCB concentration.

(iii) PCBs removed during any servicing activity must be captured and either reused as dielectric fluid or disposed of in accordance with the requirements of § 761.60. PCBs from PCB Transformers must not be mixed with or added to dielectric fluid from PCB-Contaminated Electrical Equipment.

(iv) Regardless of its PCB concentration, dielectric fluids containing less than 500 ppm PCB that are mixed with fluids that contain 500 ppm or greater PCB must not be used as dielectric fluid in any electrical equipment. The entire mixture of dielectric fluid must be considered to be greater than 500 ppm PCB and must be disposed of in an incinerator that meets the requirements in § 761.70.

(v) You may reclassify a PCB Transformer that has been tested and determined to have a concentration of ≥500 ppm PCBs to a PCB-Contaminated transformer (≥50 but <500 ppm) or to a non-PCB transformer (<50 ppm), and you may reclassify a PCB-Contaminated transformer that has been tested and determined to have a concentration of ≥50 ppm but <500 ppm to a non-PCB transformer, as follows:

(A) Remove the free-flowing PCB dielectric fluid from the transformer. Flushing is not required. Either test the fluid or assume it contains ≥1,000 ppm PCBs. Retrofill the transformer with fluid containing known PCB levels according to the following table. Determine the transformer's reclassified status according to the following table (if following this process does not result in the reclassified status you desire, you may repeat the process):

If test results show the PCB concentration (ppm) in the transformer prior to retrofill is . . . and you retrofill the transformer with dielectric fluid containing . . . and you . . . and test results show the PCB concentration (ppm) after retrofill is . . . then the transformer's reclassified status is. . .
≥1,000 (or untested) <50 ppm PCBs operate the transformer electrically under loaded conditions for at least 90-continuous days after retrofill, then test the fluid for PCBs ≥50 but <500 PCB-contaminated
<50 ppm PCBs operate the transformer electrically under loaded conditions for at least 90-continuous days after retrofill, then test the fluid for PCBs <50 non-PCB
≥500 but <1,000 <50 ppm PCBs test the fluid for PCBs at least 90 days after retrofill ≥50 but <500 PCB-contaminated
<50 ppm PCBs test the fluid for PCBs at least 90 days after retrofill <50 non-PCB
≥50 but <500 ≥2 but <50 ppm PCBs test the fluid for PCBs at least 90 days after retrofill <50 non-PCB
<2 ppm PCBs (no need to test) (not applicable) non-PCB

(B) If you discover that the PCB concentration of the fluid in a reclassified transformer has changed, causing the reclassified status to change, the transformer is regulated based on the actual concentration of the fluid. For example, a transformer that was reclassified to non-PCB status is regulated as a PCB-Contaminated transformer if you discover that the concentration of the fluid has increased to ≥50 but <500 ppm PCBs. If you discover that the PCB concentration of the fluid has risen to ≥500 ppm, the transformer is regulated as a PCB Transformer. Follow paragraphs (a)(1)(xv)(A) through (J) of this section to come into compliance with the regulations applicable to PCB Transformers. You also have the option of repeating the reclassification process.

(C) The Director, National Program Chemicals Division, may, without further rulemaking, grant approval on a case-by-case basis for the use of alternative methods to reclassify transformers. You may request an approval by writing to the Director, National Program Chemicals Division (7404), Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460. Describe the equipment you plan to reclassify, the alternative reclassification method you plan to use, and test data or other evidence on the effectiveness of the method.

(D) You must keep records of the reclassification required by § 761.180(g).

(vi) Any dielectric fluid containing 50 ppm or greater PCB used for servicing transformers must be stored in accordance with the storage for disposal requirements of § 761.65.

(vii) Processing and distribution in commerce of PCBs for purposes of servicing transformers is permitted only for persons who are granted an exemption under TSCA 6(e)(3)(B).

(b) Use in and servicing of railroad transformers. PCBs may be used in transformers in railroad locomotives or railroad self-propelled cars (“railroad transformers”) and may be processed and distributed in commerce for purposes of servicing these transformers in a manner other than a totally enclosed manner subject to the following conditions:

(1) Use restrictions. After July 1, 1986, use of railroad transformers that contain dielectric fluids with a PCB concentration >1,000 ppm is prohibited.

(2) Servicing restrictions.

(i) If the coil is removed from the casing of a railroad transformer (e.g., the transformer is rebuilt), after January 1, 1982, the railroad transformer may not be refilled with dielectric fluid containing a PCB concentration greater than 50 ppm;

(ii) After January 1, 1984, railroad transformers may only be serviced with dielectric fluid containing less than 1000 ppm PCB, except as provided in paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section;

(iii) Dielectric fluid may be filtered through activated carbon or otherwise industrially processed for the purpose of reducing the PCB concentration in the fluid;

(iv) Any PCB dielectric fluid that is used to service PCB railroad transformers must be stored in accordance with the storage for disposal requirements of § 761.65;

(v) After July 1, 1979, processing and distribution in commerce of PCBs for purposes of servicing railroad transformers is permitted only for persons who are granted an exemption under TSCA section 6(e)(3)(B).

(vi) A PCB Transformer may be converted to a PCB-Contaminated Transformer or to a non-PCB Transformer by draining, refilling, and/or otherwise servicing the railroad transformer. In order to reclassify, the railroad transformer's dielectric fluid must contain less than 500 ppm (for conversion to PCB-Contaminated Transformer) or less than 50 ppm PCB (for conversion to a non-PCB Transformer) after a minimum of three months of inservice use subsequent to the last servicing conducted for the purpose of reducing the PCB concentration in the transformer.

(c) Use in mining equipment. After January 1, 1982, PCBs may be used in mining equipment only at a concentration level of <50 ppm.

(d) Use in heat transfer systems. After July 1, 1984, PCBs may be used in heat transfer systems only at a concentration level of <50 ppm. Heat transfer systems that were in operation after July 1, 1984, with a concentration level of <50 ppm PCBs may be serviced to maintain a concentration level of <50 ppm PCBs. Heat transfer systems may only be serviced with fluids containing <50 ppm PCBs.

(e) Use in hydraulic systems. After July 1, 1984, PCBs may be used in hydraulic systems only at a concentration level of <50 ppm. Hydraulic systems that were in operation after July 1, 1984, with a concentration level of <50 ppm PCBs may be serviced to maintain a concentration level of <50 ppm PCBs. Hydraulic systems may only be serviced with fluids containing <50 ppm PCBs.

(f) Use in carbonless copy paper. Carbonless copy paper containing PCBs may be used in a manner other than a totally enclosed manner indefinitely.

(g) [Reserved]

(h) Use in and servicing of electromagnets, switches and voltage regulators. PCBs at any concentration may be used in electromagnets, switches (including sectionalizers and motor starters), and voltage regulators and may be used for purposes of servicing this equipment (including rebuilding) for the remainder of their useful lives, subject to the following conditions:

(1) Use conditions.

(i) After October 1, 1985, the use and storage for reuse of any electromagnet which poses an exposure risk to food or feed is prohibited if the electromagnet contains greater than 500 ppm PCBs.

(ii) Use and storage for reuse of voltage regulators which contain 1.36 kilograms (3 lbs) or more of dielectric fluid with a PCB concentration of ≥500 ppm are subject to the following provisions:

(A) The owner of the voltage regulator must mark its location in accordance with § 761.40.

(B) If a voltage regulator is involved in a fire-related incident, the owner must immediately report the incident to the National Response Center (Toll-free: 1-800-424-8802; in Washington, DC: 202-426-2675). A fire-related incident is defined as any incident that involves the generation of sufficient heat and/or pressure, by any source, to result in the violent or non-violent rupture of the voltage regulator and the release of PCBs.

(C) The owner of the voltage regulator must inspect it in accordance with the requirements of paragraphs (a)(1)(ix), (a)(1)(xiii), and (a)(1)(xiv) of this section that apply to PCB Transformers.

(D) The owner of the voltage regulator must comply with the recordkeeping and reporting requirements at § 761.180.

(iii) The owner of a voltage regulator that assumes it contains <500 ppm PCBs as provided in § 761.2, and discovers by testing that it is contaminated at ≥500 ppm PCBs, must comply with paragraph (h)(1)(ii)(A) of this section 7 days after the discovery, and paragraphs (h)(1)(ii)(B), (h)(1)(ii)(C), and (h)(1)(ii)(D) of this section immediately upon discovery.

(2) Servicing conditions.

(i) Servicing (including rebuilding) any electromagnet, switch, or voltage regulator with a PCB concentration of 500 ppm or greater which requires the removal and rework of the internal components is prohibited.

(ii) Electromagnets, switches, and voltage regulators classified as PCB-Contaminated Electrical Equipment (as defined in the definition of “PCB-Contaminated Electrical Equipment” under § 761.3) may be serviced (including rebuilding) only with dielectric fluid containing less than 500 ppm PCB.

(iii) PCBs removed during any servicing activity must be captured and either reused as dielectric fluid or disposed of in accordance with the requirements of § 761.60. PCBs from electromagnets switches, and voltage regulators with a PCB concentration of at least 500 ppm must not be mixed with or added to dielectric fluid from PCB-Contaminated Electrical Equipment.

(iv) Regardless of its PCB concentration, dielectric fluids containing less than 500 ppm PCB that are mixed with fluids that contain 500 ppm or greater PCB must not be used as dielectric fluid in any electrical equipment. The entire mixture of dielectric fluid must be considered to be greater than 500 ppm PCB and must be disposed of in an incinerator that meets the requirements of § 761.70.

(v) You may reclassify an electromagnet, switch, or voltage regulator that has been tested and determined to have a concentration of ≥500 ppm PCBs to PCB-Contaminated status (≥50 but <500 ppm) or to non-PCB status (<50 ppm), and you may reclassify a PCB-Contaminated electromagnet, switch, or voltage regulator that has been tested and determined to have a concentration of ≥50 ppm but <500 ppm to a non-PCB status, as follows:

(A) Remove the free-flowing PCB dielectric fluid from the electromagnet, switch, or voltage regulator. Flushing is not required. Either test the fluid or assume it contains ≥1,000 ppm PCBs. Retrofill the electromagnet, switch, or voltage regulator with fluid containing known PCB levels according to the following table. Determine the electromagnet, switch, or voltage regulator's reclassified status according to the following table (if following this process does not result in the reclassified status you desire, you may repeat the process):

If test results show the PCB concentration (ppm) in the equipment prior to retrofill is . . . and you retrofill the equipment with dielectric fluid containing . . . and you . . . and test results show the PCB concentration (ppm) after retrofill is . . . then the electromagnet, switch, or voltage regulator's reclassified status is . . .
≥1,000 (or untested) <50 ppm PCBs operate the equipment electrically under loaded conditions for at least 90-continuous days after retrofill, then test the fluid for PCBs ≥50 but <500 PCB-contaminated
<50 ppm PCBs operate the equipment electrically under loaded conditions for at least 90-continuous days after retrofill, then test the fluid for PCBs <50 non-PCB
≥500 but <1,000 <50 ppm PCBs test the fluid for PCBs at least 90 days after retrofill ≥50 but <500 PCB-contaminated
<50 ppm PCBs test the fluid for PCBs at least 90 days after retrofill <50 non-PCB
≥50 but <500 ≥2 but <50 ppm PCBs test the fluid for PCBs at least 90 days after retrofill <50 non-PCB
<2 ppm PCBs (no need to test) (not applicable) non-PCB

(B) If you discover that the PCB concentration of the fluid in a reclassified electromagnet, switch, or voltage regulator has changed, causing the reclassified status to change, the electromagnet, switch, or voltage regulator is regulated based on the actual concentration of the fluid. For example, an electromagnet, switch, or voltage regulator that was reclassified to non-PCB status is regulated as a PCB-Contaminated electromagnet, switch, or voltage regulator if you discover that the concentration of the fluid has increased to ≥50 but <500 ppm PCBs. If you discover that the PCB concentration of the fluid in a voltage regulator has risen to ≥500 ppm, follow paragraph (h)(1)(iii) of this section to come into compliance with the regulations applicable to voltage regulators containing ≥500 ppm PCBs. You also have the option of repeating the reclassification process.

(C) The Director, National Program Chemicals Division may, without further rulemaking, grant approval on a case-by-case basis for the use of alternative methods to reclassify electromagnets, switches or voltage regulators. You may request an approval by writing to the Director, National Program Chemicals Division (7404), Environmental Protection Agency,1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460. Describe the equipment you plan to reclassify, the alternative reclassification method you plan to use, and test data or other evidence on the effectiveness of the method.

(D) You must keep records of the reclassification required by § 761.180(g).

(vi) Any dielectric fluid containing 50 ppm or greater PCB used for servicing electromagnets, switches, or voltage regulators must be stored in accordance with the storage for disposal requirements of § 761.65.

(vii) Processing and distribution in commerce of PCBs for purposes of servicing electromagnets, switches or voltage regulators is permitted only for persons who are granted an exemption under TSCA 6(e)(3)(B).

Use and reuse of PCBs in natural gas pipeline systems; use and reuse of PCB-Contaminated natural gas pipe and appurtenances. (1)(i) PCBs are authorized for use in natural gas pipeline systems at concentrations <50 ppm.

PCBs are authorized for use, at concentrations ≥50 ppm, in natural gas pipeline systems not owned or operated by a seller or distributor of natural gas.

(A) PCBs are authorized for use, at concentrations ≥50 ppm, in natural gas pipeline systems owned or operated by a seller or distributor of natural gas, if the owner or operator:

(1) Submits to EPA, upon request, a written description of the general nature and location of PCBs ≥50 ppm in their natural gas pipeline system. Each written description shall be submitted to the EPA Regional Administrator having jurisdiction over the segment or component of the system (or the Director, National Program Chemicals Division, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, if the system is contaminated in more than one region).

(2) Within 120 days after discovery of PCBs ≥50 ppm in natural gas pipeline systems, or by December 28, 1998, whichever is later, characterizes the extent of PCB contamination by collecting and analyzing samples to identify the upstream and downstream end points of the segment or component where PCBs ≥50 ppm were discovered.

(3) Within 120 days of characterization of the extent of PCB contamination, or by December 28, 1998, whichever is later, samples and analyzes all potential sources of introduction of PCBs into the natural gas pipeline system for PCBs ≥50 ppm. Potential sources include natural gas compressors, natural gas scrubbers, natural gas filters, and interconnects where natural gas is received upstream from the most downstream sampling point where PCBs ≥50 ppm were detected; potential sources exclude valves, drips, or other small liquid condensate collection points.

(4) Within 1 year of characterization of the extent of PCB contamination, reduces all demonstrated sources of PCBs ≥50 ppm to <50 ppm, or removes such sources from the natural gas pipeline system; or implements other engineering measures or methods to reduce PCB levels to <50 ppm and to prevent further introduction of PCBs ≥50 ppm into the natural gas pipeline system (e.g., pigging, decontamination, in-line filtration).

(5) Repeats sampling and analysis at least annually where PCBs are ≥50 ppm, until sampling results indicate the natural gas pipeline segment or component is <50 ppm PCB in two successive samples with a minimum interval between samples of 180 days.

(6) Marks aboveground sources of PCB liquids in natural gas pipeline systems with the ML Mark in accordance with § 761.45(a), where such sources have been demonstrated through historical data or recent sampling to contain PCBs ≥50 ppm.

(B) Owners or operators of natural gas pipeline systems which do not include potential sources of PCB contamination as described in paragraph (i)(1)(iii)(A)(3) of this section containing ≥50 ppm PCB are not subject to paragraphs (i)(1)(iii)(A)(2), (i)(1)(iii)(A)(3), (i)(1)(iii)(A)(4), or (i)(1)(iii)(A)(6) of this section. Owners or operators of these systems, however, must comply with the other provisions of this section (e.g., sampling of any collected PCB liquids and recordkeeping).

(C) The owner or operator of a natural gas pipeline system must document in writing all data collected and actions taken, or not taken, pursuant to the authorization in paragraph (i)(1)(iii)(A) of this section. They must maintain the information for 3 years after the PCB concentration in the component or segment is reduced to <50 ppm, and make it available to EPA upon request.

(D) The Director, National Program Chemicals Division, after consulting with the appropriate EPA Region(s) may, based on a finding of no unreasonable risk, modify in writing the requirements of paragraph (i)(1)(iii)(A) of this section, including extending any compliance date, approving alternative formats for documentation, waiving one or more requirements for a segment or component, requiring sampling and analysis, and requiring implementation of engineering measures to reduce PCB concentrations. EPA will make such modifications based on the natural gas pipeline system size, configuration, and current operating conditions; nature, extent or source of contamination; proximity of contamination to end-users; or previous sampling, monitoring, remedial actions or documentation of activities taken regarding compliance with this authorization or other applicable Federal, State, or local laws and regulations. The Director, National Program Chemicals Division, may defer the authority described in this paragraph, upon request, to the appropriate EPA Region.

(E) The owner or operator of a natural gas pipeline system may use historical data to fulfill the requirements of paragraphs (i)(1)(iii)(A)(1), (i)(1)(iii)(A)(2) and (i)(1)(iii)(A)(3) of this section. They may use documented historical actions taken to reduce PCB concentrations in known sources; decontaminate components or segments of natural gas pipeline systems; or otherwise to reduce PCB levels to fulfill the requirements of paragraph (i)(1)(iii)(A)(4) of this section.

Any person may reuse PCB-Contaminated natural gas pipe and appurtenances in a natural gas pipeline system, provided all free-flowing liquids have been removed.

(3) Any person may use PCB-Contaminated natural gas pipe, drained of all free-flowing liquids, in the transport of liquids (e.g., bulk hydrocarbons, chemicals, petroleum products, or coal slurry), as casing to provide secondary containment or protection (e.g., protection for electrical cable), as industrial structural material (e.g., fence posts, sign posts, or bridge supports), as temporary flume at construction sites, as equipment skids, as culverts under transportation systems in intermittent flow situations, for sewage service with written consent of the Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW), for steam service, as irrigation systems (<20 inch diameter) of less than 200 miles in length, and in a totally enclosed compressed air system.

(4) Any person characterizing PCB contamination in natural gas pipe or natural gas pipeline systems must do so by analyzing organic liquids collected at existing condensate collection points in the pipe or pipeline system. The level of PCB contamination found at a collection point is assumed to extend to the next collection point downstream. Any person characterizing multi-phasic liquids must do so in accordance with § 761.1(b)(4); if no liquids are present, they must use standard wipe samples in accordance with subpart M of this part.

(5)

(i) Any person disposing of liquids containing PCBs ≥50 ppm removed, spilled, or otherwise released from a natural gas pipeline system must do so in accordance with § 761.61(a)(5)(iv) based on the PCB concentration at the time of removal from the system. Any person disposing of materials contaminated by spills or other releases of PCBs ≥50 ppm from a natural gas pipeline systems, must do so in accordance with §§ 761.61 or 761.79, as applicable.

(ii) Any person who markets or burns for energy recovery liquids containing PCBs at concentrations <50 ppm PCBs at the time of removal from a natural gas pipeline system must do so in accordance with the provisions pertaining to used oil at § 761.20(e). No other use of liquid containing PCBs at concentrations above the quantifiable level/level of detection removed from a natural gas pipeline system is authorized.

(j) Research and development. For purposes of this section, authorized research and development (R&D) activities include, but are not limited to: the chemical analysis of PCBs, including analyses to determine PCB concentration; determinations of the physical properties of PCBs; studies of environmental transport processes; studies of biochemical transport processes; studies of effects of PCBs on the environment; and studies of the health effects of PCBs, including direct toxicity and toxicity of metabolic products of PCBs. Authorized R&D activities do not include research, development, or analysis for the development of any PCB product. Any person conducting R&D activities under this section is also responsible for determining and complying with all other applicable Federal, State, and local laws and regulations. Although the use of PCBs and PCBs in analytical reference samples derived from waste material is authorized in conjunction with PCB-disposal related activities, R&D for PCB disposal (as defined under § 761.3) is addressed in § 761.60(j). PCBs and PCBs in analytical reference samples derived from waste materials are authorized for use, in a manner other than a totally enclosed manner, provided that:

(1) They obtain the PCBs and PCBs in analytical reference samples derived from waste materials from sources authorized under § 761.80 to manufacture, process, and distribute PCBs in commerce and the PCBs are packaged in compliance with the Hazardous Materials Regulations at 49 CFR parts 171 through 180.

(2) They store all PCB wastes resulting from R&D activities (e.g., spent laboratory samples, residuals, contaminated media such as clothing, etc.) in compliance with § 761.65(b) and dispose of all PCB wastes in compliance with § 761.64.

(3) [Reserved]

(4) No person may manufacture, process, or distribute in commerce PCBs for research and development unless they have been granted an exemption to do so under TSCA section 6(e)(3)(B).

(k) Use in scientific instruments. PCBs may be used indefinitely in scientific instruments, for example, in oscillatory flow birefringence and viscoelasticity instruments for the study of the physical properties of polymers, as microscopy mounting fluids, as microscopy immersion oil, and as optical liquids in a manner other than a totally enclosed manner. No person may manufacture, process, or distribute in commerce PCBs for use in scientific instruments unless they have been granted an exemption to do so under TSCA section 6(e)(3)(B).

(l) Use in capacitors. PCBs at any concentration may be used in capacitors, subject to the following conditions:

(1) Use conditions.

(i) After October 1, 1988, the use and storage for reuse of PCB Large High Voltage Capacitors and PCB Large Low Voltage Capacitors which pose an exposure risk to food or feed is prohibited.

(ii) After October 1, 1988, the use of PCB Large High Voltage Capacitors and PCB Large Low Voltage Capacitors is prohibited unless the capacitor is used within a restricted-access electrical substation or in a contained and restricted-access indoor installation. A restricted-access electrical substation is an outdoor, fenced or walled-in facility that restricts public access and is used in the transmission or distribution of electric power. A contained and restricted-access indoor installation does not have public access and has an adequate roof, walls, and floor to contain any release of PCBs within the indoor location.

(2) [Reserved]

(m) Use in and servicing of circuit breakers, reclosers and cable. PCBs at any concentration may be used in circuit breakers, reclosers, and cable and may be used for purposes of servicing this electrical equipment (including rebuilding) for the remainder of their useful lives, subject to the following conditions:

(1) Servicing conditions.

(i) Circuit breakers, reclosers, and cable may be serviced (including rebuilding) only with dielectric fluid containing less than 50 ppm PCB.

(ii) Any circuit breaker, recloser or cable found to contain at least 50 ppm PCBs may be serviced only in accordance with the conditions contained in 40 CFR 761.30(h)(2).

(2) [Reserved]

(n)-(o) [Reserved]

(p) Continued use of porous surfaces contaminated with PCBs regulated for disposal by spills of liquid PCBs.

(1) Any person may use porous surfaces contaminated by spills of liquid PCBs at concentrations >10 µg/100 cm 2 for the remainder of the useful life of the surfaces and subsurface material if the following conditions are met:

(i) The source of PCB contamination is removed or contained to prevent further release to porous surfaces.

(ii) If the porous surface is accessible to superficial surface cleaning:

(A) The double wash rinse procedure in subpart S of this part is conducted on the surface to remove surface PCBs.

(B) The treated surface is allowed to dry for 24 hours.

(iii) After accessible surfaces have been cleaned according to paragraph (p)(1)(ii) of this section and for all surfaces inaccessible to cleanup:

(A) The surface is completely covered to prevent release of PCBs with:

(1) Two solvent resistant and water repellent coatings of contrasting colors to allow for a visual indication of wear through or loss of outer coating integrity; or

(2) A solid barrier fastened to the surface and covering the contaminated area or all accessible parts of the contaminated area. Examples of inaccessible areas are underneath a floor-mounted electrical transformer and in an impassible space between an electrical transformer and a vault wall.

(B) The surface is marked with the ML Mark in a location easily visible to individuals present in the area; the ML Mark shall be placed over the encapsulated area or the barrier to the encapsulated area.

(C) ML Marks shall be replaced when worn or illegible.

(2) Removal of a porous surface contaminated with PCBs from its location or current use is prohibited except for removal for disposal in accordance with §§ 761.61 or 761.79 for surfaces contaminated by spills, or § 761.62 for manufactured porous surfaces.

(q) [Reserved]

(r) Use in and servicing of rectifiers. Any person may use PCBs at any concentration in rectifiers for the remainder of the PCBs' useful life, and may use PCBs <50 ppm in servicing (including rebuilding) rectifiers.

(s) Use of PCBs in air compressor systems.

(1) Any person may use PCBs in air compressor systems at concentrations <50 ppm.

(2) Any person may use PCBs in air compressor systems (or components thereof) at concentrations ≥50 ppm provided that:

(i) All free-flowing liquids containing PCBs ≥50 ppm are removed from the air compressor crankcase and the crankcase is refilled with non-PCB liquid.

(ii) Other air compressor system components contaminated with PCBs ≥50 ppm, are decontaminated in accordance with § 761.79 or disposed of in accordance with subpart D of this part.

(iii) Air compressor piping with a nominal inside diameter of <2 inches is decontaminated by continuous flushing for 4 hours, at no <300 gallons per hour (§ 761.79 contains solvent requirements).

(3) The requirements in paragraph (s)(2) of this section must be completed by August 30, 1999 or within 1 year of the date of discovery of PCBs at ≥50 ppm in the air compressor system, whichever is later. The EPA Regional Administrator for the EPA Region in which an air compressor system is located may, at his/her discretion and in writing, extend this timeframe.

(t) Use of PCBs in other gas or liquid transmission systems.

(1) PCBs are authorized for use in intact and non-leaking gas or liquid transmission systems at concentrations <50 ppm PCBs.

(2) PCBs are authorized for use at concentrations ≥50 ppm in intact and non-leaking gas or liquid transmission systems not owned or operated by a seller or distributor of the gas or liquid transmitted in the system.

(3) Any person may use PCBs at concentrations ≥50 ppm in intact and non-leaking gas or liquid transmission systems, with the written approval of the Director, National Program Chemicals Division, subject to the requirements applicable to natural gas pipeline systems at paragraphs (i)(1)(iii)(A), (i)(1)(iii)(C) through (i)(1)(iii)(E), and (i)(2) through (i)(5) of this section.

(u) Use of decontaminated materials.

(1) Any person may use equipment, structures, other non-liquid or liquid materials that were contaminated with PCBs during manufacture, use, servicing, or because of spills from, or proximity to, PCBs ≥50 ppm, including those not otherwise authorized for use under this part, provided:

(i) The materials were decontaminated in accordance with:

(A) A TSCA PCB disposal approval issued under subpart D of this part;

(B) Section 761.79; or

(C) Applicable EPA PCB spill cleanup policies (e.g., TSCA, RCRA, CERCLA, EPA regional) in effect at the time of the decontamination; or

(ii) If not previously decontaminated, the materials now meet an applicable decontamination standard in § 761.79(b).

(2) No person shall use or reuse materials decontaminated in accordance with paragraph (u)(1)(i) of this section or meeting an applicable decontamination standard in paragraph (u)(1)(ii) of this section, in direct contact with food, feed, or drinking water unless otherwise allowed under this section or this part.

(3) Any person may use water containing PCBs at concentrations ≤0.5µg/L PCBs without restriction.

(4) Any person may use water containing PCBs at concentrations <200 µg/L (i.e., <200 ppb PCBs) for non-contact use in a closed system where there are no releases (e.g., as a non-contact cooling water).

[44 FR 31542, May 31, 1979. Redesignated at 47 FR 19527, May 6, 1982]
Editorial Note:
For Federal Register citations affecting § 761.30, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.govinfo.gov.