# 40 CFR § 82.152 - Definitions.

§ 82.152 Definitions.

Appliance means any device which contains and uses a class I or class II substance or substitute as a refrigerant and which is used for household or commercial purposes, including any air conditioner, motor vehicle air conditioner, refrigerator, chiller, or freezer. For a system with multiple circuits, each independent circuit is considered a separate appliance.

Apprentice means any person who is currently registered as an apprentice in maintenance, service, repair, or disposal of appliances with the U.S. Department of Labor's Office of Apprenticeship (or a State Apprenticeship Council recognized by the Office of Apprenticeship). A person may only be an apprentice for two years from the date of first registering with that office.

Approved equipment testing organization means any organization which has applied for and received approval from the Administrator pursuant to § 82.160.

Batch means a single bulk cylinder of refrigerant after all reclamation has been completed prior to packaging or shipping to the market.

Class I refers to an ozone-depleting substance that is listed in 40 CFR part 82 subpart A, appendix A.

Class II refers to an ozone-depleting substance that is listed in 40 CFR part 82 subpart A, appendix B.

Certified refrigerant recovery or recycling equipment means equipment manufactured before November 15, 1993, that meets the standards in § 82.158(c), (e), or (g); equipment certified by an approved equipment testing organization to meet the standards in § 82.158(b), (d), or (f); or equipment certified pursuant to § 82.36(a).

Comfort cooling means the air-conditioning appliances used to provide cooling in order to control heat and/or humidity in occupied facilities including but not limited to residential, office, and commercial buildings. Comfort cooling appliances include but are not limited to chillers, commercial split systems, and packaged roof-top units.

Commercial refrigeration means the refrigeration appliances used in the retail food and cold storage warehouse sectors. Retail food appliances include the refrigeration equipment found in supermarkets, convenience stores, restaurants and other food service establishments. Cold storage includes the refrigeration equipment used to store meat, produce, dairy products, and other perishable goods.

Component means a part of the refrigerant circuit within an appliance including, but not limited to, compressors, condensers, evaporators, receivers, and all of its connections and subassemblies.

Custom-built means that the industrial process equipment or any of its components cannot be purchased and/or installed without being uniquely designed, fabricated and/or assembled to satisfy a specific set of industrial process conditions.

Disposal means the process leading to and including:

(1) The discharge, deposit, dumping or placing of any discarded appliance into or on any land or water;

(2) The disassembly of any appliance for discharge, deposit, dumping or placing of its discarded component parts into or on any land or water;

(3) The vandalism of any appliance such that the refrigerant is released into the environment or would be released into the environment if it had not been recovered prior to the destructive activity;

(4) The disassembly of any appliance for reuse of its component parts; or

(5) The recycling of any appliance for scrap.

Follow-up verification test means those tests that involve checking the repairs to an appliance after a successful initial verification test and after the appliance has returned to normal operating characteristics and conditions to verify that the repairs were successful. Potential methods for follow-up verification tests include, but are not limited to, the use of soap bubbles as appropriate, electronic or ultrasonic leak detectors, pressure or vacuum tests, fluorescent dye and black light, infrared or near infrared tests, and handheld gas detection devices.

Full charge means the amount of refrigerant required for normal operating characteristics and conditions of the appliance as determined by using one or a combination of the following four methods:

(1) Use of the equipment manufacturer's determination of the full charge;

(2) Use of appropriate calculations based on component sizes, density of refrigerant, volume of piping, and other relevant considerations;

(3) Use of actual measurements of the amount of refrigerant added to or evacuated from the appliance, including for seasonal variances; and/or

(4) Use of an established range based on the best available data regarding the normal operating characteristics and conditions for the appliance, where the midpoint of the range will serve as the full charge.

High-pressure appliance means an appliance that uses a refrigerant with a liquid phase saturation pressure between 170 psia and 355 psia at 104 °F. Examples include but are not limited to appliances using R-22, R-407A, R-407C, R-410A, and R-502.

Industrial process refrigeration means complex customized appliances that are directly linked to the processes used in, for example, the chemical, pharmaceutical, petrochemical, and manufacturing industries. This sector also includes industrial ice machines, appliances used directly in the generation of electricity, and ice rinks. Where one appliance is used for both industrial process refrigeration and other applications, it will be considered industrial process refrigeration equipment if 50 percent or more of its operating capacity is used for industrial process refrigeration.

Industrial process shutdown means when an industrial process or facility temporarily ceases to operate or manufacture whatever is being produced at that facility.

Initial verification test means those leak tests that are conducted after the repair is finished to verify that a leak or leaks have been repaired before refrigerant is added back to the appliance.

Leak inspection means the examination of an appliance to determine the location of refrigerant leaks. Potential methods include, but are not limited to, ultrasonic tests, gas-imaging cameras, bubble tests as appropriate, or the use of a leak detection device operated and maintained according to manufacturer guidelines. Methods that determine whether the appliance is leaking refrigerant but not the location of a leak, such as standing pressure/vacuum decay tests, sight glass checks, viewing receiver levels, pressure checks, and charging charts, must be used in conjunction with methods that can determine the location of a leak.

Leak rate means the rate at which an appliance is losing refrigerant, measured between refrigerant charges. The leak rate is expressed in terms of the percentage of the appliance's full charge that would be lost over a 12-month period if the current rate of loss were to continue over that period. The rate must be calculated using one of the following methods. The same method must be used for all appliances subject to the leak repair requirements located at an operating facility.

(1) Annualizing Method. (i) Step 1. Take the number of pounds of refrigerant added to the appliance to return it to a full charge, whether in one addition or if multiple additions related to same leak, and divide it by the number of pounds of refrigerant the appliance normally contains at full charge;

(ii) Step 2. Take the shorter of the number of days that have passed since the last day refrigerant was added or 365 days and divide that number by 365 days;

(iii) Step 3. Take the number calculated in Step 1 and divide it by the number calculated in Step 2; and

(iv) Step 4. Multiply the number calculated in Step 3 by 100 to calculate a percentage. This method is summarized in the following formula:

$\begin{array}{c}\text{Leak rate}\\ \text{(% per year)}\end{array}=\frac{\text{pounds of refrigerant added}}{\begin{array}{c}\text{pounds of refrigerant}\\ \text{in full charge}\end{array}}×\frac{365\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\mathrm{days}/\mathrm{year}}{\begin{array}{c}\mathrm{short}\text{er: of # days since}\\ \text{refrigerant last added or 365 days}\end{array}}×100%$

(2) Rolling Average Method. (i) Step 1. Take the sum of the pounds of refrigerant added to the appliance over the previous 365-day period (or over the period that has passed since the last successful follow-up verification test showing all identified leaks in the appliance were repaired, if that period is less than one year);

(ii) Step 2. Divide the result of Step 1 by the pounds of refrigerant the appliance normally contains at full charge; and

(iii) Step 3. Multiply the result of Step 2 by 100 to obtain a percentage. This method is summarized in the following formula:

$\begin{array}{c}\text{Leak rate}\\ \text{}\text{(% per year)}\end{array}=\frac{\begin{array}{c}\text{pounds of refrigerant added over past 365 days}\\ \text{(or since the last successful follow-up verification test showing all identified}\\ \text{leaks in the appliance were repaired, if that period is less than one year)}\end{array}}{\text{pounds of refrigerant in full charge}}×100%$

Low-loss fitting means any device that is intended to establish a connection between hoses, appliances, or recovery and/or recycling machines and that is designed to close automatically or to be closed manually when disconnected, minimizing the release of refrigerant from hoses, appliances, and recovery and/or recycling machines.

Low-pressure appliance means an appliance that uses a refrigerant with a liquid phase saturation pressure below 45 psia at 104 °F. Examples include but are not limited to appliances using R-11, R-123, R-113, and R-245fa.

Major maintenance, service, or repair means any maintenance, service, or repair that involves the removal of any or all of the following appliance components: compressor, condenser, evaporator, or auxiliary heat exchange coil; or any maintenance, service, or repair that involves uncovering an opening of more than four (4) square inches of “flow area” for more than 15 minutes.

Medium-pressure appliance means an appliance that uses a refrigerant with a liquid phase saturation pressure between 45 psia and 170 psia at 104 °F. Examples include but are not limited to appliances using R-114, R-124, R-12, R-134a, and R-500.

Mothball means to evacuate refrigerant from an appliance, or the affected isolated section or component of an appliance, to at least atmospheric pressure, and to temporarily shut down that appliance.

Motor vehicle air conditioner (MVAC) means any appliance that is a motor vehicle air conditioner as defined in 40 CFR part 82, subpart B.

MVAC-like appliance means a mechanical vapor compression, open-drive compressor appliance with a full charge of 20 pounds or less of refrigerant used to cool the driver's or passenger's compartment of off-road vehicles or equipment. This includes, but is not limited to, the air-conditioning equipment found on agricultural or construction vehicles. This definition is not intended to cover appliances using R-22 refrigerant.

Normal operating characteristics and conditions means appliance operating temperatures, pressures, fluid flows, speeds, and other characteristics, including full charge of the appliance, that would be expected for a given process load and ambient condition during normal operation. Normal operating characteristics and conditions are marked by the absence of atypical conditions affecting the operation of the appliance.

One-time expansion device means an appliance that relies on the release of its refrigerant charge to the environment in order to provide a cooling effect. These are typically single releases but could also include products that are designed to release refrigerant to the environment through multiple individual charges.

Opening an appliance means any maintenance, service, repair, or disposal of an appliance that would release any refrigerant in the appliance to the atmosphere. Connecting and disconnecting hoses and gauges to measure pressures, add refrigerant, or recover refrigerant from the appliance are not considered “opening an appliance.”

Parent company means an individual, corporation, partnership, association, joint-stock company, or an unincorporated organization that can direct or cause the direction of management and policies of another entity, through the ownership of shares or otherwise.

Person means any individual or legal entity, including an individual, corporation, partnership, association, state, municipality, political subdivision of a state, Indian tribe, and any agency, department, or instrumentality of the United States, and any officer, agent, or employee thereof.

Process stub means a length of tubing that provides access to the refrigerant inside a small appliance or room air conditioner and that can be resealed at the conclusion of repair or service.

Reclaim means to reprocess recovered refrigerant to all of the specifications in appendix A of this subpart (based on AHRI Standard 700-2016, Specifications for Refrigerants) that are applicable to that refrigerant and to verify that the refrigerant meets these specifications using the analytical methodology prescribed in section 5 of appendix A of this subpart.

Recover means to remove refrigerant in any condition from an appliance and to store it in an external container without necessarily testing or processing it in any way.

Recovery efficiency means the percentage of refrigerant in an appliance that is recovered by a piece of recovery and/or recycling equipment.

Recycle, when referring to refrigerant, means to extract refrigerant from an appliance (except MVACs) and clean it for reuse in equipment of the same owner without meeting all of the requirements for reclamation. In general, recycled refrigerant is cleaned using oil separation and single or multiple passes through devices, such as replaceable core filter-driers, which reduce moisture, acidity, and particulate matter.

Refrigerant means, for purposes of this subpart, any substance, including blends and mixtures, consisting in part or whole of a class I or class II ozone-depleting substance or substitute that is used for heat transfer purposes and provides a cooling effect.

Refrigerant circuit means the parts of an appliance that are normally connected to each other (or are separated only by internal valves) and are designed to contain refrigerant.

Retire, when referring to an appliance, means the removal of the refrigerant and the disassembly or impairment of the refrigerant circuit such that the appliance as a whole is rendered unusable by any person in the future.

Retrofit means to convert an appliance from one refrigerant to another refrigerant. Retrofitting includes the conversion of the appliance to achieve system compatibility with the new refrigerant and may include, but is not limited to, changes in lubricants, gaskets, filters, driers, valves, o-rings or appliance components.

Seasonal variance means the removal of refrigerant from an appliance due to a change in ambient conditions caused by a change in season, followed by the subsequent addition of an amount that is less than or equal to the amount of refrigerant removed in the prior change in season, where both the removal and addition of refrigerant occurs within one consecutive 12-month period.

Self-contained recovery equipment means refrigerant recovery and/or recycling equipment that is capable of removing the refrigerant from an appliance without the assistance of components contained in the appliance.

Self-sealing valve means a valve affixed to a container of refrigerant that automatically seals when not dispensing refrigerant and meets or exceeds established performance criteria as identified in § 82.154(c)(2).

Small appliance means any appliance that is fully manufactured, charged, and hermetically sealed in a factory with five (5) pounds or less of refrigerant, including, but not limited to, refrigerators and freezers (designed for home, commercial, or consumer use), medical or industrial research refrigeration equipment, room air conditioners (including window air conditioners, portable air conditioners, and packaged terminal air heat pumps), dehumidifiers, under-the-counter ice makers, vending machines, and drinking water coolers.

Substitute means any chemical or product, whether existing or new, that is used as a refrigerant to replace a class I or II ozone-depleting substance. Examples include, but are not limited to hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, hydrofluoroolefins, hydrofluoroethers, hydrocarbons, ammonia, carbon dioxide, and blends thereof. As used in this subpart, the term “exempt substitutes” refers to certain substitutes when used in certain end-uses that are specified in § 82.154(a)(1) as exempt from the venting prohibition and the requirements of this subpart, and the term “non-exempt substitutes” refers to all other substitutes and end-uses not so specified in § 82.154(a)(1).

System-dependent recovery equipment means refrigerant recovery equipment that requires the assistance of components contained in an appliance to remove the refrigerant from the appliance.

System receiver means the isolated portion of the appliance, or a specific vessel within the appliance, that is used to hold the refrigerant charge during the servicing or repair of that appliance.

Technician means any person who in the course of maintenance, service, or repair of an appliance (except MVACs) could be reasonably expected to violate the integrity of the refrigerant circuit and therefore release refrigerants into the environment. Technician also means any person who in the course of disposal of an appliance (except small appliances, MVACs, and MVAC-like appliances) could be reasonably expected to violate the integrity of the refrigerant circuit and therefore release refrigerants from the appliances into the environment. Activities reasonably expected to violate the integrity of the refrigerant circuit include but are not limited to: Attaching or detaching hoses and gauges to and from the appliance; adding or removing refrigerant; adding or removing components; and cutting the refrigerant line. Activities such as painting the appliance, rewiring an external electrical circuit, replacing insulation on a length of pipe, or tightening nuts and bolts are not reasonably expected to violate the integrity of the refrigerant circuit. Activities conducted on appliances that have been properly evacuated pursuant to § 82.156 are not reasonably expected to release refrigerants unless the activity includes adding refrigerant to the appliance. Technicians could include but are not limited to installers, contractor employees, in-house service personnel, and owners and/or operators of appliances.

Very high-pressure appliance means an appliance that uses a refrigerant with a critical temperature below 104 °F or with a liquid phase saturation pressure above 355 psia at 104 °F. Examples include but are not limited to appliances using R-13, R-23, R-503, R-508A, and R-508B.

[58 FR 28712, May 14, 1993, as amended at 59 FR 42956, Aug. 19, 1994; 59 FR 55925, Nov. 9, 1994; 60 FR 40439, Aug. 8, 1995; 68 FR 43806, July 24, 2003; 69 FR 11978, Mar. 12, 2004; 70 FR 1991, Jan. 11, 2005; 70 FR 19278, Apr. 13, 2005; 81 FR 82349, Nov. 18, 2016]