# 40 CFR § 82.156 - Proper evacuation of refrigerant from appliances.

§ 82.156 Proper evacuation of refrigerant from appliances.

Until January 1, 2018, this section applies only to evacuation of refrigerant from appliances containing class I or class II refrigerants. Starting on January 1, 2018, this section applies to evacuation of refrigerant from appliances containing any class I or class II refrigerant or any non-exempt substitute refrigerant, excluding paragraph (i) of this section which applies only to appliances containing class I or class II refrigerants until January 1, 2019. Starting January 1, 2019, the provisions in § 82.157 apply in lieu of paragraph (i) of this section.

(a) Appliances (except small appliances, MVACs, and MVAC-like appliances). Before opening appliances (except small appliances, MVACs, and MVAC-like appliances) or disposing of such appliances, technicians must evacuate the refrigerant, including all the liquid refrigerant, to the levels in Table 1 using a recovery and/or recycling machine certified pursuant to § 82.158 unless the situations in paragraphs (a)(1) or (2) of this section apply. Technicians may evacuate either the entire appliance or the part to be serviced, if the refrigerant in the part can be isolated to a system receiver. A technician must verify that the applicable level of evacuation has been reached in the appliance or the part before it is opened.

(1) If evacuation of the appliance to the atmosphere is not to be performed after completion of the maintenance, service, or repair, and if the maintenance, service, or repair is not major as defined at § 82.152, the appliance must:

(i) Be evacuated to a pressure no higher than 0 psig before it is opened if it is a medium-, high- or very high-pressure appliance;

(ii) Be pressurized to a pressure no higher than 0 psig before it is opened if it is a low-pressure appliance. Persons must cover openings when isolation is not possible. Persons pressurizing low-pressure appliances that use refrigerants with boiling points at or below 85 degrees Fahrenheit at 29.9 inches of mercury (standard atmospheric pressure), must not use methods such as nitrogen that require subsequent purging. Persons pressurizing low-pressure appliances that use refrigerants with boiling points above 85 degrees Fahrenheit at 29.9 inches of mercury, must use heat to raise the internal pressure of the appliance as much as possible, but may use nitrogen to raise the internal pressure of the appliance from the level attainable through use of heat to atmospheric pressure; or

(iii) For the purposes of oil changes, be evacuated or pressurized to a pressure no higher than 5 psig, before it is opened; or drain the oil into a system receiver to be evacuated or pressurized to a pressure no higher than 5 psig.

(2) If leaks in the appliance make evacuation to the levels in Table 1 unattainable or would substantially contaminate the refrigerant being recovered, persons opening or disposing of the appliance must:

(i) Isolate leaking from non- leaking components wherever possible;

(ii) Evacuate non-leaking components to be opened or disposed of to the levels specified in Table 1; and

(iii) Evacuate leaking components to be opened or disposed of to the lowest level that can be attained without substantially contaminating the refrigerant. This level may not exceed 0 psig.

(3) Recordkeeping. As of January 1, 2018, technicians evacuating refrigerant from appliances with a full charge of more than 5 and less than 50 pounds of refrigerant for purposes of disposal of that appliance must keep records documenting the following for three years:

(i) The company name, location of the appliance, date of recovery, and type of refrigerant recovered for each appliance;

(ii) The total quantity of refrigerant, by type, recovered from all disposed appliances in each calendar month; and

(iii) The quantity of refrigerant, by type, transferred for reclamation and/or destruction, the person to whom it was transferred, and the date of transfer.

Table 1 - Required Levels of Evacuation for Appliances

[Except for small appliances, MVACs, and MVAC-like appliances]

Type of appliance Inches of Hg vacuum
(relative to standard atmospheric pressure of 29.9 inches Hg)
Using recovery and/or recycling equipment manufactured or
imported before
November 15, 1993
Using recovery and/or recycling equipment manufactured or
imported on or after
November 15, 1993
Very high-pressure appliance 0 0.
High-pressure appliance, or isolated component of such appliance, with a full charge of less than 200 pounds of refrigerant 0 0.
High-pressure appliance, or isolated component of such appliance, with a full charge of 200 pounds or more of refrigerant 4 10.
Medium-pressure appliance, or isolated component of such appliance, with a full charge of less than 200 pounds of refrigerant 4 10.
Medium-pressure appliance, or isolated component of such appliance, with a full charge of 200 pounds or more of refrigerant 4 15.
Low-pressure appliance 25 mm Hg absolute 25 mm Hg absolute.

(b) Small appliances. Before opening a small appliance or when disposing of a small appliance, persons must recover refrigerant, using a recovery and/or recycling machine certified pursuant to § 82.158, according to the following conditions:

(1) When using recovery equipment manufactured before November 15, 1993, recover 80 percent of the refrigerant in the small appliance; or

(2) When using recovery equipment manufactured on or after November 15, 1993, recover 90 percent of the refrigerant in the appliance when the compressor in the appliance is functioning, or 80 percent of the refrigerant in the appliance when the compressor in the appliance is not functioning; or

(3) Evacuate the appliance to four inches of mercury vacuum.

(c) MVAC-like appliances. Persons may only open MVAC-like appliances while properly using, as defined at § 82.32(e), recovery and/or recycling equipment certified pursuant to § 82.158(f) or § 82.36, as applicable. All persons recovering refrigerant from MVAC-like appliances for purposes of disposal of these appliances must evacuate the appliance in accordance with 40 CFR part 82, subpart B or reduce the system pressure to or below 102 mm of mercury vacuum.

(d) MVACs. All persons recovering refrigerant from MVACs for purposes of disposal of these appliances must evacuate the appliance in accordance with 40 CFR part 82, subpart B or reduce the system pressure to or below 102 mm of mercury vacuum.

(e) System-dependent equipment may not be used with appliances with a full charge of more than 15 pounds of refrigerant, unless the system-dependent equipment is permanently attached to the appliance as a pump-out unit.

(f) Persons who maintain, service, repair, or dispose of only appliances that they own and that contain pump-out units are exempt from the requirement to use certified, self-contained recovery and/or recycling equipment.

(g) All recovery and/or recycling equipment must be used in accordance with the manufacturer's directions unless such directions conflict with the requirements of this subpart.

(h) Refrigerant may be returned to the appliance from which it is recovered or to another appliance owned by the same person without being recycled or reclaimed, unless the appliance is an MVAC or MVAC-like appliance.

(i) The provisions in this paragraph (i) apply to owners and operators of appliances containing 50 or more pounds of class I and class II refrigerants only until January 1, 2019. The definitions in paragraph (j) of this section apply for purposes of this paragraph (i) in lieu of the definitions in § 82.152.

(1) Owners or operators of commercial refrigeration equipment normally containing more than 50 pounds of refrigerant must have leaks repaired in accordance with paragraph (i)(9) of this section, if the appliance is leaking at a rate such that the loss of refrigerant will exceed 35 percent of the total charge during a 12-month period, except as described in paragraphs (i)(6), (i)(8), and (i)(10) of this section and paragraphs (i)(1)(i), (i)(1)(ii), and (i)(1)(iii) of this section. Repairs must bring the annual leak rate to below 35 percent.

(i) If the owners or operators of the federally-owned commercial refrigerant appliances determine that the leaks cannot be repaired in accordance with paragraph (i)(9) of this section and that an extension in accordance with the requirements discussed in this paragraph (i)(1)(i) of this section apply, they must document all repair efforts, and notify EPA of their inability to comply within the 30-day repair requirement, and the reason for the inability must be submitted to EPA in accordance with § 82.166(n). Such notification must be made within 30 days of discovering the leaks. EPA will determine if the extension requested in accordance with the requirements discussed in paragraph (i)(1)(i) of this section is justified. If the extension is not justified, EPA will notify the owner/operator within 30 days of receipt of the notification.

(ii) Owners or operators of federally-owned commercial refrigeration equipment may have more than 30 days to repair leaks if the refrigeration appliance is located in an area subject to radiological contamination or where the shutting down of the appliance will directly lead to radiological contamination. Only the additional time needed to conduct and complete repairs in a safe working environment will be permitted.

(iii) Owners or operators of federally-owned commercial refrigeration equipment requesting or who are granted time extensions under this paragraph must comply with paragraphs (i)(3) and (i)(4) of this section.

(2) The owners or operators of industrial process refrigeration equipment normally containing more than 50 pounds of refrigerant must have leaks repaired if the appliance is leaking at a rate such that the loss of refrigerant will exceed 35 percent of the total charge during a 12-month period in accordance with paragraph (i)(9) of this section, except as described in paragraphs (i)(6), (i)(7) and (i)(10) of this section, and paragraphs (i)(2)(i) and (i)(2)(ii) of this section. Repairs must bring annual leak rates to below 35 percent during a 12-month period. If the owners or operators of the industrial process refrigeration equipment determine that the leak rate cannot be brought to below 35 percent during a 12-month period within 30 days (or 120 days, where an industrial process shutdown in accordance with paragraph (i)(2)(ii) of this section is required,) and in accordance with paragraph (i)(9) of this section, and that an extension in accordance with the requirements discussed in this paragraph apply, the owners or operators of the appliance must document all repair efforts, and notify EPA of the reason for the inability in accordance with § 82.166(n) within 30 days of making this determination. Owners or operators who obtain an extension pursuant to this section or elect to utilize the additional time provided in paragraph (i)(2)(i) of this section, must conduct all necessary leak repairs, if any, that do not require any additional time beyond the initial 30 or 120 days.

(i) The owners or operators of industrial process refrigeration equipment are permitted more than 30 days (or 120 days where an industrial process shutdown in accordance with paragraph (i)(2)(ii) of this section is required) to repair leaks, if the necessary parts are unavailable or if requirements of other applicable federal, state, or local regulations make a repair within 30 or 120 days impossible. Only the additional time needed to receive delivery of the necessary parts or to comply with the pertinent regulations will be permitted.

(ii) Owners or operators of industrial process refrigeration equipment will have a 120-day repair period, rather than a 30-day repair period, to repair leaks in instances where an industrial process shutdown is needed to repair a leak or leaks from industrial process refrigeration equipment.

(3) Owners or operators of industrial process refrigeration equipment and owners or operators of federally-owned commercial refrigeration equipment or of federally-owned comfort cooling appliances who are granted additional time under paragraphs (i)(1) or (i)(5) of this section, must have repairs performed in a manner that sound professional judgment indicates will bring the leak rate below the applicable allowable leak rate. When an industrial process shutdown has occurred or when repairs have been made while an appliance is mothballed, the owners or operators shall conduct an initial verification test at the conclusion of the repairs and a follow-up verification test. The follow-up verification test shall be conducted within 30 days of completing the repairs or within 30 days of bringing the appliance back on-line, if taken off-line, but no sooner than when the appliance has achieved normal operating characteristics and conditions. When repairs have been conducted without an industrial process shutdown or system mothballing, an initial verification test shall be conducted at the conclusion of the repairs, and a follow-up verification test shall be conducted within 30 days of the initial verification test. In all cases, the follow-up verification test shall be conducted at normal operating characteristics and conditions, unless sound professional judgment indicates that tests performed at normal operating characteristics and conditions will produce less reliable results, in which case the follow-up verification test shall be conducted at or near the normal operating pressure where practicable, and at or near the normal operating temperature where practicable.

(i) If the owners or operators of industrial process refrigeration equipment takes the appliance off-line, or if the owners or operators of federally-owned commercial refrigeration or of federally-owned comfort cooling appliances who are granted additional time under paragraphs (i)(1) or (i)(5) of this section take the appliance off-line, they cannot bring the appliance back on-line until an initial verification test indicates that the repairs undertaken in accordance with paragraphs (i)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), or (i)(2)(i) and (ii), or (5)(i), (ii), and (iii) of this section have been successfully completed, demonstrating the leak or leaks are repaired. The owners or operators of the industrial process refrigeration equipment, federally-owned commercial refrigeration appliances, or federally-owned comfort cooling appliances are exempted from this requirement only where the owners or operators will retrofit or retire the industrial process refrigeration equipment, federally-owned commercial refrigeration appliance, or federally-owned comfort cooling appliance in accordance with paragraph (i)(6) of this section. Under this exemption, the owner or operators may bring the industrial process refrigeration equipment, federally-owned commercial refrigeration appliance, or federally-owned comfort cooling appliance back on-line without successful completion of an initial verification test.

(ii) If the follow-up verification test indicates that the repairs to industrial process refrigeration equipment, federally-owned commercial refrigeration equipment, or federally-owned comfort cooling appliances have not been successful, the owner or operator must retrofit or retire the equipment in accordance with paragraph (i)(6) and any such longer time period as may apply under paragraphs (i)(7)(i), (ii) and (iii) or (i)(8)(i) and (ii) of this section. The owners and operators of the industrial process refrigeration equipment, federally-owned commercial refrigeration equipment, or federally-owned comfort cooling appliances are relieved of this requirement if the conditions of paragraphs (i)(3)(iv) and/or (i)(3)(v) of this section are met.

(iii) The owner or operator of industrial process refrigeration equipment that fails a follow-up verification test must notify EPA within 30 days of the failed follow-up verification test in accordance with § 82.166(n).

(iv) The owner or operator is relieved of the obligation to retrofit or replace the industrial process refrigeration equipment as discussed in paragraph (i)(6) of this section if second repair efforts to fix the same leaks that were the subject of the first repair efforts are successfully completed within 30 days or 120 days where an industrial process shutdown is required, after the initial failed follow-up verification test. The second repair efforts are subject to the same verification requirements of paragraphs (i)(3), (i)(3) (i) and (ii) of this section. The owner or operator is required to notify EPA within 30 days of the successful follow-up verification test in accordance with § 82.166(n) and the owner or operator is no longer subject to the obligation to retrofit or replace the appliance that arose as a consequence of the initial failure to verify that the leak repair efforts were successful.

(v) The owner or operator of industrial process refrigeration equipment is relieved of the obligation to retrofit or replace the equipment in accordance with paragraph (i)(6) of this section if within 180 days of the initial failed follow-up verification test, the owner or operator establishes that the appliance's annual leak rate does not exceed the applicable allowable annual leak rate, in accordance with paragraph (i)(4) of this section. If the appliance's owner or operator establishes that the appliance's annual leak rate does not exceed the applicable allowable annual leak rate, the owner or operator is required to notify EPA within 30 days of that determination in accordance with § 82.166(n) and the owner or operator would no longer be subject to the obligation to retrofit or replace the equipment that arose as a consequence of the initial failure to verify that the leak repair efforts were successful.

(4) In the case of a failed follow-up verification test subject to paragraph (i)(3)(v) of this section, the determination of whether industrial process refrigeration equipment has an annual leak rate that exceeds the applicable allowable annual leak rate will be made in accordance with parameters identified by the owner or operator in its notice to EPA regarding the failure of the initial follow-up verification test, if those parameters are acceptable to EPA; otherwise by parameters selected by EPA. The determination must be based on the full charge for the affected industrial process refrigeration equipment. The leak rate determination parameters in the owner's or operator's notice will be considered acceptable unless EPA notifies the owners or operators within 30 days of receipt of the notice. Where EPA does not accept the parameters identified by the owner or operator in its notice, EPA will not provide additional time beyond the additional time permitted in paragraph (i)(3)(v) of this section unless specifically stated in the parameters selected by EPA.

(5) Owners or operators of comfort cooling appliances normally containing more than 50 pounds of refrigerant and not covered by paragraph (i)(1) or (i)(2) of this section must have leaks repaired in accordance with paragraph (i)(9) of this section if the appliance is leaking at a rate such that the loss of refrigerant will exceed 15 percent of the total charge during a 12-month period, except as described in paragraphs (i)(6), (i)(8) and (i)(10) of this section and paragraphs (i)(5)(i), (i)(5)(ii) and (i)(5)(iii) of this section. Repairs must bring the annual leak rate to below 15 percent.

(i) If the owners or operators of federally-owned comfort-cooling appliances determine that the leaks cannot be repaired in accordance with paragraph (i)(9) of this section and that an extension in accordance with the requirements discussed in paragraph (i)(5) of this section apply, they must document all repair efforts, and notify EPA of their inability to comply within the 30-day repair requirement, and the reason for the inability must be submitted to EPA in accordance with § 82.166(n). Such notification must be made within 30 days of discovering that leak repair efforts cannot be completed within 30 days.

(ii) Owners or operators of federally-owned comfort-cooling appliances may have more than 30 days to repair leaks where the refrigeration appliance is located in an area subject to radiological contamination or where the shutting down of the appliance will directly lead to radiological contamination. Only the additional time needed to conduct and complete work in a safe environment will be permitted.

(iii) Owners or operators of federally-owned comfort-cooling appliances requesting, or who are granted, time extensions under this paragraph must comply with paragraphs (i)(3) and (i)(4) of this section.

(6) Owners or operators are not required to repair leaks as provided in paragraphs (i)(1), (i)(2), and (i)(5) of this section if, within 30 days of discovering a leak greater than the applicable allowable leak rate, or within 30 days of a failed follow-up verification test, or after making good faith efforts to repair the leaks as described in paragraph (i)(6)(i) of this section, they develop a one-year retrofit or retirement plan for the leaking appliance. Owners or operators who decide to retrofit the appliance must use a refrigerant or substitute with a lower or equivalent ozone-depleting potential than the previous refrigerant and must include such a change in the retrofit plan. Owners or operators who retire and replace the appliance must replace the appliance with an appliance that uses a refrigerant or substitute with a lower or equivalent ozone-depleting potential and must include such a change in the retirement plan. The retrofit or retirement plan (or a legible copy) must be kept at the site of the appliance. The original plan must be made available for EPA inspection upon request. The plan must be dated, and all work performed in accordance with the plan must be completed within one year of the plan's date, except as described in paragraphs (i)(6)(i), (i)(7), and (i)(8) of this section. Owners or operators are temporarily relieved of this obligation if the appliance has undergone system mothballing as defined in § 82.152.

(i) If the owner or operator has made good faith efforts to repair leaks from the appliance in accordance with paragraphs (i)(1), (i)(2), or (i)(5) of this section and has decided prior to completing a follow-up verification test, to retrofit or retire the appliance in accordance with paragraph (i)(6) of this section, the owner or operator must develop a retrofit or retirement plan within 30 days of the decision to retrofit or retire the appliance. The owner or operator must complete the retrofit or retirement of the appliance within one year and 30 days of when the owner or operator discovered that the leak rate exceeded the applicable allowable leak rate, except as provided in paragraphs (i)(7) and (i)(8) of this section.

(ii) In all cases, subject to paragraph (i)(6)(i) of this section, the written plan shall be prepared no later than 30 days after the owner or operator has determined to proceed with retrofitting or retiring the appliance. All reports required under § 82.166(o) shall be due at the time specified in the paragraph imposing the specific reporting requirement, or no later than 30 days after the decision to retrofit or retire the appliance, whichever is later.

(iii) In cases where the owner or operator of industrial process refrigeration equipment has made good faith efforts to retrofit or retire industrial process refrigeration equipment prior to August 8, 1995, and where these efforts are not complete, the owner or operator must develop a retrofit or retirement plan that will complete the retrofit or retirement of the affected appliance by August 8, 1996. This plan (or a legible copy) must be kept at the site of the appliance. The original must be made available for EPA inspection upon request. Where the conditions of paragraphs (i)(7) and (i)(8) of this section apply, and where the length of time necessary to complete the work is beyond August 8, 1996, all records must be submitted to EPA in accordance with § 82.166(o), as well as maintained on-site.

(7) The owners or operators of industrial process refrigeration equipment will be allowed additional time to complete the retrofit or retirement of industrial process refrigeration equipment if the conditions described in paragraphs (i)(7)(i) or (i)(7)(ii) of this section are met. The owners or operators of industrial process refrigeration equipment will be allowed additional time beyond the additional time provided in paragraph (i)(7)(ii) of this section if the conditions described in paragraph (i)(7)(iii) of this section are met.

(i) Additional time, to the extent reasonably necessary will be allowed for retrofitting or retiring industrial process refrigeration equipment due to delays occasioned by the requirements of other applicable federal, state, or local laws or regulations, or due to the unavailability of a suitable replacement refrigerant with a lower ozone depletion potential. If these circumstances apply, the owner or operator of the facility must notify EPA within six months after the 30-day period following the discovery of an exceedance of the 35 percent leak rate. Records necessary to allow EPA to determine that these provisions apply and the length of time necessary to complete the work must be submitted to EPA in accordance with § 82.166(o), as well as maintained on-site. EPA will notify the owner or operator of its determination within 60 days of receipt the submittal.

(ii) An additional one-year period beyond the initial one-year retrofit period is allowed for industrial process refrigeration equipment where the following criteria are met:

(A) The new or the retrofitted industrial process refrigerant equipment is custom-built;

(B) The supplier of the appliance or one or more of its critical components has quoted a delivery time of more than 30 weeks from when the order is placed;

(C) The owner or operator notifies EPA within six months of the expiration of the 30-day period following the discovery of an exceedance of the 35 percent leak rate to identify the owner or operator, describe the appliance involved, explain why more than one year is needed, and demonstrate that the first two criteria are met in accordance with § 82.166(o); and

(D) The owner or operator maintains records that are adequate to allow a determination that the criteria are met.

(iii) The owners or operators of industrial process refrigeration equipment may request additional time to complete retrofitting or retiring industrial process refrigeration equipment beyond the additional one-year period if needed and where the initial additional one year was granted in accordance with paragraph (i)(7)(ii) of this section. The request shall be submitted to EPA before the end of the ninth month of the first additional year and shall include revisions of information required under § 82.166(o). Unless EPA objects to this request submitted in accordance with § 82.166(o) within 30 days of receipt, it shall be deemed approved.

(8) Owners or operators of federally-owned commercial or comfort-cooling appliances will be allowed an additional year to complete the retrofit or retirement of the appliances if the conditions described in paragraph (i)(8)(i) of this section are met, and will be allowed one year beyond the additional year if the conditions in paragraph (i)(8)(ii) of this section are met.

(i) Up to one additional one-year period beyond the initial one-year retrofit period is allowed for such equipment where the following criteria are met:

(A) Due to complications presented by the federal agency appropriations and/or procurement process, a delivery time of more than 30 weeks from the beginning of the official procurement process is quoted, or where the appliance is located in an area subject to radiological contamination and creating a safe working environment will require more than 30 weeks;

(B) The operator notifies EPA within six months of the expiration of the 30-day period following the discovery of an exceedance of the applicable allowable annual leak rate to identify the operator, describe the appliance involved, explain why more than one year is needed, and demonstrate that the first criterion is met in accordance with § 82.166(o); and

(C) The operator maintains records adequate to allow a determination that the criteria are met.

(ii) The owners or operators of federally-owned commercial or comfort-cooling appliances may request additional time to complete retrofitting, replacement or retiring such appliances beyond the additional one-year period if needed and where the initial additional one year was granted in accordance with paragraph (i)(8)(i) of this section. The request shall be submitted to EPA before the end of the ninth month of the first additional year and shall include revisions of information earlier submitted as required under § 82.166(o). Unless EPA objects to this request submitted in accordance with § 82.166(o) within 30 days of receipt, it shall be deemed approved.

(9) Owners or operators must repair leaks pursuant to paragraphs (i)(1), (i)(2) and (i)(5) of this section within 30 days after discovery, or within 30 days after when the leaks should have been discovered if the owners intentionally shielded themselves from information which would have revealed a leak, unless granted additional time pursuant to § 82.156(i).

(10) The amount of time for owners and operators to complete repairs, retrofit plans or retrofits/replacements/ retirements under paragraphs (i)(1), (i)(2), (i)(5), (i)(6), (i)(7), (i)(8), and (i)(9) of this section is temporarily suspended at the time an appliance is mothballed as defined in § 82.152. The time for owners and operators to complete repairs, retrofit plans, or retrofits/replacements will resume on the day the appliance is brought back on-line and is no longer considered mothballed. All initial and follow-up verification tests must be performed in accordance with paragraphs (i)(3), (i)(3)(i), and (i)(3)(ii) of this section.

(11) In calculating annual leak rates, purged refrigerant that is destroyed at a verifiable destruction efficiency of 98 percent or greater will not be counted toward the leak rate. Owners or operators destroying purged refrigerants must maintain information as set forth in § 82.166(p)(1) and submit to EPA, within 60 days after the first time such exclusion is used by that facility, information set forth in § 82.166(p)(2).

(j) Definitions for the leak repair provisions in 82.156(i). These definitions are not applicable to any other portion of subpart F other than 82.156(i). Along with paragraph (i) of this section, the definitions in this section apply only until January 1, 2019.

Appliance means, for the purposes of paragraph (i) of this section, any device which contains and uses a refrigerant and which is used for household or commercial purposes, including any air conditioner, refrigerator, chiller, or freezer.

Commercial refrigeration means, for the purposes of paragraph (i) of this section, the refrigeration appliances utilized in the retail food and cold storage warehouse sectors. Retail food includes the refrigeration equipment found in supermarkets, convenience stores, restaurants and other food service establishments. Cold storage includes the equipment used to store meat, produce, dairy products, and other perishable goods. All of the equipment contains large refrigerant charges, typically over 75 pounds.

Critical component means, for the purposes of paragraph (i) of this section, a component without which industrial process refrigeration equipment will not function, will be unsafe in its intended environment, and/or will be subject to failures that would cause the industrial process served by the refrigeration appliance to be unsafe.

Custom-built means, for the purposes of paragraph (i) of this section, that the equipment or any of its critical components cannot be purchased and/or installed without being uniquely designed, fabricated and/or assembled to satisfy a specific set of industrial process conditions.

Follow-up verification test means, for the purposes of paragraph (i) of this section, those tests that involve checking the repairs within 30 days of the appliance's returning to normal operating characteristics and conditions. Follow-up verification tests for appliances from which the refrigerant charge has been evacuated means a test conducted after the appliance or portion of the appliance has resumed operation at normal operating characteristics and conditions of temperature and pressure, except in cases where sound professional judgment dictates that these tests will be more meaningful if performed prior to the return to normal operating characteristics and conditions. A follow-up verification test with respect to repairs conducted without evacuation of the refrigerant charge means a reverification test conducted after the initial verification test and usually within 30 days of normal operating conditions. Where an appliance is not evacuated, it is only necessary to conclude any required changes in pressure, temperature or other conditions to return the appliance to normal operating characteristics and conditions.

Full charge means, for the purposes of paragraph (i) of this section, the amount of refrigerant required for normal operating characteristics and conditions of the appliance as determined by using one or a combination of the following four methods:

(i) Use the equipment manufacturer's determination of the correct full charge for the equipment;

(ii) Determine the full charge by making appropriate calculations based on component sizes, density of refrigerant, volume of piping, and other relevant considerations;

(iii) Use actual measurements of the amount of refrigerant added or evacuated from the appliance; and/or

(iv) Use an established range based on the best available data regarding the normal operating characteristics and conditions for the appliance, where the midpoint of the range will serve as the full charge, and where records are maintained in accordance with § 82.166(q).

Industrial process refrigeration means, for the purposes of paragraph (i) of this section, complex customized appliances used in the chemical, pharmaceutical, petrochemical and manufacturing industries. These appliances are directly linked to the industrial process. This sector also includes industrial ice machines, appliances used directly in the generation of electricity, and ice rinks. Where one appliance is used for both industrial process refrigeration and other applications, it will be considered industrial process refrigeration equipment if 50 percent or more of its operating capacity is used for industrial process refrigeration.

Industrial process shutdown means, for the purposes of paragraph (i) of this section, that an industrial process or facility temporarily ceases to operate or manufacture whatever is being produced at that facility.

Initial verification test means, for the purposes of paragraph (i) of this section, those leak tests that are conducted as soon as practicable after the repair is completed. An initial verification test, with regard to the leak repairs that require the evacuation of the appliance or portion of the appliance, means a test conducted prior to the replacement of the full refrigerant charge and before the appliance or portion of the appliance has reached operation at normal operating characteristics and conditions of temperature and pressure. An initial verification test with regard to repairs conducted without the evacuation of the refrigerant charge means a test conducted as soon as practicable after the conclusion of the repair work.

Leak rate means, for the purposes of paragraph (i) of this section, the rate at which an appliance is losing refrigerant, measured between refrigerant charges. The leak rate is expressed in terms of the percentage of the appliance's full charge that would be lost over a 12-month period if the current rate of loss were to continue over that period. The rate is calculated using only one of the following methods for all appliances located at an operating facility.

(i) Method 1. (A) Step 1. Take the number of pounds of refrigerant added to the appliance to return it to a full charge and divide it by the number of pounds of refrigerant the appliance normally contains at full charge;

(B) Step 2. Take the shorter of the number of days that have passed since the last day refrigerant was added or 365 days and divide that number by 365 days;

(C) Step 3. Take the number calculated in Step 1. and divide it by the number calculated in Step 2.; and

(D) Step 4. Multiply the number calculated in Step 3. by 100 to calculate a percentage. This method is summarized in the following formula:

$\begin{array}{c}\text{Leak rate}\\ \text{(% per year)}\end{array}=\frac{\text{pounds of refrigerant added}}{\begin{array}{c}\text{pounds of refrigerant}\\ \text{in full charge}\end{array}}×\frac{365\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\mathrm{days}/\mathrm{year}}{\begin{array}{c}\mathrm{short}\text{er: of # days since}\\ \text{refrigerant last added or 365 days}\end{array}}×100%$

(ii) Method 2. (A) Step 1. Take the sum of the quantity of refrigerant added to the appliance over the previous 365-day period (or over the period that has passed since leaks in the appliance were last repaired, if that period is less than one year),

(B) Step 2. Divide the result of Step 1. by the quantity (e.g., pounds) of refrigerant the appliance normally contains at full charge, and

(C) Step 3. Multiply the result of Step 2. by 100 to obtain a percentage. This method is summarized in the following formula:

$\begin{array}{c}\text{Leak rate}\\ \text{}\text{(% per year)}\end{array}=\frac{\begin{array}{c}\text{pounds of refrigerant added over past 365 days}\\ \text{(or since leaks were last repaired,}\\ \text{if that period is less than one year)}\end{array}}{\text{pounds of refrigerant in full charge}}×100%$

Normal operating characteristics or conditions means, for the purposes of paragraph (i) of this section, temperatures, pressures, fluid flows, speeds and other characteristics that would normally be expected for a given process load and ambient condition during operation. Normal operating characteristics and conditions are marked by the absence of atypical conditions affecting the operation of the refrigeration appliance.

Normally containing a quantity of refrigerant means, for the purposes of paragraph (i) of this section, containing the quantity of refrigerant within the appliance or appliance component when the appliance is operating with a full charge of refrigerant.

Refrigerant means, for the purposes of paragraph (i) of this section, any substance consisting in part or whole of a class I or class II ozone-depleting substance that is used for heat transfer purposes and provides a cooling effect.

Substitute means, for the purposes of paragraph (i) of this section, any chemical or product, whether existing or new, that is used by any person as an EPA approved replacement for a class I or II ozone-depleting substance in a given refrigeration or air-conditioning end-use.

Suitable replacement refrigerant means, for the purposes of paragraph (i) of this section, a refrigerant that is acceptable under section 612(c) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and all regulations promulgated under that section, compatible with other materials with which it may come into contact, and able to achieve the temperatures required for the affected industrial process in a technically feasible manner.

System mothballing means, for the purposes of paragraph (i) of this section, the intentional shutting down of a refrigeration appliance undertaken for an extended period of time by the owners or operators of that facility, where the refrigerant has been evacuated from the appliance or the affected isolated section of the appliance, at least to atmospheric pressure.

[58 FR 28712, May 14, 1993, as amended at 59 FR 42956, 42962, Aug. 19, 1994; 59 FR 55926, Nov. 9, 1994; 60 FR 40440, Aug. 8, 1995; 68 FR 43807, July 24, 2003; 69 FR 11979, Mar. 12, 2004; 70 FR 1991, Jan. 11, 2005; 79 FR 29690, May 23, 2014; 8a FR 82354, Nov. 18, 2016]