40 CFR § 85.1902 - Definitions.
For the purposes of this subpart and unless otherwise noted:
(b) Emission-related defect means:
(1) A defect in design, materials, or workmanship in a device, system, or assembly described in the approved Application for Certification that affects any parameter or specification enumerated in appendix VIII of this part; or
(2) A defect in the design, materials, or workmanship in one or more emission-related parts, components, systems, software, or elements of design which must function properly to ensure continued compliance with greenhouse gas emission standards in 40 CFR part 86.
(d) Voluntary emissions recall means a repair, adjustment, or modification program voluntarily initiated and conducted by a manufacturer to remedy any emission-related defect for which direct notification of vehicle or engine owners has been provided, including programs to remedy defects related to emissions standards for CO2, CH4, N2O, and/or carbon-related exhaust emissions.