40 CFR § 85.1902 - Definitions.
For the purposes of this subpart and unless otherwise noted:
(b) Emission-related defect means:
(1) A defect in design, materials, or workmanship in a device, system, or assembly described in the approved Application for Certification that affects any parameter or specification enumerated in appendix VIII of this part; or
(2) A defect in the design, materials, or workmanship in one or more emission-related parts, components, systems, software or elements of design which must function properly to ensure continued compliance with emission standards.
(d) Voluntary emissions recall means a repair, adjustment, or modification program voluntarily initiated and conducted by a manufacturer to remedy any emission-related defect for which direct notification of vehicle or engine owners has been provided, including programs to remedy defects related to emissions standards for CO2, CH4, N2O, and/or carbon-related exhaust emissions.