40 CFR § 86.016-1 - General applicability.
(a) Applicability. The provisions of this subpart apply for certain types of new heavy-duty engines and vehicles as described in this paragraph (a). Note that this subpart does not apply for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, or medium-duty passenger vehicles (see subpart S of this part for requirements that apply for those vehicles). In some cases, manufacturers of heavy-duty engines and vehicles can choose whether to meet the requirements of this subpart or the requirements of subpart S of this part; those provisions are therefore considered optional, but only to the extent that manufacturers comply with the other set of requirements. In cases where a provision applies only for a certain vehicle group based on its model year, vehicle class, motor fuel, engine type, or other distinguishing characteristics, the limited applicability is cited in the appropriate section. The provisions of this subpart apply for certain heavy-duty engines and vehicles as follows:
(1) The provisions of this subpart related to exhaust emission standards apply for diesel-cycle and Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines installed in vehicles above 14,000 pounds GVWR; however, these vehicles may instead be certified under subpart S of this part in certain circumstances as specified in § 86.1801.
(2) The provisions of this subpart related to exhaust emission standards apply for engines that will be installed in incomplete heavy-duty vehicles at or below 14,000 pounds GVWR; however, these vehicles may instead be certified under subpart S of this part as specified in § 86.1801.
(3) Diesel-cycle and Otto-cycle complete heavy-duty vehicles at or below 14,000 pounds GVWR and the corresponding engines are not subject to the provisions of this subpart related to exhaust emission standards, except that these provisions are optional for diesel-cycle engines installed in such vehicles until those vehicles become subject to the Tier 3 standards under § 86.1816-18.
(i) These provisions do not apply for vehicles at or below 14,000 pounds GVWR.
(ii) Vehicles above 14,000 pounds GVWR must meet evaporative emission standards as specified in 40 CFR 1037.103. This involves meeting the standards specified in §§ 86.008-10(b) and 86.007-11(b)(3) and (4) until the Tier 3 standards in § 86.1813 start to apply.
(b) Relationship to subpart S of this part. Unless specified otherwise, if engines are not subject to provisions of this subpart or if manufacturers choose not to meet optional provisions of this subpart as described in paragraph (a) of this section, those engines must be installed in vehicles meeting the corresponding requirements under subpart S of this part. If a vehicle and its installed engine comply with a mix of provisions from this subpart and from subpart S of this part, the vehicle must be certified under subpart S of this part, and the engine does not need to be certified separately.
(3) The standards and requirements of this part applicable to methanol-fueled heavy-duty vehicles and engines (including flexible fuel vehicles and engines) apply to heavy-duty vehicles and engines fueled with any oxygenated fuel (including flexible fuel vehicles and engines). Most significantly, this means that the hydrocarbon standards apply as NMHCE and the vehicles and engines must be tested using the applicable oxygenated fuel according to the test procedures in 40 CFR part 1065 applicable for oxygenated fuels. For purposes of this paragraph (d), oxygenated fuel means any fuel containing at least 50 volume percent oxygenated compounds. For example, a fuel mixture of 85 gallons of ethanol and 15 gallons of gasoline is an oxygenated fuel, while a fuel mixture of 15 gallons of ethanol and 85 gallons of gasoline is not an oxygenated fuel.
(4) The standards and requirements of subpart S of this part applicable to heavy-duty vehicles under 14,000 pounds GVWR apply to all heavy-duty vehicles powered solely by electricity, including plug-in electric vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Use good engineering judgment to apply these requirements to these vehicles, including applying these provisions to vehicles over 14,000 pounds GVWR. Electric heavy-duty vehicles may not generate NOX or PM emission credits. Heavy-duty vehicles powered solely by electricity are deemed to have zero emissions of regulated pollutants.
(5) The standards and requirements of this part applicable to diesel-fueled heavy-duty vehicles and engines apply to all other heavy-duty vehicles and engines not otherwise addressed in this paragraph (d).
(7) Manufacturers may voluntarily certify to the standards of paragraphs (d)(3) through (5) of this section before model year 2016. Note that other provisions in this part require compliance with the standards described in paragraphs (d)(1) and (2) of this section for model years before 2016.
(e) Small volume manufacturers. Special certification procedures are available for any manufacturer whose projected combined U.S. sales of light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, heavy-duty vehicles, and heavy-duty engines in its product line (including all vehicles and engines imported under the provisions of 40 CFR 85.1505 and 85.1509) are fewer than 10,000 units for the model year in which the manufacturer seeks certification. To certify its product line under these optional procedures, the small-volume manufacturer must first obtain the Administrator's approval. The manufacturer must meet the eligibility criteria specified in § 86.098-14(b) before the Administrator's approval will be granted. The small-volume manufacturer's certification procedures are described in § 86.098-14.
(f) Optional procedures for determining exhaust opacity.
(3) When a manufacturer chooses to use an alternative measurement procedure, it has the responsibility to determine whether the results obtained by the procedure will correlate with the results which would be obtained from the measurement procedure in subpart I of this part. Consequently, the Administrator will not routinely approve or disapprove any alternative opacity measurement procedure or any associated correlation data which the manufacturer elects to use to satisfy the data requirements for subpart I of this part.
(4) If a confirmatory test is performed and the results indicate there is a systematic problem suggesting that the data generated under an optional alternative measurement procedure do not adequately correlate with data obtained in accordance with the procedures described in subpart I of this part, EPA may require that all certificates of conformity not already issued be based on data obtained from procedures described in subpart I of this part.
(g) Clean alternative fuel conversions. The provisions of this subpart also apply for clean alternative fuel conversions as defined in 40 CFR 85.502 of all vehicles described in paragraph (a) of this section.
(h) Turbine engines. Turbine engines are deemed to be compression-ignition engines for purposes of this part.