40 CFR 86.127-12 - Test procedures; overview.
Applicability. The procedures described in this subpart are used to determine the conformity of vehicles with the standards set forth in subpart A or S of this part (as applicable) for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles. Except where noted, the procedures of paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, and the contents of §§ 86.135-00, 86.136-90, 86.137-96, 86.140-94, 86.142-90, and 86.144-94 are applicable for determining emission results for vehicle exhaust emission systems designed to comply with the FTP emission standards, or the FTP emission element required for determining compliance with composite SFTP standards. Paragraph (e) of this section discusses fuel spitback emissions. Paragraphs (f) and (g) of this section discuss the additional test elements of aggressive driving (US06) and air conditioning (SC03) that comprise the exhaust emission components of the SFTP. Paragraphs (h) and (i) of this section are applicable to all vehicle emission test procedures.
(a) The overall test consists of prescribed sequences of fueling, parking, and operating test conditions. Vehicles are tested for any or all of the following emissions, depending upon the specific test requirements and the vehicle fuel type:
(1) Gaseous exhaust THC, NMHC, NMOG, CO, NOX, CO2, N2O, CH4, CH3OH, C2H5OH, C2H4O, and HCHO.
(3) Evaporative HC (for gasoline-fueled, methanol-fueled and gaseous-fueled vehicles) and CH3OH (for methanol-fueled vehicles). The evaporative testing portion of the procedure occurs after the exhaust emission test; however, exhaust emissions need not be sampled to complete a test for evaporative emissions.
(4) Fuel spitback (this test is not required for gaseous-fueled vehicles).
(b) The FTP Otto-cycle exhaust emission test is designed to determine gaseous THC, NMHC, NMOG, CO, CO2, CH4, NOX, N2O, and particulate mass emissions from gasoline-fueled, methanol-fueled and gaseous-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles as well as methanol and formaldehyde from methanol-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles, as well as methanol, ethanol, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde from ethanol-fueled vehicles, while simulating an average trip in an urban area of approximately 11 miles (approximately 18 kilometers). The test consists of engine start-ups and vehicle operation on a chassis dynamometer through a specified driving schedule (see paragraph (a) of appendix I to this part for the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule). A proportional part of the diluted exhaust is collected continuously for subsequent analysis, using a constant volume (variable dilution) sampler or critical flow venturi sampler.
(c) The diesel-cycle exhaust emission test is designed to determine particulate and gaseous mass emissions during the test described in paragraph (b) of this section. For petroleum-fueled diesel-cycle vehicles, diluted exhaust is continuously analyzed for THC using a heated sample line and analyzer; the other gaseous emissions (CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, and NOX) are collected continuously for analysis as in paragraph (b) of this section. For methanol- and ethanol-fueled vehicles, THC, methanol, formaldehyde, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, and NOX are collected continuously for analysis as in paragraph (b) of this section. Additionally, for ethanol-fueled vehicles, ethanol and acetaldehyde are collected continuously for analysis as in paragraph (b) of this section. THC, methanol, ethanol, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde are collected using heated sample lines, and a heated FID is used for THC analyses. Simultaneous with the gaseous exhaust collection and analysis, particulates from a proportional part of the diluted exhaust are collected continuously on a filter. The mass of particulate is determined by the procedure described in § 86.139. This testing requires a dilution tunnel as well as the constant volume sampler.
(d) The evaporative emission test (gasoline-fueled vehicles, methanol-fueled and gaseous-fueled vehicles) is designed to determine hydrocarbon and methanol evaporative emissions as a consequence of diurnal temperature fluctuation, urban driving and hot soaks following drives. It is associated with a series of events that a vehicle may experience and that may result in hydrocarbon and/or methanol vapor losses. The test procedure is designed to measure:
(2) Running losses resulting from a simulated trip performed on a chassis dynamometer, measured by the enclosure or point-source technique (see § 86.134-96; this test is not required for gaseous-fueled vehicles); and
(e) Fuel spitback emissions occur when a vehicle's fuel fill neck cannot accommodate dispensing rates. The vehicle test for spitback consists of a short drive followed immediately by a complete refueling event. This test is not required for gaseous-fueled vehicles.
(f) The element of the SFTP for exhaust emissions related to aggressive driving (US06) is designed to determine gaseous THC, NMHC, CO, CO2, CH4, and NOX emissions from gasoline-fueled or diesel-fueled vehicles (see § 86.158-08 Supplemental test procedures; overview, and § 86.159-08 Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions). The test cycle simulates urban driving speeds and accelerations that are not represented by the FTP Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule simulated trips discussed in paragraph (b) of this section. The test consists of vehicle operation on a chassis dynamometer through a specified driving cycle (see paragraph (g), US06 Dynamometer Driving Schedule, of appendix I to this part). A proportional part of the diluted exhaust is collected continuously for subsequent analysis, using a constant volume (variable dilution) sampler or critical flow venturi sampler.
(1) The element of the SFTP related to the increased exhaust emissions caused by air conditioning operation (SC03) is designed to determine gaseous THC, NMHC, CO, CO2, CH4, and NOX emissions from gasoline-fueled or diesel fueled vehicles related to air conditioning use (see § 86.158-08 Supplemental Federal test procedures; overview and § 86.160-00 Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions). The test cycle simulates urban driving behavior with the air conditioner operating. The test consists of engine startups and vehicle operation on a chassis dynamometer through specified driving cycles (see paragraph (h), SC03 Dynamometer Driving Schedule, of appendix I to this part). A proportional part of the diluted exhaust is collected continuously for subsequent analysis, using a constant volume (variable dilution) sampler or critical flow venturi sampler. The testing sequence includes an approved preconditioning cycle, a 10 minute soak with the engine turned off, and the SC03 cycle with measured exhaust emissions.
(2) The SC03 air conditioning test is conducted with the air conditioner operating at specified settings and the ambient test conditions of:
(i) Air temperature of 95 °F;
(ii) 100 grains of water/pound of dry air (approximately 40 percent relative humidity);
(iii) Simulated solar heat intensity of 850 W/m 2 (see § 86.161-00(d)); and
(iv) Air flow directed at the vehicle that will provide representative air conditioner system condenser cooling at all vehicle speeds (see § 86.161-00(e)).
(3) Manufacturers have the option of simulating air conditioning operation during testing at other ambient test conditions provided they can demonstrate that the vehicle tail pipe exhaust emissions are representative of the emissions that would result from the SC03 cycle test procedure and the ambient conditions of paragraph (g)(2) of this section. The simulation test procedure must be approved in advance by the Administrator (see §§ 86.162-03 and 86.163-00).
(h) Except in cases of component malfunction or failure, all emission control systems installed on or incorporated in a new motor vehicle shall be functioning during all procedures in this subpart. Maintenance to correct component malfunction or failure shall be authorized in accordance with § 86.007-25 or § 86.1834-01 as applicable.
(i) Background concentrations are measured for all species for which emissions measurements are made. For exhaust testing, this requires sampling and analysis of the dilution air. For evaporative testing, this requires measuring initial concentrations. (When testing methanol-fueled vehicles, manufacturers may choose not to measure background concentrations of methanol and/or formaldehyde, and then assume that the concentrations are zero during calculations.)