(1) Except as provided by paragraph (a)(2) of this section, all light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and MDPVs must be equipped with an onboard diagnostic (OBD) system capable of monitoring, for each vehicle's useful life, all emission-related powertrain systems or components. All systems and components required to be monitored by these regulations must be evaluated periodically, but no less frequently than once per Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule as defined in appendix I, paragraph (a), of this part, or similar trip as approved by the Administrator.
(2) Diesel fueled chassis-certified MDPVs and engine-certified diesel engines used in MDPVs, are subject to the requirements of this section only if the exhaust emission certification of the applicable test group is being carried across from a California configuration to which California OBD-II requirements are applicable.
(b)Malfunction descriptions. The OBD system shall detect and identify malfunctions in all monitored emission-related powertrain systems or components according to the following malfunction definitions as measured and calculated in accordance with test procedures set forth in subpart B of this part, excluding those test procedures described in § 86.158-00. Paragraph (b)(1) of this section does not apply to diesel cycle light-duty vehicles or diesel cycle light-duty trucks, except where the catalyst is needed for NMHC control. Paragraphs (b)(2), (b)(3), and (b)(4) of this section do not apply to diesel cycle light-duty vehicles or diesel cycle light-duty trucks.
(1) Catalyst deterioration or malfunction before it results in an increase in NMHC emissions 1.5 times the NMHC standard, as compared to the NMHC emission level measured using a representative 4000 mile catalyst system.
(2) Engine misfire resulting in exhaust emissions exceeding 1.5 times the applicable standard for NMHC, CO or NOX; and any misfire capable of damaging the catalytic converter.
(3) Oxygen sensor deterioration or malfunction resulting in exhaust emissions exceeding 1.5 times the applicable standard for NMHC, CO or NOX.
(4) Any vapor leak in the evaporative and/or refueling system (excluding the tubing and connections between the purge valve and the intake manifold) greater than or equal in magnitude to a leak caused by a 0.040 inch diameter orifice; any absence of evaporative purge air flow from the complete evaporative emission control system. On vehicles with fuel tank capacity greater than 25 gallons, the Administrator may, following a request from the manufacturer, revise the size of the orifice to the smallest orifice feasible, based on test data, if the most reliable monitoring method available cannot reliably detect a system leak equal to a 0.040 inch diameter orifice.
(5) Any deterioration or malfunction occurring in a powertrain system or component directly intended to control emissions, including but not necessarily limited to, the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system, if equipped, the secondary air system, if equipped, and the fuel control system, singularly resulting in exhaust emissions exceeding 1.5 times the applicable emission standard for NMHC, CO or NOX. For vehicles equipped with a secondary air system, a functional check, as described in paragraph (b)(6) of this section, may satisfy the requirements of this paragraph provided the manufacturer can demonstrate that deterioration of the flow distribution system is unlikely. This demonstration is subject to Administrator approval and, if the demonstration and associated functional check are approved, the diagnostic system shall indicate a malfunction when some degree of secondary airflow is not detectable in the exhaust system during the check. For vehicles equipped with positive crankcase ventilation (PCV), monitoring of the PCV system is not necessary provided the manufacturer can demonstrate to the Administrator's satisfaction that the PCV system is unlikely to fail.
(6) Any other deterioration or malfunction occurring in an electronic emission-related powertrain system or component not otherwise described above that either provides input to or receives commands from the on-board computer and has a measurable impact on emissions; monitoring of components required by this paragraph shall be satisfied by employing electrical circuit continuity checks and rationality checks for computer input components (input values within manufacturer specified ranges), and functionality checks for computer output components (proper functional response to computer commands) except that the Administrator may waive such a rationality or functionality check where the manufacturer has demonstrated infeasibility; malfunctions are defined as a failure of the system or component to meet the electrical circuit continuity checks or the rationality or functionality checks.
(7) Oxygen sensor or any other component deterioration or malfunction which renders that sensor or component incapable of performing its function as part of the OBD system shall be detected and identified on vehicles so equipped.
(8)For Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) only. Unless added to HEVs in compliance with other requirements of this section, or unless otherwise approved by the Administrator:
(i) The manufacturer must equip each HEV with a maintenance indicator consisting of a light that must activate automatically by illuminating the first time the minimum performance level is observed for each battery system component. Possible battery system components requiring monitoring are: battery water level, temperature control, pressure control, and other parameters critical for determining battery condition.
(iii) The manufacturer must equip each HEV with a separate odometer or other device subject to the approval of the Administrator that can accurately measure the mileage accumulation on the engines used in these vehicles.
(c)Malfunction indicator light. The OBD system shall incorporate a malfunction indicator light (MIL) readily visible to the vehicle operator. When illuminated, it shall display “Check Engine,” “Service Engine Soon,” a universally recognizable engine symbol, or a similar phrase or symbol approved by the Administrator. A vehicle shall not be equipped with more than one general purpose malfunction indicator light for emission-related problems; separate specific purpose warning lights (e.g. brake system, fasten seat belt, oil pressure, etc.) are permitted. The use of red for the OBD-related malfunction indicator light is prohibited.
(1) The MIL shall illuminate and remain illuminated when any of the conditions specified in paragraph (b) of this section are detected and verified, or whenever the engine control enters a default or secondary mode of operation considered abnormal for the given engine operating conditions. The MIL shall blink once per second under any period of operation during which engine misfire is occurring and catalyst damage is imminent. If such misfire is detected again during the following driving cycle (i.e., operation consisting of, at a minimum, engine start-up and engine shut-off) or the next driving cycle in which similar conditions are encountered, the MIL shall maintain a steady illumination when the misfire is not occurring and shall remain illuminated until the MIL extinguishing criteria of this section are satisfied. The MIL shall also illuminate when the vehicle's ignition is in the “key-on” position before engine starting or cranking and extinguish after engine starting if no malfunction has previously been detected. If a fuel system or engine misfire malfunction has previously been detected, the MIL may be extinguished if the malfunction does not reoccur during three subsequent sequential trips during which similar conditions are encountered (engine speed is within 375 rpm, engine load is within 20 percent, and the engine's warm-up status is the same as that under which the malfunction was first detected), and no new malfunctions have been detected. If any malfunction other than a fuel system or engine misfire malfunction has been detected, the MIL may be extinguished if the malfunction does not reoccur during three subsequent sequential trips during which the monitoring system responsible for illuminating the MIL functions without detecting the malfunction, and no new malfunctions have been detected. Upon Administrator approval, statistical MIL illumination protocols may be employed, provided they result in comparable timeliness in detecting a malfunction and evaluating system performance, i.e., three to six driving cycles would be considered acceptable.
(i) For interim non-Tier 2 and Tier 2 LDV/LLDTs and HLDT/MDPVs, vehicles produced through the 2007 model year, upon a manufacturer's written request, EPA will consider allowing the use of an on-board diagnostic system during the certification process, that functions properly on low-sulfur gasoline, but indicates sulfur-induced passes when exposed to high sulfur gasoline.
(ii) For interim non-Tier 2 and Tier 2 LDV/LLDTs and HLDT/MDPVs, if vehicles produced through the 2007 model year exhibit illuminations of the emission control diagnostic system malfunction indicator light due to high sulfur gasoline, EPA will consider, upon a manufacturer's written request, allowing modifications to such vehicles on a case-by-case basis so as to eliminate the sulfur induced illumination.
(e)Storing of computer codes. The emission control diagnostic system shall record and store in computer memory diagnostic trouble codes and diagnostic readiness codes indicating the status of the emission control system. These codes shall be available through the standardized data link connector per SAE J1979 specifications as described in paragraph (h) of this section.
(1) A diagnostic trouble code shall be stored for any detected and verified malfunction causing MIL illumination. The stored diagnostic trouble code shall identify the malfunctioning system or component as uniquely as possible. At the manufacturer's discretion, a diagnostic trouble code may be stored for conditions not causing MIL illumination. Regardless, a separate code should be stored indicating the expected MIL illumination status (i.e., MIL commanded “ON,” MIL commanded “OFF”).
(2) For a single misfiring cylinder, the diagnostic trouble code(s) shall uniquely identify the cylinder, unless the manufacturer submits data and/or engineering evaluations which adequately demonstrate that the misfiring cylinder cannot be reliably identified under certain operating conditions. The diagnostic trouble code shall identify multiple misfiring cylinder conditions; under multiple misfire conditions, the misfiring cylinders need not be uniquely identified if a distinct multiple misfire diagnostic trouble code is stored.
(3) The diagnostic system may erase a diagnostic trouble code if the same code is not re-registered in at least 40 engine warm-up cycles, and the malfunction indicator light is not illuminated for that code.
(4) Separate status codes, or readiness codes, shall be stored in computer memory to identify correctly functioning emission control systems and those emission control systems which require further vehicle operation to complete proper diagnostic evaluation. A readiness code need not be stored for those monitors that can be considered continuously operating monitors (e.g., misfire monitor, fuel system monitor, etc.). Readiness codes should never be set to “not ready” status upon key-on or key-off; intentional setting of readiness codes to “not ready” status via service procedures must apply to all such codes, rather than applying to individual codes. Subject to Administrator approval, if monitoring is disabled for a multiple number of driving cycles (i.e., more than one) due to the continued presence of extreme operating conditions (e.g., ambient temperatures below 40°F, or altitudes above 8000 feet), readiness for the subject monitoring system may be set to “ready” status without monitoring having been completed. Administrator approval shall be based on the conditions for monitoring system disablement, and the number of driving cycles specified without completion of monitoring before readiness is indicated.
(f)Available diagnostic data.
(1) Upon determination of the first malfunction of any component or system, “freeze frame” engine conditions present at the time shall be stored in computer memory. Should a subsequent fuel system or misfire malfunction occur, any previously stored freeze frame conditions shall be replaced by the fuel system or misfire conditions (whichever occurs first). Stored engine conditions shall include, but are not limited to: engine speed, open or closed loop operation, fuel system commands, coolant temperature, calculated load value, fuel pressure, vehicle speed, air flow rate, and intake manifold pressure if the information needed to determine these conditions is available to the computer. For freeze frame storage, the manufacturer shall include the most appropriate set of conditions to facilitate effective repairs. If the diagnostic trouble code causing the conditions to be stored is erased in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section, the stored engine conditions may also be erased.
(2) The following data in addition to the required freeze frame information shall be made available on demand through the serial port on the standardized data link connector, if the information is available to the on-board computer or can be determined using information available to the on-board computer: Diagnostic trouble codes, engine coolant temperature, fuel control system status (closed loop, open loop, other), fuel trim, ignition timing advance, intake air temperature, manifold air pressure, air flow rate, engine RPM, throttle position sensor output value, secondary air status (upstream, downstream, or atmosphere), calculated load value, vehicle speed, and fuel pressure. The signals shall be provided in standard units based on SAE specifications described in paragraph (h) of this section. Actual signals shall be clearly identified separately from default value or limp home signals.
(3) For all emission control systems for which specific on-board evaluation tests are conducted (catalyst, oxygen sensor, etc.), the results of the most recent test performed by the vehicle, and the limits to which the system is compared shall be available through the standardized data link connector per SAE J1979 specifications as described in paragraph (h) of this section.
(4) Access to the data required to be made available under this section shall be unrestricted and shall not require any access codes or devices that are only available from the manufacturer.
(g) The emission control diagnostic system is not required to evaluate systems or components during malfunction conditions if such evaluation would result in a risk to safety or failure of systems or components. Additionally, the diagnostic system is not required to evaluate systems or components during operation of a power take-off unit such as a dump bed, snow plow blade, or aerial bucket, etc.
(h)Reference materials. The emission control diagnostic system shall provide for standardized access and conform with the following standards that we incorporate by reference in § 86.1:
(1) Except as specified in paragraph (h)(2) of this section, SAE J1850 “Class B Data Communication Network Interface,” (July 1995) shall be used as the on-board to off-board communications protocol. All emission related messages sent to the scan tool over a J1850 data link shall use the Cyclic Redundancy Check and the three byte header, and shall not use inter-byte separation or checksums.
(2) ISO 9141-2 February 1994 “Road vehicles—Diagnostic systems—Part 2: CARB requirements for interchange of digital information,” may be used as an alternative to SAE J1850 as the on-board to off-board communications protocol.
(3) Basic diagnostic data (as specified in §§ 86.094-17(e) and (f)) shall be provided in the format and units in SAE J1979 July 1996 E/E Diagnostic Test Modes.”
(4) Diagnostic trouble codes shall be consistent with SAE J2012 July 1996 “Recommended Practices for Diagnostic Trouble Code Definitions.”
(5) The connection interface between the OBD system and test equipment and diagnostic tools shall meet the functional requirements of SAE J1962 January 1995 “Diagnostic Connector.”
(i)Deficiencies and alternate fueled vehicles. Upon application by the manufacturer, the Administrator may accept an OBD system as compliant even though specific requirements are not fully met. Such compliances without meeting specific requirements, or deficiencies, will be granted only if compliance would be infeasible or unreasonable considering such factors as, but not limited to, technical feasibility of the given monitor, lead time and production cycles including phase-in or phase-out of engines or vehicle designs and programmed upgrades of computers, and if any unmet requirements are not carried over from the previous model year except where unreasonable hardware or software modifications would be necessary to correct the non-compliance, and the manufacturer has demonstrated an acceptable level of effort toward compliance as determined by the Administrator. Furthermore, EPA will not accept any deficiency requests that include the complete lack of a major diagnostic monitor (“major” diagnostic monitors being those for the catalyst, oxygen sensor, engine misfire, and evaporative leaks), with the possible exception of the special provisions for alternate fueled vehicles. For alternate fueled vehicles (e.g. natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, ethanol), beginning with the model year for which alternate fuel emission standards are applicable and extending through the 2004 model year, manufacturers may request the Administrator to waive specific monitoring requirements of this section for which monitoring may not be reliable with respect to the use of the alternate fuel. At a minimum, alternate fuel vehicles shall be equipped with an OBD system meeting OBD requirements to the extent feasible as approved by the Administrator.
(j) Demonstration of compliance with California OBD II requirements (Title 13 California Code Sec. 1968.1), as modified pursuant to California Mail Out #97-24 (December 9, 1997), shall satisfy the requirements of this section, except that compliance with Title 13 California Code Secs. 1968.1(b)(4.2.2), pertaining to evaporative leak detection, and 1968.1(d), pertaining to tampering protection, are not required to satisfy the requirements of this section, and the deficiency fine provisions of 1968.1(m)(6.1) and (6.2) shall not apply.
(k) For engine families required to have an emission control diagnostic system (an OBD system), certification will not be granted if, for any test vehicle approved by the Administrator in consultation with the manufacturer, the malfunction indicator light does not illuminate under any of the following circumstances, unless the manufacturer can demonstrate that any identified OBD problems discovered during the Administrator's evaluation will be corrected on production vehicles. Only paragraphs (k)(5) and (k)(6) of this section apply to diesel cycle vehicles and diesel cycle trucks where such vehicles and trucks are so equipped.
(1) A catalyst is replaced with a deteriorated or defective catalyst, or an electronic simulation of such, resulting in an increase of 1.5 times the NMHC standard above the NMHC emission level measured using a representative 4000 mile catalyst system.
(2) An engine misfire condition is induced resulting in exhaust emissions exceeding 1.5 times the applicable standards for NMHC, CO or NOX.
(3) Any oxygen sensor is replaced with a deteriorated or defective oxygen sensor, or an electronic simulation of such, resulting in exhaust emissions exceeding 1.5 times the applicable standard for NMHC, CO or NOX.
(4) A vapor leak is introduced in the evaporative and/or refueling system (excluding the tubing and connections between the purge valve and the intake manifold) greater than or equal in magnitude to a leak caused by a 0.040 inch diameter orifice, or the evaporative purge air flow is blocked or otherwise eliminated from the complete evaporative emission control system.
(5) A malfunction condition is induced in any emission-related powertrain system or component, including but not necessarily limited to, the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system, if equipped, the secondary air system, if equipped, and the fuel control system, singularly resulting in exhaust emissions exceeding 1.5 times the applicable emission standard for NMHC, CO or NOX.
(6) A malfunction condition is induced in an electronic emission-related powertrain system or component not otherwise described above that either provides input to or receives commands from the on-board computer resulting in a measurable impact on emissions.