40 CFR 86.1845-04 - Manufacturer in-use verification testing requirements.

§ 86.1845-04 Manufacturer in-use verification testing requirements.
(a) General requirements.
(1) A manufacturer of LDVs, LDTs, MDPVs and/or complete HDVs must test, or cause to have tested, a specified number of LDVs, LDTs, MDPVs and complete HDVs. Such testing must be conducted in accordance with the provisions of this section. For purposes of this section, the term vehicle includes light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.
(2) Unless otherwise approved by the Administrator, no emission measurements made under the requirements of this section may be adjusted by Reactivity Adjustment Factors (RAFs).
(3) Upon a manufacturer's written request, prior to in-use testing, that presents information to EPA regarding pre-conditioning procedures designed solely to remove the effects of high sulfur in gasoline from vehicles produced through the 2007 model year, EPA will consider allowing such procedures on a case-by-case basis. EPA's decision will apply to manufacturer in-use testing conducted under this section and to any in-use testing conducted by EPA. Such procedures are not available for complete HDVs. After the 2007 model year, this provision can be used only for in-use vehicles in American Samoa, Guam, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, but this provision only can be used for such vehicles in any of those locations if low sulfur gasoline is determined by the Administrator to be unavailable in that specific location.
(b) Low-mileage testing—
(1) Test groups. Testing must be conducted for each test group.
(2) Vehicle mileage. All test vehicles must have a minimum odometer mileage of 10,000 miles.
(3) Number of test vehicles. For each test group, the minimum number of vehicles that must be tested is specified in Table S04-06 and Table S04-07 of this paragraph (b)(3). After testing the minimum number of vehicles of a specific test group as specified in Table S04-06 or S04-07 of this paragraph (b)(3), a manufacturer may test additional vehicles upon request and approval by the Agency prior to the initiation of the additional testing. Any additional testing must be completed within the testing completion requirements shown in § 86.1845-04(b)(4). The request and Agency approval (if any) shall apply to test groups on a case by case basis and apply only to testing under this paragraph. Separate approval will be required to test additional vehicles under paragraph (c) of this section. In addition to the testing specified in Table S04-06 and Table S04-07 of this paragraph (b)(3), a manufacturer shall test one vehicle from each evaporative/refueling family for evaporative/refueling emissions. If a manufacturer believes it is unable to procure the test vehicles necessary to test the required number of vehicles in a test group, the manufacturer may request, subject to Administrator approval, a decreased sample size for that test group. The request shall include a description of the methods the manufacturer has used to procure the required number of vehicles. The approval of any such request, and the substitution of an alternative sample size requirement for the test group, will be based on a review of the procurement efforts made by the manufacturer to determine if all reasonable steps have been taken to procure the required test group size. Tables S04-06 and S04-07 follow:
Table S04-06—Small Volume Manufacturers
49 and 50 State total sales 1 1-5000 5001-14,999
1 Manufacturer's total annual sales.
Low Mileage Voluntary 0
High Mileage Voluntary 2
Table S04-07—Large Volume Manufacturers
49 and 50 State annual sales 1 1-5000 2 5001-14,999 2 1-50,000 3 50,001-250,000 >250,000
1 Sales by test group.
2 Total annual production of groups eligible for testing under small volume sampling plan is capped at a maximum of 14,999 vehicle 49 or 50 state annual sales, or a maximum of 4,500 vehicle California only sales per model year, per large volume manufacturer.
3 Sampling plan applies to all of a manufacturer's remaining groups in this sales volume category when the maximum annual cap on total sales of small groups eligible for the small volume sampling plan is exceeded.
Low Mileage Voluntary 0 2 3 4
High Mileage Voluntary 2 4 5 6
(4) Completion of testing. Testing of the vehicles in a test group and evaporative/refueling family must be completed within one year of the end of production of that test group (or evaporative/refueling family) for that model year.
(5) Emission testing.
(i) Each test vehicle of a test group shall be tested in accordance with the Federal Test Procedure and the US06 portion of the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure as described in subpart B of this part, when such test vehicle is tested for compliance with applicable exhaust emission standards under this subpart. Test vehicles subject to applicable exhaust CO2 emission standards under this subpart shall also be tested in accordance with the highway fuel economy test as described in part 600, subpart B of this chapter.
(ii) For non-gaseous fueled vehicles, one test vehicle of each evaporative/refueling family shall be tested in accordance with the supplemental 2-diurnal-plus-hot-soak evaporative emission and refueling emission procedures described in subpart B of this part, when such test vehicle is tested for compliance with applicable evaporative emission and refueling standards under this subpart. For gaseous fueled vehicles, one test vehicle of each evaporative/refueling family shall be tested in accordance with the 3-diurnal-plus-hot-soak evaporative emission and refueling emission procedures described in subpart B of this part, when such test vehicle is tested for compliance with applicable evaporative emission and refueling standards under this subpart. The test vehicles tested to fulfill the evaporative/refueling testing requirement of this paragraph (b)(5)(ii) will be counted when determining compliance with the minimum number of vehicles as specified in Table S04-06 and Table S04-07 in paragraph (b)(3) of this section for testing under paragraph (b)(5)(i) of this section only if the vehicle is also tested for exhaust emissions under the requirements of paragraph (b)(5)(i) of this section.
(6) Each test vehicle not rejected based on the criteria specified in appendix II to this subpart shall be tested in as-received condition.
(7) A manufacturer may conduct subsequent diagnostic maintenance and/or testing of any vehicle. Any such maintenance and/or testing shall be reported to the Agency as specified in § 86.1847-01.
(c) High-mileage testing—
(1) Test groups. Testing must be conducted for each test group.
(2) Vehicle mileage:
(i) All test vehicles must have a minimum odometer mileage of 50,000 miles. At least one vehicle of each test group must have a minimum odometer mileage of 75 percent of the full useful life mileage. See § 86.1838-01(c)(2) for small volume manufacturer mileage requirements; or
(ii) For engine families certified for a useful life of 150,000 miles, at least one vehicle must have a minimum odometer mileage of 105,000 miles. See § 86.1838-01(c)(2) for small volume manufacturer mileage requirements.
(3) Number of test vehicles. For each test group, the minimum number of vehicles that must be tested is specified in Table S04-06 and Table S04-07 in paragraph (b)(3) of this section. After testing the minimum number of vehicles of a specific test group as specified in Table S04-06 and Table S04-07 in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, a manufacturer may test additional vehicles upon request and approval by the Agency prior to the initiation of the additional testing. Any additional testing must be completed within the testing completion requirements shown in § 86.1845-04(c)(4). The request and Agency approval (if any) shall apply to test groups on a case by case basis and apply only to testing under this paragraph (c). In addition to the testing specified in Table S04-06 and Table S04-07 in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, a manufacturer shall test one vehicle from each evaporative/refueling family for evaporative/refueling emissions. If a manufacturer believes it is unable to procure the test vehicles necessary to test the required number of vehicles in a test group as specified in Table S04-06 or Table S04-07 in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, the manufacturer may request, subject to Administrator approval, a decreased sample size for that test group. The request shall include a description of the methods the manufacturer has used to procure the required number of vehicles. The approval of any such request, and the substitution of an alternative sample size requirement for the test group, will be based on a review of the procurement efforts made by the manufacturer to determine if all reasonable steps have been taken to procure the required test group size.
(4) Initiation and completion of testing. Testing of a test group (or evaporative refueling family) must commence within 4 years of the end of production of the test group (or evaporative/refueling family) and be completed within 5 years of the end of production of the test group (or evaporative/refueling family).
(5) Emission testing.
(i) Each test vehicle shall be tested in accordance with the Federal Test Procedure and the US06 portion of the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure as described in subpart B of this part when such test vehicle is tested for compliance with applicable exhaust emission standards under this subpart. Test vehicles subject to applicable exhaust CO2 emission standards under this subpart shall also be tested in accordance with the highway fuel economy test as described in part 600, subpart B of this chapter. The US06 portion of the SFTP is not required to be performed on vehicles certified in accordance with the National LEV provisions of subpart R of this part. One test vehicle from each test group shall receive a Federal Test Procedure at high altitude. The test vehicle tested at high altitude is not required to be one of the same test vehicles tested at low altitude. The test vehicle tested at high altitude is counted when determining the compliance with the requirements shown in Table S04-06 and Table S04-07 in paragraph (b)(3) of this section or the expanded sample size as provided for in this paragraph (c).
(ii) For non-gaseous fueled vehicles, one test vehicle of each evaporative/refueling family shall be tested in accordance with the supplemental 2-diurnal-plus-hot-soak evaporative emission procedures described in subpart B of this part, when such test vehicle is tested for compliance with applicable evaporative emission and refueling standards under this subpart. For gaseous fueled vehicles, one test vehicle of each evaporative/refueling family shall be tested in accordance with the 3-diurnal-plus-hot-soak evaporative emission procedures described in subpart B of this part, when such test vehicle is tested for compliance with applicable evaporative emission and refueling standards under this subpart. The test vehicles tested to fulfill the evaporative/refueling testing requirement of this paragraph (b)(5)(ii) will be counted when determining compliance with the minimum number of vehicles as specified in Table S04-06 and table S04-07 in paragraph (b)(3) of this section for testing under paragraph (b)(5)(i) of this section only if the vehicle is also tested for exhaust emissions under the requirements of paragraph (b)(5)(i) of this section.
(6) Each test vehicle not rejected based on the criteria specified in appendix II to this subpart shall be tested in as-received condition.
(7) A manufacturer may conduct subsequent diagnostic maintenance and/or testing on any vehicle. Any such maintenance and/or testing shall be reported to the Agency as specified in § 86.1847-01.
(d) Test vehicle procurement.
(1) Vehicles tested under this section shall be procured pursuant to the provisions of this paragraph (d). Vehicles shall be procured from the group of persons who own or lease vehicles registered in the procurement area.
(2) Vehicles shall be procured from persons which own or lease the vehicle, excluding commercial owners/lessees which are owned or controlled by the vehicle manufacturer, using the procedures described in appendix I to this subpart. See § 86.1838(c)(2)(i) for small volume manufacturer requirements.
(3) Geographical limitations.
(i) Test groups certified to 50-state standards: For low altitude testing no more than fifty percent of the test vehicles may be procured from California. The test vehicles procured from the 49 state area must be procured from a location with a heating degree day 30 year annual average equal to or greater than 4000.
(ii) Test groups certified to 49 state standards: The test vehicles procured from the 49 state area must be procured from a location with a heating degree day 30 year annual average equal to or greater than 4000.
(iii) Vehicles procured for high altitude testing may be procured from any area located above 4000 feet.
(4) Vehicles may be rejected for procurement or testing under this section if they meet one or more of the rejection criteria in appendix II to this subpart. Vehicles may also be rejected after testing under this section if they meet one or more of the rejection criteria in appendix II to this subpart. Any vehicle rejected after testing must be replaced in order that the number of test vehicles in the sample comply with the sample size requirements of this section. Any post-test vehicle rejection and replacement procurement and testing must take place within the testing completion requirements of this section.
(e) Testing facilities, procedures, quality assurance and quality control—
(1) Lab equipment and procedural requirements. The manufacturer shall utilize a test laboratory that is in accordance with the equipment and procedural requirements of subpart B of this part to conduct the testing required by this section.
(2) The manufacturer shall notify the Agency of the name and location of the testing laboratory(s) to be used to conduct testing of vehicles of each model year conducted pursuant to this section. Such notification shall occur at least thirty working days prior to the initiation of testing of the vehicles of that model year.
(3) Correlation. The manufacturer shall document correlation traceable to the Environmental Protection Agency's National Vehicle and Fuel Emission Laboratory for its test laboratory utilized to conduct the testing required by this section.
(f)
(1) A manufacturer may conduct in-use testing on a test group by measuring NMHC exhaust emissions rather than NMOG exhaust emissions. The measured NMHC exhaust emissions must be multiplied by the adjustment factor used for certification of the test group, or another adjustment factor acceptable to the Administrator, to determine the equivalent NMOG exhaust emission values for the test vehicle. The equivalent NMOG exhaust emission value must be used in place of the measured NMHC exhaust emission value in determining the exhaust NMOG results. The equivalent NMOG exhaust emission values must be compared to the NMOG exhaust emission standard from the emission bin to which the test group was certified.
(2) For flexible-fueled LDVs, LDTs and MDPVs certified to NMOG standards, the manufacturer may request from the Administrator the use of a methanol (M85) or ethanol (E85) NMOG exhaust emission to gasoline NMHC exhaust emission ratio which must be established during certification for each emission data vehicle for the applicable test group. The results must be submitted to the Administrator in the Part II application for certification. After approval by the Administrator, the measured gasoline NMHC exhaust emissions must be multiplied by the M85 or E85 NMOG to gasoline NMHC ratio submitted in the application for certification for the test group to determine the equivalent NMOG exhaust emission values for the test vehicle. The equivalent NMOG exhaust emission value must be used in place of the measured NMOG exhaust emission value in determining the exhaust NMOG results. The equivalent NMOG exhaust emission values must be compared to the NMOG exhaust emission standard from the vehicle emission standard bin to which the test group was certified.
(3) If the manufacturer measures NMOG it must also measure and report HCHO emissions. As an alternative to measuring the HCHO content, if the manufacturer measures NMHC as permitted in paragraph (f)(1) of this section, the Administrator may approve, upon submission of supporting data by a manufacturer, the use of HCHO to NMHC ratios. To request the use of HCHO to NMHC ratios, the manufacturer must establish during certification testing the ratio of measured HCHO exhaust emissions to measured NMHC exhaust emissions for each emission data vehicle for the applicable test group. The results must be submitted to the Administrator with the Part II application for certification. Following approval of the application for certification, the manufacturer may conduct in-use testing on the test group by measuring NMHC exhaust emissions rather than HCHO exhaust emissions. The measured NMHC exhaust emissions must be multiplied by the HCHO to NMHC ratio submitted in the application for certification for the test group to determine the equivalent HCHO exhaust emission values for the test vehicle. The equivalent HCHO exhaust emission values must be compared to the HCHO exhaust emission standard applicable to the test group.
[64 FR 23925, May 4, 1999, as amended at 65 FR 6865, Feb. 10, 2000; 65 FR 59977, Oct. 6, 2000; 66 FR 19310, Apr. 13, 2001; 70 FR 72929, Dec. 8, 2005; 71 FR 78094, Dec. 28, 2006; 75 FR 25690, May 7, 2010]
Beta! The text on the eCFR tab represents the unofficial eCFR text at ecfr.gov.
§ 86.1845-04 Manufacturer in-use verification testing requirements.

(a) General requirements.

(1) Manufacturers of LDV, LDT, MDPV and complete HDV must test, or cause to have tested, a specified number of vehicles. Such testing must be conducted in accordance with the provisions of this section.

(2) Unless otherwise approved by the Administrator, no emission measurements made under the requirements of this section may be adjusted by Reactivity Adjustment Factors (RAFs).

(3) The following provisions apply regarding the possibility of residual effects from varying fuel sulfur levels:

(i) Vehicles certified to Tier 3 standards under § 86.1811 must always measure emissions over the FTP, then over the HFET (if applicable), then over the US06 portion of the SFTP. If a Tier 3 vehicle meets all the applicable emission standards except the FTP or HFET emission standard for NMOG NOX, and a fuel sample from the tested vehicle (representing the as-received condition) has a measured fuel sulfur level exceeding 15 ppm when measured as described in 40 CFR 1065.710, the manufacturer may repeat the FTP and HFET measurements and use the new emission values as the official results for that vehicle. For all other cases of testing Tier 3 vehicles, measured emission levels from the first test will be considered the official results for the test vehicle, regardless of any test results from additional test runs. Where repeat testing is allowed, the vehicle may operate for up to two US06 cycles (with or without measurement) before repeating the FTP and HFET measurements. The repeat measurements must include both FTP and HFET, even if the vehicle failed only one of those tests, unless the HFET is not required for a particular vehicle. Tier 3 vehicles may not undergo any other vehicle preconditioning to eliminate fuel sulfur effects on the emission control system, unless we approve it in advance.

(ii) Upon a manufacturer's written request, prior to in-use testing, that presents information to EPA regarding pre-conditioning procedures designed solely to remove the effects of high sulfur in gasoline from vehicles produced through the 2007 model year, EPA will consider allowing such procedures on a case-by-case basis. EPA's decision will apply to manufacturer in-use testing conducted under this section and to any in-use testing conducted by EPA. Such procedures are not available for complete HDV. For model year 2007 and later Tier 2 vehicles, this provision can be used only in American Samoa, Guam, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and then only if low sulfur gasoline is determined by the Administrator to be unavailable in that specific location.

(b) Low-mileage testing -

(1) Test groups. Testing must be conducted for each test group.

(2) Vehicle mileage. All test vehicles must have a minimum odometer mileage of 10,000 miles.

(3) Number of test vehicles. For each test group, the minimum number of vehicles that must be tested is specified in Table S04-06 and Table S04-07 of this paragraph (b)(3). After testing the minimum number of vehicles of a specific test group as specified in Table S04-06 or S04-07 of this paragraph (b)(3), a manufacturer may test additional vehicles upon request and approval by the Agency prior to the initiation of the additional testing. Any additional testing must be completed within the testing completion requirements shown in § 86.1845-04(b)(4). The request and Agency approval (if any) shall apply to test groups on a case by case basis and apply only to testing under this paragraph. Separate approval will be required to test additional vehicles under paragraph (c) of this section. In addition to any testing that is required under Table S04-06 and Table S04-07, a manufacturer shall test one vehicle from each evaporative/refueling family for evaporative/refueling emissions. If a manufacturer believes it is unable to procure the test vehicles necessary to test the required number of vehicles in a test group, the manufacturer may request, subject to Administrator approval, a decreased sample size for that test group. The request shall include a description of the methods the manufacturer has used to procure the required number of vehicles. The approval of any such request, and the substitution of an alternative sample size requirement for the test group, will be based on a review of the procurement efforts made by the manufacturer to determine if all reasonable steps have been taken to procure the required test group size. Tables S04-06 and S04-07 follow:

Table S04-06 - Small Volume Manufacturers

49 and 50 State total sales 1 1-5000 5001-14,999
Low Mileage Voluntary 0
High Mileage Voluntary 2

1 Manufacturer's total annual sales.

Table S04-07 - Large Volume Manufacturers

49 and 50 State annual sales 1 1-5000 2 5001-14,999 2 1-50,000 3 50,001-250,000 >250,000
Low Mileage Voluntary 0 2 3 4
High Mileage Voluntary 2 4 5 6

1 Sales by test group.

2 Total annual production of groups eligible for testing under small volume sampling plan is capped at a maximum of 14,999 vehicle 49 or 50 state annual sales, or a maximum of 4,500 vehicle California only sales per model year, per large volume manufacturer.

3 Sampling plan applies to all of a manufacturer's remaining groups in this sales volume category when the maximum annual cap on total sales of small groups eligible for the small volume sampling plan is exceeded.

(4) Completion of testing. Testing of the vehicles in a test group and evaporative/refueling family must be completed within 12 months of the end of production of that test group (or evaporative/refueling family) for that model year.

(5) Testing.

(i) Each test vehicle of a test group shall be tested in accordance with the FTP and the US06 portion of the SFTP as described in subpart B of this part, when such test vehicle is tested for compliance with applicable exhaust emission standards under this subpart. Test vehicles subject to applicable exhaust CO2 emission standards under this subpart shall also be tested in accordance with the HFET as described in 40 CFR 1066.840.

(ii) For vehicles subject to Tier 3 PM standards, manufacturers must measure PM emissions over the FTP and US06 driving schedules for at least 50 percent of the vehicles tested under paragraph (b)(5)(i) of this section.

(iii) Starting with model year 2018 vehicles, manufacturers must demonstrate compliance with the Tier 3 leak standard specified in § 86.1813, if applicable, as described in this paragraph (b)(5)(iii). Manufacturers must evaluate each vehicle tested under paragraph (b)(5)(i) of this section, except that leak testing is not required for vehicles tested under paragraph (b)(5)(iv) of this section for diurnal emissions. In addition, manufacturers must evaluate at least one vehicle from each leak family for a given model year. Manufacturers may rely on OBD monitoring instead of testing as follows:

(A) A vehicle is considered to pass the leak test if the OBD system completed a leak check within the previous 750 miles of driving without showing a leak fault code.

(B) Whether or not a vehicle's OBD system has completed a leak check within the previous 750 miles of driving, the manufacturer may operate the vehicle as needed to force the OBD system to perform a leak check. If the OBD leak check does not show a leak fault, the vehicle is considered to pass the leak test.

(C) If the most recent OBD leak check from paragraph (b)(5)(iii)(A) or (B) of this section shows a leak-related fault code as specified in § 86.1806-17(b), the vehicle is presumed to have failed the leak test. Manufacturers may perform the leak measurement procedure described in 40 CFR 1066.985 for an official result to replace the finding from the OBD leak check.

(D) Manufacturers may not perform repeat OBD checks or leak measurements to over-ride a failure under paragraph (b)(5)(iii)(C) of this section.

(iv) For nongaseous-fueled vehicles, one test vehicle of each evaporative/refueling family shall be tested in accordance with the supplemental 2-diurnal-plus-hot-soak evaporative emission and refueling emission procedures described in subpart B of this part, when such test vehicle is tested for compliance with applicable evaporative emission and refueling standards under this subpart. For gaseous-fueled vehicles, one test vehicle of each evaporative/refueling family shall be tested in accordance with the 3-diurnal-plus-hot-soak evaporative emission and refueling emission procedures described in subpart B of this part, when such test vehicle is tested for compliance with applicable evaporative emission and refueling standards under this subpart. The test vehicles tested to fulfill the evaporative/refueling testing requirement of this paragraph (b)(5)(iv) will be counted when determining compliance with the minimum number of vehicles as specified in Table S04-06 and Table S04-07 in paragraph (b)(3) of this section for testing under paragraph (b)(5)(i) of this section only if the vehicle is also tested for exhaust emissions under the requirements of paragraph (b)(5)(i) of this section.

(6) Each test vehicle not rejected based on the criteria specified in appendix II to this subpart shall be tested in as-received condition.

(7) A manufacturer may conduct subsequent diagnostic maintenance and/or testing of any vehicle. Any such maintenance and/or testing shall be reported to the Agency as specified in § 86.1847.

(c) High-mileage testing -

(1) Test groups. Testing must be conducted for each test group.

(2) Vehicle mileage. All test vehicles must have a minimum odometer mileage of 50,000 miles. At least one vehicle of each test group must have a minimum odometer mileage of 105,000 miles or 75 percent of the full useful life mileage, whichever is less. See § 86.1838-01(c)(2) for small-volume manufacturer mileage requirements.

(3) Number of test vehicles. For each test group, the minimum number of vehicles that must be tested is specified in Table S04-06 and Table S04-07 in paragraph (b)(3) of this section. After testing the minimum number of vehicles of a specific test group as specified in Table S04-06 and Table S04-07 in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, a manufacturer may test additional vehicles upon request and approval by the Agency prior to the initiation of the additional testing. Any additional testing must be completed within the testing completion requirements shown in § 86.1845-04(c)(4). The request and Agency approval (if any) shall apply to test groups on a case by case basis and apply only to testing under this paragraph (c). In addition to any testing that is required under Table S04-06 and Table S04-07, a manufacturer shall test one vehicle from each evaporative/refueling family for evaporative/refueling emissions. If a manufacturer believes it is unable to procure the test vehicles necessary to test the required number of vehicles in a test group as specified in Table S04-06 or Table S04-07, the manufacturer may request, subject to Administrator approval, a decreased sample size for that test group. The request shall include a description of the methods the manufacturer has used to procure the required number of vehicles. The approval of any such request, and the substitution of an alternative sample size requirement for the test group, will be based on a review of the procurement efforts made by the manufacturer to determine if all reasonable steps have been taken to procure the required test group size.

(4) Initiation and completion of testing. Testing of a test group (or evaporative refueling family) must commence within 4 years of the end of production of the test group (or evaporative/refueling family) and be completed within 5 years of the end of production of the test group (or evaporative/refueling family).

(5) Testing.

(i) Each test vehicle shall be tested in accordance with the FTP and the US06 portion of the SFTP as described in subpart B of this part when such test vehicle is tested for compliance with applicable exhaust emission standards under this subpart. Test vehicles subject to applicable exhaust CO2 emission standards under this subpart shall also be tested in accordance with the HFET as described in 40 CFR 1066.840. One test vehicle from each test group shall be tested over the FTP at high altitude. The test vehicle tested at high altitude is not required to be one of the same test vehicles tested at low altitude. The test vehicle tested at high altitude is counted when determining the compliance with the requirements shown in Table S04-06 and Table S04-07 in paragraph (b)(3) of this section or the expanded sample size as provided for in this paragraph (c).

(ii) For vehicles subject to Tier 3 PM standards, manufacturers must measure PM emissions over the FTP and US06 driving schedules for at least 50 percent of the vehicles tested under paragraph (c)(5)(i) of this section.

(iii) Starting with model year 2018 vehicles, manufacturers must evaluate each vehicle tested under paragraph (c)(5)(i) of this section to demonstrate compliance with the Tier 3 leak standard specified in § 86.1813, except that leak testing is not required for vehicles tested under paragraph (c)(5)(iv) of this section for diurnal emissions. In addition, manufacturers must evaluate at least one vehicle from each leak family for a given model year. Manufacturers may rely on OBD monitoring instead of testing as described in paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section.

(iv) For nongaseous-fueled vehicles, one test vehicle of each evaporative/refueling family shall be tested in accordance with the supplemental 2-diurnal-plus-hot-soak evaporative emission procedures described in subpart B of this part, when such test vehicle is tested for compliance with applicable evaporative emission and refueling standards under this subpart. For gaseous-fueled vehicles, one test vehicle of each evaporative/refueling family shall be tested in accordance with the 3-diurnal-plus-hot-soak evaporative emission procedures described in subpart B of this part, when such test vehicle is tested for compliance with applicable evaporative emission and refueling standards under this subpart. The vehicles tested to fulfill the evaporative/refueling testing requirement of this paragraph (c)(5)(iv) will be counted when determining compliance with the minimum number of vehicles as specified in Table S04-06 and table S04-07 in paragraph (b)(3) of this section for testing under paragraph (c)(5)(i) of this section only if the vehicle is also tested for exhaust emissions under the requirements of paragraph (c)(5)(i) of this section.

(6) Test condition. Each test vehicle not rejected based on the criteria specified in appendix II to this subpart shall be tested in as-received condition.

(7) Diagnostic maintenance. A manufacturer may conduct subsequent diagnostic maintenance and/or testing on any vehicle. Any such maintenance and/or testing shall be reported to the Agency as specified in § 86.1847-01.

(d) Test vehicle procurement.

(1) Vehicles tested under this section shall be procured pursuant to the provisions of this paragraph (d). Vehicles shall be procured from the group of persons who own or lease vehicles registered in the procurement area.

(2) Vehicles shall be procured from persons which own or lease the vehicle, excluding commercial owners/lessees which are owned or controlled by the vehicle manufacturer, using the procedures described in appendix I to this subpart. See § 86.1838(c)(2)(i) for small volume manufacturer requirements.

(3) Geographical limitations.

(i) Test groups certified to 50-state standards: For low altitude testing no more than fifty percent of the test vehicles may be procured from California. The test vehicles procured from the 49 state area must be procured from a location with a heating degree day 30 year annual average equal to or greater than 4000.

(ii) Test groups certified to 49 state standards: The test vehicles procured from the 49 state area must be procured from a location with a heating degree day 30 year annual average equal to or greater than 4000.

(iii) Vehicles procured for high altitude testing may be procured from any area located above 4000 feet.

(4) Vehicles may be rejected for procurement or testing under this section if they meet one or more of the rejection criteria in appendix II to this subpart. Vehicles may also be rejected after testing under this section if they meet one or more of the rejection criteria in appendix II to this subpart. Any vehicle rejected after testing must be replaced in order that the number of test vehicles in the sample comply with the sample size requirements of this section. Any post-test vehicle rejection and replacement procurement and testing must take place within the testing completion requirements of this section.

(e) Testing facilities, procedures, quality assurance and quality control -

(1) Lab equipment and procedural requirements. The manufacturer shall utilize a test laboratory that is in accordance with the equipment and procedural requirements of subpart B of this part to conduct the testing required by this section.

(2) For flexible-fueled vehicles certified to NMOG (or NMOG NOX) standards, the manufacturer may ask for EPA approval to demonstrate compliance using an equivalent NMOG emission result calculated from a ratio of ethanol NMOG exhaust emissions to gasoline NMHC exhaust emissions. Ethanol NMOG exhaust emissions are measured values from testing with the ethanol test fuel, expressed as NMOG. Gasoline NMHC exhaust emissions are measured values from testing with the gasoline test fuel, expressed as NMHC. This ratio must be established during certification for each emission-data vehicle for the applicable test group. Use good engineering judgment to establish a different ratio for each duty cycle or test interval as appropriate. Identify the ratio values you develop under this paragraph (f)(2) and describe the duty cycle or test interval to which they apply in the Part II application for certification. Calculate the equivalent NMOG emission result by multiplying the measured gasoline NMHC exhaust emissions for a given duty cycle or test interval by the appropriate ratio.

(3) Correlation. The manufacturer shall document correlation traceable to the Environmental Protection Agency's National Vehicle and Fuel Emission Laboratory for its test laboratory utilized to conduct the testing required by this section.

(f)

(1) A manufacturer must conduct in-use testing on a test group by determining NMOG exhaust emissions as described in 40 CFR 1066.635.

(2) For flexible-fueled vehicles certified to NMOG (or NMOG NOX) standards, the manufacturer may ask for EPA approval to demonstrate compliance using an equivalent NMOG emission result calculated from a ratio of ethanol NMOG exhaust emissions to gasoline NMHC exhaust emissions. Ethanol NMOG exhaust emissions are measured values from testing with the ethanol test fuel, expressed as NMOG. Gasoline NMHC exhaust emissions are measured values from testing with the gasoline test fuel, expressed as NMHC. This ratio must be established during certification for each emission-data vehicle for the applicable test group. Use good engineering judgment to establish a different ratio for each duty cycle or test interval as appropriate. Identify the ratio values you develop under this paragraph (f)(1) and describe the duty cycle or test interval to which they apply in the Part II application for certification. Calculate the equivalent NMOG emission result by multiplying the measured gasoline NMHC exhaust emissions for a given duty cycle or test interval by the appropriate ratio.

(3) If the manufacturer measures NMOG as described in 40 CFR 1066.635(a), it must also measure and report HCHO emissions. As an alternative to measuring the HCHO content, if the manufacturer measures NMOG as permitted in 40 CFR 1066.635(c), the Administrator may approve, upon submission of supporting data by a manufacturer, the use of HCHO to NMHC ratios. To request the use of HCHO to NMHC ratios, the manufacturer must establish during certification testing the ratio of measured HCHO exhaust emissions to measured NMHC exhaust emissions for each emission-data vehicle for the applicable test group. The results must be submitted to the Administrator with the Part II application for certification. Following approval of the application for certification, the manufacturer may conduct in-use testing on the test group by measuring NMHC exhaust emissions rather than HCHO exhaust emissions. The measured NMHC exhaust emissions must be multiplied by the HCHO to NMHC ratio submitted in the application for certification for the test group to determine the equivalent HCHO exhaust emission values for the test vehicle. The equivalent HCHO exhaust emission values must be compared to the HCHO exhaust emission standard applicable to the test group.

[64 FR 23925, May 4, 1999, as amended at 65 FR 6865, Feb. 10, 2000; 65 FR 59977, Oct. 6, 2000; 66 FR 19310, Apr. 13, 2001; 70 FR 72929, Dec. 8, 2005; 71 FR 78094, Dec. 28, 2006; 75 FR 25690, May 7, 2010; 79 FR 23730, Apr. 28, 2014; 80 FR 9109, Feb. 19, 2015]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE

§ 7401 - Congressional findings and declaration of purpose

§ 7402 - Cooperative activities

§ 7403 - Research, investigation, training, and other activities

§ 7404 - Research relating to fuels and vehicles

§ 7405 - Grants for support of air pollution planning and control programs

§ 7406 - Interstate air quality agencies; program cost limitations

§ 7407 - Air quality control regions

§ 7408 - Air quality criteria and control techniques

§ 7409 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7410 - State implementation plans for national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7411 - Standards of performance for new stationary sources

§ 7412 - Hazardous air pollutants

§ 7413 - Federal enforcement

§ 7414 - Recordkeeping, inspections, monitoring, and entry

§ 7415 - International air pollution

§ 7416 - Retention of State authority

§ 7417 - Advisory committees

§ 7418 - Control of pollution from Federal facilities

§ 7419 - Primary nonferrous smelter orders

§ 7420 - Noncompliance penalty

§ 7421 - Consultation

§ 7422 - Listing of certain unregulated pollutants

§ 7423 - Stack heights

§ 7424 - Assurance of adequacy of State plans

§ 7425 - Measures to prevent economic disruption or unemployment

§ 7426 - Interstate pollution abatement

§ 7427 - Public notification

§ 7428 - State boards

§ 7429 - Solid waste combustion

§ 7430 - Emission factors

§ 7431 - Land use authority

§ 7450 to 7459 - Repealed. Pub. L. 101–549, title VI, § 601, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2648

§ 7470 - Congressional declaration of purpose

§ 7471 - Plan requirements

§ 7472 - Initial classifications

§ 7473 - Increments and ceilings

§ 7474 - Area redesignation

§ 7475 - Preconstruction requirements

§ 7476 - Other pollutants

§ 7477 - Enforcement

§ 7478 - Period before plan approval

§ 7479 - Definitions

§ 7491 - Visibility protection for Federal class I areas

§ 7492 - Visibility

§ 7501 - Definitions

§ 7502 - Nonattainment plan provisions in general

§ 7503 - Permit requirements

§ 7504 - Planning procedures

§ 7505 - Environmental Protection Agency grants

§ 7505a - Maintenance plans

§ 7506 - Limitations on certain Federal assistance

§ 7506a - Interstate transport commissions

§ 7507 - New motor vehicle emission standards in nonattainment areas

§ 7508 - Guidance documents

§ 7509 - Sanctions and consequences of failure to attain

§ 7509a - International border areas

§ 7511 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7511a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7511b - Federal ozone measures

§ 7511c - Control of interstate ozone air pollution

§ 7511d - Enforcement for Severe and Extreme ozone nonattainment areas for failure to attain

§ 7511e - Transitional areas

§ 7511f - NOx and VOC study

§ 7512 - Classification and attainment dates

§ 7512a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7513 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7513a - Plan provisions and schedules for plan submissions

§ 7513b - Issuance of RACM and BACM guidance

§ 7514 - Plan submission deadlines

§ 7514a - Attainment dates

§ 7515 - General savings clause

§ 7521 - Emission standards for new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines

§ 7522 - Prohibited acts

§ 7523 - Actions to restrain violations

§ 7524 - Civil penalties

§ 7525 - Motor vehicle and motor vehicle engine compliance testing and certification

§ 7541 - Compliance by vehicles and engines in actual use

§ 7542 - Information collection

§ 7543 - State standards

§ 7544 - State grants

§ 7545 - Regulation of fuels

§ 7546 - Renewable fuel

§ 7547 - Nonroad engines and vehicles

§ 7548 - Study of particulate emissions from motor vehicles

§ 7549 - High altitude performance adjustments

§ 7550 - Definitions

§ 7551 - Omitted

§ 7552 - Motor vehicle compliance program fees

§ 7553 - Prohibition on production of engines requiring leaded gasoline

§ 7554 - Urban bus standards

§ 7571 - Establishment of standards

§ 7572 - Enforcement of standards

§ 7573 - State standards and controls

§ 7574 - Definitions

§ 7581 - Definitions

§ 7582 - Requirements applicable to clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7583 - Standards for light-duty clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7584 - Administration and enforcement as per California standards

§ 7585 - Standards for heavy-duty clean-fuel vehicles (GVWR above 8,500 up to 26,000 lbs.)

§ 7586 - Centrally fueled fleets

§ 7587 - Vehicle conversions

§ 7588 - Federal agency fleets

§ 7589 - California pilot test program

§ 7590 - General provisions

§ 7601 - Administration

§ 7602 - Definitions

§ 7603 - Emergency powers

§ 7604 - Citizen suits

§ 7605 - Representation in litigation

§ 7606 - Federal procurement

§ 7607 - Administrative proceedings and judicial review

§ 7608 - Mandatory licensing

§ 7609 - Policy review

§ 7610 - Other authority

§ 7611 - Records and audit

§ 7612 - Economic impact analyses

§ 7613 - Repealed. Pub. L. 101–549, title VIII, § 803, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2689

§ 7614 - Labor standards

§ 7615 - Separability

§ 7616 - Sewage treatment grants

§ 7617 - Economic impact assessment

§ 7618 - Repealed. Pub. L. 101–549, title I, § 108(q), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2469

§ 7619 - Air quality monitoring

§ 7620 - Standardized air quality modeling

§ 7621 - Employment effects

§ 7622 - Employee protection

§ 7623 - Repealed. Pub. L. 96–300, § 1(c), July 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 831

§ 7624 - Cost of vapor recovery equipment

§ 7625 - Vapor recovery for small business marketers of petroleum products

§ 7625-1

§ 7625a - Statutory construction

§ 7626 - Authorization of appropriations

§ 7627 - Air pollution from Outer Continental Shelf activities

§ 7628 - Demonstration grant program for local governments

§ 7641 - Noise abatement

§ 7642 - Authorization of appropriations

§ 7651 - Findings and purposes

§ 7651a - Definitions

§ 7651b - Sulfur dioxide allowance program for existing and new units

§ 7651c - Phase I sulfur dioxide requirements

§ 7651d - Phase II sulfur dioxide requirements

§ 7651e - Allowances for States with emissions rates at or below 0.80 lbs/mmBtu

§ 7651f - Nitrogen oxides emission reduction program

§ 7651g - Permits and compliance plans

§ 7651h - Repowered sources

§ 7651i - Election for additional sources

§ 7651j - Excess emissions penalty

§ 7651k - Monitoring, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements

§ 7651l - General compliance with other provisions

§ 7651m - Enforcement

§ 7651n - Clean coal technology regulatory incentives

§ 7651o - Contingency guarantee, auctions, reserve

§ 7661 - Definitions

§ 7661a - Permit programs

§ 7661b - Permit applications

§ 7661c - Permit requirements and conditions

§ 7661d - Notification to Administrator and contiguous States

§ 7661e - Other authorities

§ 7661f - Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance assistance program

§ 7671 - Definitions

§ 7671a - Listing of class I and class II substances

§ 7671b - Monitoring and reporting requirements

§ 7671c - Phase-out of production and consumption of class I substances

§ 7671d - Phase-out of production and consumption of class II substances

§ 7671e - Accelerated schedule

§ 7671f - Exchange authority

§ 7671g - National recycling and emission reduction program

§ 7671h - Servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners

§ 7671i - Nonessential products containing chlorofluorocarbons

§ 7671j - Labeling

§ 7671k - Safe alternatives policy

§ 7671l - Federal procurement

§ 7671m - Relationship to other laws

§ 7671n - Authority of Administrator

§ 7671o - Transfers among Parties to Montreal Protocol

§ 7671p - International cooperation

§ 7671q - Miscellaneous provisions

Title 40 published on 2015-07-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 40 CFR Part 86 after this date.

  • 2015-09-08; vol. 80 # 173 - Tuesday, September 8, 2015
    1. 80 FR 53756 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles—Phase 2; Extension of Comment Period
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION, ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
      Proposed rule; extension of comment period.
      The comment period for the proposed rule published July 13, 2015 (80 FR 40139) is extended. Written comments for both documents must be received on or before October 1, 2015.
      40 CFR Parts 9, 22, 85, 86, 600, 1033, 1036, 1037, 1039, 1042, 1065, 1066, and 1068