40 CFR 86.429-78 - Maintenance, unscheduled; test vehicles.
(a) Any unscheduled engine, emission control system, or fuel system adjustment, repair, removal, disassembly, cleaning, or replacement on vehicles shall be performed only with the advance approval of the Administrator.
(i) Has made a preliminary determination that part failure or system malfunction, or the repair of such failure or malfunction, does not render the vehicle unrepresentative of vehicles in use, and does not require direct access to the combustion chamber, except for spark plug, fuel injection component, or removable prechamber removal or replacement; and
(ii) Has made a determination that the need for maintenance or repairs is indicated by an overt indication of malfunction such as persistent misfire, vehicle stall, overheating, fluid leakage, loss of oil pressure, or charge indicator warning.
(b) Repairs to vehicle components of test vehicles, other than the engine, emission control system, or fuel system, shall be performed only as a result of part failure, vehicle system malfunction, or with the advance approval of the Administrator.
(c) The Administrator shall be given the opportunity to verify the extent of an overt indication of part failure and/or vehicle malfunction (e.g., misfire, stall), or an activation of an audible and/or visual signal, prior to the performance of any maintenance to which such overt indication or signal is relevant under the provisions of this section.
(d) Equipment, instruments, or tools may not be used to identify malfunctioning, maladjusted, or defective engine components unless the same or equivalent equipment, instruments, or tools will be available at dealerships and other service outlets and
(1) Are used in conjunction with scheduled maintenance on such components, and
(3) Unless specifically authorized by the Administrator.
(e) If the Administrator determines that part failure or system malfunction occurrence and/or repair rendered the vehicle unrepresentative of vehicles in use, the vehicle shall not be used as a test vehicle.
(f) Complete emission tests are required, unless waived by the Administrator, before and after any vehicle maintenance which may reasonably be expected to affect emissions.