The following equipment shall be used for smoke emission testing of engines on engine dynamometers:
(a) An engine dynamometer with adequate characteristics to perform the test cycle described in § 86.884-7.
(b) An engine cooling system having sufficient capacity to maintain the engine at normal operating temperatures during conduct of the prescribed engine tests.
(c) An exhaust system with an appropriate type of smokemeter placed no more than 32 feet from the exhaust manifold(s), turbocharger outlet(s), exhaust aftertreatment device(s), or crossover junction (on Vee engines), whichever is farthest downstream. The smoke exhaust system shall present an exhaust backpressure within ±0.2 inch Hg of the upper limit at maximum rated horsepower, as established by the engine manufacturer in his sales and service literature for vehicle application. The following options may also be used:
(1) For engines with multiple exhaust outlets, join the exhaust outlets together into a single exhaust system and install the smokemeter 10 to 32 feet downstream from the junction of the individual exhaust outlets, or exhaust aftertreatment device(s), whichever is farthest downstream.
(2) For engines with multiple exhaust outlets, install a smokemeter in each of the exhaust pipes 10 to 32 feet downstream from each exhaust manifold, turbocharger outlet, or exhaust aftertreatment device, whichever is farthest downstream.
(3) For engines with multiple exhaust outlets, install a smokemeter on the exhaust pipe which produces the highest smoke levels 10 to 32 feet downstream from the exhaust manifold, turbocharger outlet, or exhaust aftertreatment device, whichever is farthest downstream. It may be required to make smoke measurements from other exhaust outlets if deemed appropriate by the Administrator.
(4) When utilizing an end-of-line smokemeter, the terminal two feet of the exhaust pipe used for smoke measurement shall be of a circular cross section and be free of elbows and bends. The end of the pipe shall be cut off squarely. The terminal two feet of the exhaust pipe shall have a nominal inside diameter in accordance with the engine being tested, as specified below:
Maximum rated horsepower
(5) When utilizing an in-line smokemeter, there shall be no change in the exhaust pipe diameter within 3 exhaust pipe diameters before or after the centerline of the smokemeter optics. Within 6 exhaust pipe diameters upstream of the centerline of the smokemeter optics, no change in exhaust pipe diameter may exceed a 12 degree half-angle.
(d) An engine air inlet system presenting an air inlet restriction within one inch of water of the upper limit for the engine operating condition which results in maximum air flow, as established by the engine manufacturer in his sales and service literature, for the engine being tested.