# 40 CFR 89.310 - Analyzer accuracy and specifications.

*Measurement accuracy—general.*The analyzers must have a measuring range which allows them to measure the concentrations of the exhaust gas sample pollutants with the accuracies shown in Table 3 in Appendix A of this subpart.

*Precision.*The precision of the analyzer must be, at worst, ±1 percent of full-scale concentration for each range used at or above 100 ppm (or ppmC) or ±2 percent for each range used below 100 ppm (or ppmC). The precision is defined as 2.5 times the standard deviation(s) of 10 repetitive responses to a given calibration or span gas.

*Noise.*The analyzer peak-to-peak response to zero and calibration or span gases over any 10-second period must not exceed 2 percent of full-scale chart deflection on all ranges used.

*Zero drift.*The analyzer zero-response drift during a 1-hour period must be less than 2 percent of full-scale chart deflection on the lowest range used. The zero-response is defined as the mean response including noise to a zero-gas during a 30-second time interval.

*Span drift.*The analyzer span drift during a 1-hour period must be less than 2 percent of full-scale chart deflection on the lowest range used. The analyzer span is defined as the difference between the span-response and the zero-response. The span-response is defined as the mean response including noise to a span gas during a 30-second time interval.

*Operating procedure for analyzers and sampling system.*Follow the start-up and operating instructions of the instrument manufacturer. Adhere to the minimum requirements given in § 89.314 to § 89.323.

*Emission measurement accuracy—continuous sampling.*Analyzers used for continuous analysis must be operated such that the measured concentration falls between 15 and 100 percent of full-scale chart deflection. Exceptions to these limits are:

(a) Measurement accuracy - general. The analyzers must have a measuring range which allows them to measure the concentrations of the exhaust gas sample pollutants with the accuracies shown in Table 3 in Appendix A of this subpart.

(1) Response time. As necessary, measure and account for the response time of the analyzer.

(2) Precision. The precision of the analyzer must be, at worst, ±1 percent of full-scale concentration for each range used at or above 100 ppm (or ppmC) or ±2 percent for each range used below 100 ppm (or ppmC). The precision is defined as 2.5 times the standard deviation(s) of 10 repetitive responses to a given calibration or span gas.

(3) Noise. The analyzer peak-to-peak response to zero and calibration or span gases over any 10-second period must not exceed 2 percent of full-scale chart deflection on all ranges used.

(4) Zero drift. The analyzer zero-response drift during a 1-hour period must be less than 2 percent of full-scale chart deflection on the lowest range used. The zero-response is defined as the mean response including noise to a zero-gas during a 30-second time interval.

(5) Span drift. The analyzer span drift during a 1-hour period must be less than 2 percent of full-scale chart deflection on the lowest range used. The analyzer span is defined as the difference between the span-response and the zero-response. The span-response is defined as the mean response including noise to a span gas during a 30-second time interval.

(b) Operating procedure for analyzers and sampling system. Follow the start-up and operating instructions of the instrument manufacturer. Adhere to the minimum requirements given in § 89.314 to § 89.323.

(c) Emission measurement accuracy - Bag sampling. (1) Good engineering practice dictates that exhaust emission sample analyzer readings below 15 percent of full-scale chart deflection should generally not be used.

(2) Some high resolution read-out systems, such as computers, data loggers, and so forth, can provide sufficient accuracy and resolution below 15 percent of full scale. Such systems may be used provided that additional calibrations of at least 4 non-zero nominally equally spaced points, using good engineering judgement, below 15 percent of full scale are made to ensure the accuracy of the calibration curves. If a gas divider is used, the gas divider must conform to the accuracy requirements specified in § 89.312(c). The procedure in paragraph (c)(3) of this section may be used for calibration below 15 percent of full scale.

(3) The following procedure shall be followed:

(i) Span the analyzer using a calibration gas meeting the accuracy requirements of § 89.312(c), within the operating range of the analyzer, and at least 90% of full scale.

(ii) Generate a calibration over the full concentration range at a minimum of 6, approximately equally spaced, points (e.g. 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 percent of the range of concentrations provided by the gas divider). If a gas divider or blender is being used to calibrate the analyzer and the requirements of paragraph (c)(2) of this section are met, verify that a second calibration gas between 10 and 20 percent of full scale can be named within 2 percent of its certified concentration.

(iii) If a gas divider or blender is being used to calibrate the analyzer, input the value of a second calibration gas (a span gas may be used for the CO2 analyzer) having a named concentration between 10 and 20 percent of full scale. This gas shall be included on the calibration curve. Continue adding calibration points by dividing this gas until the requirements of paragraph (c)(2) of this section are met.

(iv) Fit a calibration curve per § 89.319 through § 89.322 for the full scale range of the analyzer using the calibration data obtained with both calibration gases.

(d) Emission measurement accuracy - continuous sampling. Analyzers used for continuous analysis must be operated such that the measured concentration falls between 15 and 100 percent of full-scale chart deflection. Exceptions to these limits are:

(1) The analyzer's response may be less than 15 percent or more than 100 percent of full scale if automatic range change circuitry is used and the limits for range changes are between 15 and 100 percent of full-scale chart deflection;

(2) The analyzer's response may be less than 15 percent of full scale if:

(i) Alternative (c)(2) of this section is used to ensure that the accuracy of the calibration curve is maintained below 15 percent; or

(ii) The full-scale value of the range is 155 ppm (or ppmC) or less.