40 CFR 89.419 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

§ 89.419 Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

(a)General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in this section is designed to measure the true mass of gaseous emissions in the exhaust of petroleum-fueled nonroad compression-ignition engines. This system utilizes the CVS concept (described in 40 CFR part 1065, subparts A and B) of measuring mass emissions of HC, CO, and CO2. A continuously integrated system is required for HC and NOX measurement and is allowed for all CO and CO2 measurements. The mass of gaseous emissions is determined from the sample concentration and total flow over the test period. As an option, the measurement of total fuel mass consumed over a cycle may be substituted for the exhaust measurement of CO2. General requirements are as follows:

(1) This sampling system requires the use of a PDP-CVS and a heat exchanger or a CFV-CVS with either a heat exchanger or electronic flow compensation. Figure 2 in appendix A to this subpart is a schematic drawing of the PDP-CVS system. Figure 3 in appendix A to this subpart is a schematic drawing of the CFV-CVS system.

(2) The HC analytical system for petroleum-fueled compression-ignition engines requires a heated flame ionization detector (HFID) and heated sample system (191 ±11 °C).

(i) The HFID sample must be taken directly from the diluted exhaust stream through a heated probe and integrated continuously over the test cycle. Unless compensation for varying flow is made, the HFID must be used with a constant flow system to ensure a representative sample.

(ii) The heated probe shall be located in the primary dilution tunnel and far enough downstream of the mixing chamber to ensure a uniform sample distribution across the CVS duct at the point of sampling.

(3) The CO and CO2 analytical system requires:

(i) Bag sampling (see 40 CFR part 1065) and analytical capabilities (see 40 CFR part 1065), as shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3 in appendix A to this subpart; or

(ii) Continuously integrated measurement of diluted CO and CO2 meeting the minimum requirements and technical specifications contained in paragraph (b)(4) of this section. Unless compensation for varying flow is made, a constant flow system must be used to ensure a representative sample.

(4) The NOX analytical system requires a continuously integrated measurement of diluted NOX meeting the minimum requirements and technical specifications contained in paragraph (b)(4) of this section. Unless compensation for varying flow is made, a constant flow system must be used to ensure a representative sample.

(5) Since various configurations can produce equivalent results, exact conformance with these drawings is not required. Additional components such as instruments, valves, solenoids, pumps, and switches may be used to provide additional information and coordinate the functions of the component systems. Other components, such as snubbers, which are not needed to maintain accuracy on some systems, may be excluded if their exclusion is based upon good engineering judgment.

(6) Other sampling and/or analytical systems may be used if shown to yield equivalent results and if approved in advance by the Administrator.

(b)Component description. The components necessary for exhaust sampling shall meet the following requirements:

(1)Exhaust dilution system. The PDP-CVS shall conform to all of the requirements listed for the exhaust gas PDP-CVS in 40 CFR part 1065. The CFV-CVS shall conform to all the requirements listed for the exhaust gas CFV-CVS in 40 CFR part 1065. In addition, the CVS must conform to the following requirements:

(i) The flow capacity of the CVS must be sufficient to maintain the diluted exhaust stream at or below the temperature required for the measurement of hydrocarbon emissions noted in the following paragraph and to prevent condensation of water at any point in the dilution tunnel.

(ii) The flow capacity of the CVS must be sufficient to maintain the diluted exhaust stream in the primary dilution tunnel at a temperature of 191 °C or less at the sampling zone for hydrocarbon measurement and as required to prevent condensation at any point in the dilution tunnel. Gaseous emission samples may be taken directly from this sampling point.

(iii) For the CFV-CVS, either a heat exchanger or electronic flow compensation is required (see Figure 3 in appendix A to this subpart).

(iv) For the CFV-CVS when a heat exchanger is used, the gas mixture temperature, measured at a point immediately ahead of the critical flow venturi, shall be within ±11 °C) of the average operating temperature observed during the test with the simultaneous requirement that condensation does not occur. The temperature measuring system (sensors and readout) shall have an accuracy and precision of ±2 °C. For systems utilizing a flow compensator to maintain proportional flow, the requirement for maintaining constant temperature is not necessary.

(v) The primary dilution air shall have a temperature of 25 °C ±5 °C.

(2)Continuous HC measurement system.

(i) The continuous HC sample system (as shown in Figure 2 or 3 in appendix A to this subpart) uses an “overflow” zero and span system. In this type of system, excess zero or span gas spills out of the probe when zero and span checks of the analyzer are made. The “overflow” system may also be used to calibrate the HC analyzer according to 40 CFR part 1065, subpart F, although this is not required.

(ii) No other analyzers may draw a sample from the continuous HC sample probe, line or system, unless a common sample pump is used for all analyzers and the sample line system design reflects good engineering practice.

(iii) The overflow gas flow rates into the sample line shall be at least 105 percent of the sample system flow rate.

(iv) The overflow gases shall enter the heated sample line as close as practical to the outside surface of the CVS duct or dilution tunnel.

(v) The continuous HC sampling system shall consist of a probe (which must raise the sample to the specified temperature) and, where used, a sample transfer system (which must maintain the specified temperature). The continuous hydrocarbon sampling system (exclusive of the probe) shall:

(A) Maintain a wall temperature of 191 °C ±11 °C as measured at every separately controlled heated component (that is, filters, heated line sections), using permanent thermocouples located at each of the separate components.

(B) Have a wall temperature of 191 °C ±11 °C over its entire length. The temperature of the system shall be demonstrated by profiling the thermal characteristics of the system where possible at initial installation and after any major maintenance performed on the system. The profiling shall be accomplished using the insertion thermocouple probing technique. The system temperature will be monitored continuously during testing at the locations and temperature described in 40 CFR 1065.145.

(C) Maintain a gas temperature of 191 °C ±11 °C immediately before the heated filter and HFID. These gas temperatures will be determined by a temperature sensor located immediately upstream of each component.

(vi) The continuous hydrocarbon sampling probe shall:

(A) Be defined as the first 25 cm to 76 cm of the continuous hydrocarbon sampling system.

(B) Have a 0.48 cm minimum inside diameter.

(C) Be installed in the primary dilution tunnel at a point where the dilution air and exhaust are well mixed (that is, approximately 10 tunnel diameters downstream of the point where the exhaust enters the dilution tunnel).

(D) Be sufficiently distant (radially) from other probes and the tunnel wall so as to be free from the influence of any wakes or eddies.

(E) Increase the gas stream temperature to 191 °C ±11 °C at the exit of the probe. The ability of the probe to accomplish this shall be demonstrated using the insertion thermocouple technique at initial installation and after any major maintenance. Compliance with the temperature specification shall be demonstrated by continuously recording during each test the temperature of either the gas stream or the wall of the sample probe at its terminus.

(vii) The response time of the continuous measurement system shall be no greater than:

(A) 1.5 seconds from an instantaneous step change at the port entrance to the analyzer to within 90 percent of the step change.

(B) 20 seconds from an instantaneous step change at the entrance to the sample probe or overflow span gas port to within 90 percent of the step change. Analysis system response time shall be coordinated with CVS flow fluctuations and sampling time/test cycle offsets if necessary.

(C) For the purpose of verification of response times, the step change shall be at least 60 percent of full-scale chart deflection.

(3)Primary dilution tunnel.

(i) The primary dilution tunnel shall be:

(A) Small enough in diameter to cause turbulent flow (Reynolds Number greater than 4000) and of sufficient length to cause complete mixing of the exhaust and dilution air;

(B) At least 46 cm in diameter; (engines below 110 kW may use a dilution tunnel that is 20 cm in diameter or larger)

(C) Constructed of electrically conductive material which does not react with the exhaust components; and

(D) Electrically grounded.

(ii) The temperature of the diluted exhaust stream inside of the primary dilution tunnel shall be sufficient to prevent water condensation.

(iii) The engine exhaust shall be directed downstream at the point where it is introduced into the primary dilution tunnel.

(4)Continuously integrated NOX. CO, and CO2measurement systems.

(i) The sample probe shall:

(A) Be in the same plane as the continuous HC probe, but shall be sufficiently distant (radially) from other probes and the tunnel wall so as to be free from the influences of any wakes or eddies.

(B) Heated and insulated over the entire length, to prevent water condensation, to a minimum temperature of 55 °C. Sample gas temperature immediately before the first filter in the system shall be at least 55 °C.

(ii) The continuous NOX, CO, or CO2 sampling and analysis system shall conform to the specifications of 40 CFR 1065.145 with the following exceptions and revisions:

(A) The system components required to be heated by 40 CFR 1065.145 need only be heated to prevent water condensation, the minimum component temperature shall be 55 °C.

(B) The system response shall meet the specifications in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart C.

(C) Alternative NOX measurement techniques outlined in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart D, are not permitted for NOX measurement in this subpart.

(D) All analytical gases must conform to the specifications of § 89.312.

(E) Any range on a linear analyzer below 155 ppm must have and use a calibration curve conforming to § 89.310.

(iii) The chart deflections or voltage output of analyzers with non-linear calibration curves shall be converted to concentration values by the calibration curve(s) specified in § 89.313 before flow correction (if used) and subsequent integration takes place.

[ 59 FR 31335, June 17, 1994. Redesignated at 63 FR 56996, Oct. 23, 1998, as amended at 70 FR 40445, July 13, 2005]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.

United States Code

§ 7401 - Congressional findings and declaration of purpose

§ 7402 - Cooperative activities

§ 7403 - Research, investigation, training, and other activities

§ 7404 - Research relating to fuels and vehicles

§ 7405 - Grants for support of air pollution planning and control programs

§ 7406 - Interstate air quality agencies; program cost limitations

§ 7407 - Air quality control regions

§ 7408 - Air quality criteria and control techniques

§ 7409 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7410 - State implementation plans for national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7411 - Standards of performance for new stationary sources

§ 7412 - Hazardous air pollutants

§ 7413 - Federal enforcement

§ 7414 - Recordkeeping, inspections, monitoring, and entry

§ 7415 - International air pollution

§ 7416 - Retention of State authority

§ 7417 - Advisory committees

§ 7418 - Control of pollution from Federal facilities

§ 7419 - Primary nonferrous smelter orders

§ 7420 - Noncompliance penalty

§ 7421 - Consultation

§ 7422 - Listing of certain unregulated pollutants

§ 7423 - Stack heights

§ 7424 - Assurance of adequacy of State plans

§ 7425 - Measures to prevent economic disruption or unemployment

§ 7426 - Interstate pollution abatement

§ 7427 - Public notification

§ 7428 - State boards

§ 7429 - Solid waste combustion

§ 7430 - Emission factors

§ 7431 - Land use authority

§ 7450 to 7459 - Repealed. Pub. L. 101–549, title VI, § 601, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2648

§ 7470 - Congressional declaration of purpose

§ 7471 - Plan requirements

§ 7472 - Initial classifications

§ 7473 - Increments and ceilings

§ 7474 - Area redesignation

§ 7475 - Preconstruction requirements

§ 7476 - Other pollutants

§ 7477 - Enforcement

§ 7478 - Period before plan approval

§ 7479 - Definitions

§ 7491 - Visibility protection for Federal class I areas

§ 7492 - Visibility

§ 7501 - Definitions

§ 7502 - Nonattainment plan provisions in general

§ 7503 - Permit requirements

§ 7504 - Planning procedures

§ 7505 - Environmental Protection Agency grants

§ 7505a - Maintenance plans

§ 7506 - Limitations on certain Federal assistance

§ 7506a - Interstate transport commissions

§ 7507 - New motor vehicle emission standards in nonattainment areas

§ 7508 - Guidance documents

§ 7509 - Sanctions and consequences of failure to attain

§ 7509a - International border areas

§ 7511 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7511a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7511b - Federal ozone measures

§ 7511c - Control of interstate ozone air pollution

§ 7511d - Enforcement for Severe and Extreme ozone nonattainment areas for failure to attain

§ 7511e - Transitional areas

§ 7511f - NOx and VOC study

§ 7512 - Classification and attainment dates

§ 7512a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7513 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7513a - Plan provisions and schedules for plan submissions

§ 7513b - Issuance of RACM and BACM guidance

§ 7514 - Plan submission deadlines

§ 7514a - Attainment dates

§ 7515 - General savings clause

§ 7521 - Emission standards for new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines

§ 7522 - Prohibited acts

§ 7523 - Actions to restrain violations

§ 7524 - Civil penalties

§ 7525 - Motor vehicle and motor vehicle engine compliance testing and certification

§ 7541 - Compliance by vehicles and engines in actual use

§ 7542 - Information collection

§ 7543 - State standards

§ 7544 - State grants

§ 7545 - Regulation of fuels

§ 7546 - Renewable fuel

§ 7547 - Nonroad engines and vehicles

§ 7548 - Study of particulate emissions from motor vehicles

§ 7549 - High altitude performance adjustments

§ 7550 - Definitions

§ 7551 - Omitted

§ 7552 - Motor vehicle compliance program fees

§ 7553 - Prohibition on production of engines requiring leaded gasoline

§ 7554 - Urban bus standards

§ 7571 - Establishment of standards

§ 7572 - Enforcement of standards

§ 7573 - State standards and controls

§ 7574 - Definitions

§ 7581 - Definitions

§ 7582 - Requirements applicable to clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7583 - Standards for light-duty clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7584 - Administration and enforcement as per California standards

§ 7585 - Standards for heavy-duty clean-fuel vehicles (GVWR above 8,500 up to 26,000 lbs.)

§ 7586 - Centrally fueled fleets

§ 7587 - Vehicle conversions

§ 7588 - Federal agency fleets

§ 7589 - California pilot test program

§ 7590 - General provisions

§ 7601 - Administration

§ 7602 - Definitions

§ 7603 - Emergency powers

§ 7604 - Citizen suits

§ 7605 - Representation in litigation

§ 7606 - Federal procurement

§ 7607 - Administrative proceedings and judicial review

§ 7608 - Mandatory licensing

§ 7609 - Policy review

§ 7610 - Other authority

§ 7611 - Records and audit

§ 7612 - Economic impact analyses

§ 7613 - Repealed. Pub. L. 101–549, title VIII, § 803, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2689

§ 7614 - Labor standards

§ 7615 - Separability

§ 7616 - Sewage treatment grants

§ 7617 - Economic impact assessment

§ 7618 - Repealed. Pub. L. 101–549, title I, § 108(q), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2469

§ 7619 - Air quality monitoring

§ 7620 - Standardized air quality modeling

§ 7621 - Employment effects

§ 7622 - Employee protection

§ 7623 - Repealed. Pub. L. 96–300, § 1(c), July 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 831

§ 7624 - Cost of vapor recovery equipment

§ 7625 - Vapor recovery for small business marketers of petroleum products

§ 7625-1

§ 7625a - Statutory construction

§ 7626 - Authorization of appropriations

§ 7627 - Air pollution from Outer Continental Shelf activities

§ 7628 - Demonstration grant program for local governments

§ 7641 - Noise abatement

§ 7642 - Authorization of appropriations

§ 7651 - Findings and purposes

§ 7651a - Definitions

§ 7651b - Sulfur dioxide allowance program for existing and new units

§ 7651c - Phase I sulfur dioxide requirements

§ 7651d - Phase II sulfur dioxide requirements

§ 7651e - Allowances for States with emissions rates at or below 0.80 lbs/mmBtu

§ 7651f - Nitrogen oxides emission reduction program

§ 7651g - Permits and compliance plans

§ 7651h - Repowered sources

§ 7651i - Election for additional sources

§ 7651j - Excess emissions penalty

§ 7651k - Monitoring, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements

§ 7651l - General compliance with other provisions

§ 7651m - Enforcement

§ 7651n - Clean coal technology regulatory incentives

§ 7651o - Contingency guarantee, auctions, reserve

§ 7661 - Definitions

§ 7661a - Permit programs

§ 7661b - Permit applications

§ 7661c - Permit requirements and conditions

§ 7661d - Notification to Administrator and contiguous States

§ 7661e - Other authorities

§ 7661f - Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance assistance program

§ 7671 - Definitions

§ 7671a - Listing of class I and class II substances

§ 7671b - Monitoring and reporting requirements

§ 7671c - Phase-out of production and consumption of class I substances

§ 7671d - Phase-out of production and consumption of class II substances

§ 7671e - Accelerated schedule

§ 7671f - Exchange authority

§ 7671g - National recycling and emission reduction program

§ 7671h - Servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners

§ 7671i - Nonessential products containing chlorofluorocarbons

§ 7671j - Labeling

§ 7671k - Safe alternatives policy

§ 7671l - Federal procurement

§ 7671m - Relationship to other laws

§ 7671n - Authority of Administrator

§ 7671o - Transfers among Parties to Montreal Protocol

§ 7671p - International cooperation

§ 7671q - Miscellaneous provisions

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