40 CFR 90.1006 - Penalties.
(a) Violations. A violation of the requirements of this subpart is a violation of the applicable provisions of the Act and is subject to the penalty provisions thereunder.
(1) A person who violates § 90.1003(a)(1), (a)(4), or (a)(5), or a manufacturer or dealer who violates § 90.1003(a)(3)(i), is subject to a civil penalty of not more than $32,500 for each violation.
(2) A person other than a manufacturer or dealer who violates § 90.1003(a)(3)(i) or any person who violates § 90.1003(a)(3)(ii) is subject to a civil penalty of not more than $2,750 for each violation.
(3) A violation with respect to § 90.1003(a)(1), (a)(3)(i), (a)(4), or (a)(5) constitutes a separate offense with respect to each nonroad engine.
(4) A violation with respect to § 90.1003(a)(3)(ii) constitutes a separate offense with respect to each part or component. Each day of a violation with respect to § 90.1003(a)(6) constitutes a separate offense.
(5) A person who violates § 90.1003(a)(2) or (a)(6) is subject to a civil penalty of not more than $32,500 per day of violation.
(6) The maximum penalty values listed in this section are shown for calendar year 2004. Maximum penalty limits for later years may be adjusted based on the Consumer Price Index. The specific regulatory provisions for changing the maximum penalties, published in 40 CFR part 19, reference the applicable U.S. Code citation on which the prohibited action is based.
(b) Civil actions. The Administrator may commence a civil action to assess and recover any civil penalty under paragraph (a) of this section.
(1) An action under this paragraph may be brought in the district court of the United States for the district in which the violation is alleged to have occurred, the defendant resides, or the Administrator's principal place of business is located, and in which the court has jurisdiction to assess a civil penalty.
(2) In determining the amount of a civil penalty to be assessed under this paragraph, the court is to take into account the gravity of the violation, the economic benefit or savings (if any) resulting from the violation, the size of the violator's business, the violator's history of compliance with Title II of the Act, action taken to remedy the violation, the effect of the penalty on the violator's ability to continue in business, and such other matters as justice may require.
(3) In any such action, subpoenas for witnesses who are required to attend a district court in any district may run into any other district.
(c) Administrative assessment of certain penalties.
(1) Administrative penalty authority. In lieu of commencing a civil action under paragraph (b) of this section, the Administrator shall assess any civil penalty prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section, except that the maximum amount of penalty sought against each violator in a penalty assessment proceeding can not exceed $270,000, unless the Administrator and the Attorney General jointly determine that a matter involving a larger penalty amount is appropriate for administrative penalty assessment. Any such determination by the Administrator and the Attorney General is not subject to judicial review. Assessment of a civil penalty is made by an order made on the record after opportunity for a hearing held in accordance with the procedures found at part 22 of this chapter. The Administrator may compromise, or remit, with or without conditions, any administrative penalty which may be imposed under this section.
(2) Determining amount. In determining the amount of any civil penalty assessed under this subsection, the Administrator is to take into account the gravity of the violation, the economic benefit or savings (if any) resulting from the violation, the size of the violator's business, the violator's history of compliance with Title II of the Act, action taken to remedy the violation, the effect of the penalty on the violator's ability to continue in business, and such other matters as justice may require.
(3) Effect of administrator's action.
(i) Action by the Administrator under this paragraph does not affect or limit the Administrator's authority to enforce any provisions of this part; except that any violation with respect to which the Administrator has commenced and is diligently prosecuting an action under this part, or for which the Administrator has issued a final order not subject to further judicial review and for which the violator has paid a penalty assessment under this part may not be the subject of a civil penalty action under paragraph (b) of this section.
(ii) No action by the Administrator under this part affects a person's obligation to comply with a section of this part.
(4) Finality of order. An order issued under this part becomes final 30 days after its issuance unless a petition for judicial review is filed under paragraph (c)(5) of this section.
(5) Judicial review.
(i) A person against whom a civil penalty is assessed in accordance with this part may seek review of the assessment in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia or for the district in which the violation is alleged to have occurred, in which such person resides, or where the person's principle place of business is located, within the 30-day period beginning on the date a civil penalty order is issued. The person must simultaneously send a copy of the filing by certified mail to the Administrator and the Attorney General.
(ii) The Administrator must file in the court within 30 days a certified copy, or certified index, as appropriate, of the record on which the order was issued. The court is not to set aside or remand any order issued in accordance with the requirements of this paragraph unless substantial evidence does not exist in the record, taken as a whole, to support the finding of a violation or unless the Administrator's assessment of the penalty constitutes an abuse of discretion, and the court is not to impose additional civil penalties unless the Administrator's assessment of the penalty constitutes an abuse of discretion. In any proceedings, the United States may seek to recover civil penalties assessed under this section.
(i) If any person fails to pay an assessment of a civil penalty imposed by the Administrator as provided in this part after the order making the assessment has become final or after a court in an action brought under paragraph (c)(5) of this section has entered a final judgment in favor of the Administrator, the Administrator is to request that the Attorney General bring a civil action in an appropriate district court to recover the amount assessed (plus interest at rates established pursuant to section 6621(a)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 from the date of the final order or the date of final judgment, as the case may be). In such an action, the validity, amount, and appropriateness of the penalty are not subject to review.
(ii) A person who fails to pay on a timely basis the amount of an assessment of a civil penalty as described in paragraph (c)(6)(i) of this section is required to pay, in addition to that amount and interest, the United States' enforcement expenses, including attorney's fees and costs for collection proceedings, and a quarterly nonpayment penalty for each quarter during which the failure to pay persists. The nonpayment penalty is an amount equal to 10 percent of the aggregate amount of that person's penalties and nonpayment penalties which are unpaid as of the beginning of such quarter.