40 CFR 90.116 - Certification procedure
(a) Engine displacement must be calculated using nominal engine values and rounded to the nearest whole cubic centimeter in accordance with ASTM E29-93a. This procedure has been incorporated by reference. See § 90.7.
(b) Engines will be divided into classes by the following:
(1) Class I-A - nonhandheld equipment engines less than 66 cc in displacement;
(2) Class I-B - nonhandheld equipment engines greater than or equal to 66 cc but less than 100 cc in displacement;
(3) Class I - nonhandheld equipment engines greater than or equal to 100 cc but less than 225 cc in displacement;
(4) Class II - nonhandheld equipment engines greater than or equal to 225 cc in displacement;
(5) Class III - handheld equipment engines less than 20 cc in displacement,
(6) Class IV - handheld equipment engines equal or greater than 20 cc but less than 50 cc in displacement, and
(7) Class V - handheld equipment engines equal to or greater than 50 cc in displacement.
(c) The manufacturer's product line will be divided into groupings of engine families as specified by paragraph (d) of this section.
(d) To be classed in the same engine family, engines must be identical in all of the following applicable respects:
(1) The combustion cycle;
(2) The cooling mechanism;
(3) The cylinder configuration (inline, vee, opposed, bore spacings, and so forth);
(4) The number of cylinders;
(5) The engine class. Engines of different displacements that are within 15 percent of the largest displacement may be included within the same engine family as long as all the engines are in the same class;
(6) The location of valves, where applicable, with respect to the cylinder (e.g. side valves or overhead valves);
(7) The number of catalytic converters, location, volume and composition;
(8) The thermal reactor characteristics;
(9) The fuel required (e.g. gasoline, natural gas, LPG); and
(10) The useful life category.
(e) At the manufacturer's option, engines identical in all the respects listed in paragraph (d) of this section may be further divided into different engine families if the Administrator determines that they may be expected to have different emission characteristics. This determination is based upon the consideration of features such as:
(2) The combustion chamber configuration;
(3) The intake and exhaust timing method of actuation (poppet valve, reed valve, rotary valve, and so forth);
(4) The intake and exhaust valve or port sizes, as applicable;
(5) The fuel system;
(6) The exhaust system; and
(7) The method of air aspiration.
(f) Where engines are of a type which cannot be divided into engine families based upon the criteria listed in paragraph (d) of this section, the Administrator will establish families for those engines based upon the features most related to their emission characteristics.