40 CFR 90.404 - Test procedure overview.
(a) The test consists of prescribed sequences of engine operating conditions to be conducted on an engine dynamometer or equivalent load and speed measurement device. The exhaust gases generated during engine operation are sampled either raw or dilute and specific components are analyzed through the analytical system.
(b) The test is designed to determine the brake-specific emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen and fuel consumption. For Phase 2 Class I-B, Class I, and Class II natural gas fueled engines the test is also designed to determine the brake-specific emissions of non-methane hydrocarbons. The test consists of three different test cycles which are application specific for engines which span the typical operating range of nonroad spark-ignition engines. Two cycles exist for Class I-B, I and II engines and one is for Class I-A, III, IV, and V engines (see § 90.103(a) and § 90.116(b) for the definitions of Class I-A, I-B, and I - V engines). The test cycles for Class I-B, I, and II engines consist of one idle mode and five power modes at one speed (rated or intermediate). The test cycle for Class I-A, III, IV, and V engines consists of one idle mode at idle speed and one power mode at rated speed. These procedures require the determination of the concentration of each pollutant, fuel flow, and the power output during each mode. The measured values are weighted and used to calculate the grams of each pollutant emitted per brake kilowatt hour (g/kW-hr).
(1) When an engine is tested for exhaust emissions the complete engine must be tested, with all emission control devices installed and functioning.
(2) On air cooled engines, the cooling fan must be installed. For engines whose cooling fan serves a dual purpose, such as an air pump/blower, an external fan may be used to provide the engine with cooling air and the original cooling fan may be removed.
(d) All emission control systems installed on or incorporated in the application must be functioning during all procedures in this subpart. In case of component malfunction or failure, no maintenance is allowed without prior approval from the Administrator, in accordance with § 90.119.