40 CFR 90.409 - Engine dynamometer test run.
(a) Engine and dynamometer start-up. (1) Only adjustments in accordance with § 90.119 may be made to the test engine prior to starting a test.
(2) If necessary, warm up the dynamometer as recommended by the dynamometer manufacturer or use good engineering practice.
(3) For Phase 1 engines, at the manufacturer's option, the engine can be run with the throttle in a fixed position or by using the engine's governor (if the engine is manufactured with a governor). In either case, the engine speed and load must meet the requirements specified in paragraph (b)(12) of this section. For Phase 2 Class I, Phase 2 Class I-B, and Phase 2 Class II engines equipped with an engine speed governor, the governor must be used to control engine speed during all test cycle modes except for Mode 1 or Mode 6, and no external throttle control may be used that interferes with the function of the engine's governor; a controller may be used to adjust the governor setting for the desired engine speed in Modes 2-5 or Modes 7-10; and during Mode 1 or Mode 6 fixed throttle operation may be used to determine the 100 percent torque value.
(b) Each test consists of the following steps.
(1) Record the general test data as specified in § 90.405(b).
(2) Precondition the engine in the following manner;
(i) Operate the engine at a power greater than or equal to 50 percent maximum power at the appropriate speed (rated or intermediate) for 20 minutes;
(ii) Option. If the engine has been operating on service accumulation for a minimum of 40 minutes, the service accumulation may be substituted for step (i).
(3) Record all pre-test data specified in § 90.405(c).
(4) Start the test cycle (see § 90.410) within five minutes of the completion of the steps required by paragraph (b)(2) of this section.
(5) Modes are to be performed in the numerical order specified for the appropriate test cycle (see “Mode Points” Table 2 in Appendix A of this subpart).
(6) For Class I, I-B, and II engines, during the maximum torque mode calculate the torque corresponding to 75, 50, 25, and 10 percent of the maximum observed torque (see Table 2 in Appendix A to this subpart).
(7) Once engine speed and load are set for a mode, run the engine for a sufficient period of time to achieve thermal stability. At the manufacturer's option, determine and document the appropriate criterion for thermal stability for each engine family. If the manufacture chooses not to make this determination, an acceptable alternative is to run the engine at each mode until the cylinder head temperature remains within a 10 °C bandwidth for three minutes. Cylinder head temperature may be measured at the base of the spark plug. After stability is achieved, emission measurements are initiated.
(8) Record all modal data specified in § 90.405(d) for a minimum time period of the last two minutes of each mode. Longer averaging periods are acceptable, but the data averaged must be from a continuous time period. The duration of time during which this data is recorded is referred to as the “sampling period.” The data collected during the sampling period is used for modal emission calculations.
(9) Continuously record the analyzer's response to the exhaust gas during each mode.
(10) Modes may be repeated.
(11) If a delay of more than one hour occurs between the end of one mode and the beginning of another mode, the test is void and must be restarted at paragraph (b)(1) of this section.
(12) The engine speed and load must be maintained within the requirements of § 90.410 during the sampling period of each mode. If this requirement is not met, the mode is void and must be restarted.
(13) If at any time during a mode the test equipment malfunctions or the specifications in § 90.410 can not be met, the test is void and must be aborted. Corrective action should be taken and the test restarted.
(14) If at any time during an operating mode the engine stalls, restart the engine immediately and continue the test starting with the steps required by paragraph (b)(6) of this section. If the engine will not restart within five minutes the test is void. If maintenance is required on the engine, advance approval from the Administrator is required as specified in § 90.119. After corrective action is taken, the engine may be rescheduled for testing. Report the reason for the malfunction (if determined) and the corrective action taken.
(15) Fuel flow and air flow during the idle condition may be determined just prior to or immediately following the dynamometer sequence, if longer times are required for accurate measurements. If the dilute sampling method (Constant Volume Sampling) is used, neither fuel flow nor air flow measurements are required.
(c) Exhaust gas measurements. (1) Measure HC, CO, CO2, and NOX concentrations in the exhaust sample. Use the same units and modal calculations as for your other results to report a single weighted value for CO2; round CO2 to the nearest 1 g/kW-hr.
(2) Each analyzer range that may be used during a test mode must have the zero and span responses recorded prior to the start of the test. Only the range(s) used to measure the emissions during the test is required to have its zero and span recorded after the completion of the test. Depending on the stability of each individual analyzer, more frequent zero checks or spans between modes may be necessary.
(3) It is permitted to change filter elements between modes.
(4) A leak check is permitted between modes.
(5) A hang-up check is permitted between modes (see § 90.413).
(6) If, during the emission measurement portion of a mode, the value of the gauges downstream of the NDIR analyzer(s) G3 or G4 (see Figure 1 in Appendix B of this subpart), differs by more than ±0.5kPa from the pretest value, the test mode is void.