40 CFR 90.808 - Ordered recall provisions.
(a) Effective with respect to Phase 2 small SI engines:
(1) If the Administrator determines that a substantial number of any class or category of engines, although properly maintained and used, do not conform to the regulations prescribed under section 213 of the Act when in actual use throughout their useful life (as defined under § 90.105), the Administrator shall immediately notify the manufacturer of such nonconformity and require the manufacturer to submit a plan for remedying the nonconformity of the engines with respect to which such notification is given.
(ii) If the manufacturer disagrees with such determination of nonconformity and so advises the Administrator, the Administrator shall afford the manufacturer and other interested persons an opportunity to present their views and evidence in support thereof at a public hearing. Unless, as a result of such hearing, the Administrator withdraws such determination of nonconformity, the Administrator shall, within 60 days after the completion of such hearing, order the manufacturer to provide prompt notification of such nonconformity in accordance with paragraph (a)(2) of this section. The manufacturer shall comply in all respects with the requirements of this subpart.
(2) Any notification required to be given by the manufacturer under paragraph (a)(1) of this section with respect to any class or category of engines shall be given to dealers, ultimate purchasers, and subsequent purchasers (if known) in such manner and containing such information as required in subparts I and M of this part.
(i) Prior to an EPA ordered recall, the manufacturer may perform a voluntary emissions recall pursuant to regulations at § 90.804. Such manufacturer is subject to the reporting and recordkeeping requirements of § 90.805.
(ii) Once EPA determines that a substantial number of engines fail to conform with the requirements of section 213 of the Act or this part, the manufacturer will not have the option of a voluntary recall.
(b) The manufacturer bears all cost obligation a dealer incurs as a result of a requirement imposed by paragraph (a) of this section. The transfer of any such cost obligation from a manufacturer to a dealer through franchise or other agreement is prohibited.
(c) Any inspection of an engine for purposes of paragraph (a)(1) of this section, after its sale to the ultimate purchaser, is to be made only if the owner of such vehicle or engine voluntarily permits such inspection to be made, except as may be provided by any state or local inspection program.