40 CFR 91.118 - Certification procedure
(a) Manufacturer testing. The manufacturer must test the test engine using the specified test procedures and appropriate test cycle. All test results must be reported to the Administrator.
(1) The test procedures to be used are detailed in subpart E of this part.
(2) Emission test equipment provisions are described in subpart D of this part.
(b) Administrator testing. (1) The Administrator may require that any one or more of the test engines be submitted to the Administrator, at such place or places as the Administrator may designate, for the purposes of conducting emission tests. The Administrator may specify that testing will be conducted at the manufacturer's facility, in which case instrumentation and equipment specified by the Administrator must be made available by the manufacturer for test operations. Any testing conducted at a manufacturer's facility must be scheduled by the manufacturer as promptly as possible.
(i) Whenever the Administrator conducts a test on a test engine, the results of that test will, unless subsequently invalidated by the Administrator, comprise the official data for the engine and the manufacturer's data will not be used in determining compliance with the Family Emission Limit (FEL).
(ii) Prior to the performance of such a test, the Administrator may adjust or cause to be adjusted any adjustable parameter of the test engine which the Administrator has determined to be subject to adjustment for testing, to any setting within the physically adjustable range of that parameter, to determine whether the engine conforms to the applicable Family Emission Limit (FEL).
(iii) For those engine parameters which the Administrator has not determined to be subject to adjustment for testing, the test engine presented to the Administrator for testing will be calibrated within the production tolerances applicable to the manufacturer specification shown on the engine label, as specified in the application for certification.
(c) Use of carryover test data. In lieu of testing, the manufacturer may submit, with the Administrator's approval, emission test data used to certify substantially similar engine families in previous years. This “carryover” test data is only allowable if the data shows the test engine would fully comply with the applicable Family Emission Limit (FEL).
(d) Scheduled maintenance during testing. No scheduled maintenance may be performed during testing of the engine.
(e) Unscheduled maintenance on test engines. (1) Manufacturers may not perform any unscheduled engine, emission control system, or fuel system adjustment, repair, removal, disassembly, cleaning, or replacement on a test engine without the advance approval of the Administrator.
(2) The Administrator may approve such maintenance if:
(i) A preliminary determination has been made that a part failure or system malfunction, or the repair of such failure or malfunction, does not render the engine unrepresentative of engines in use, and does not require direct access to the combustion chamber; and
(ii) A determination has been made that the need for maintenance or repairs is indicated by an overt malfunction such as persistent misfire, engine stall, overheating, fluid leakage, or loss of oil pressure.
(3) Emission measurements may not be used as a means of determining the need for unscheduled maintenance under paragraph (e)(2) of this section.
(4) The Administrator must have the opportunity to verify the extent of any overt indication of part failure (for example, misfire, stall), or an activation of an audible and/or visual signal, prior to the manufacturer performing any maintenance related to such overt indication or signal.
(5) Unless approved by the Administrator prior to use, engine manufacturers may not use any equipment, instruments, or tools to identify malfunctioning, maladjusted, or defective engine components unless the same or equivalent equipment, instruments, or tools are available at dealerships and other service outlets and are used in conjunction with scheduled maintenance on such components.
(6) If the Administrator determines that part failure or system malfunction occurrence and/or repair rendered the engine unrepresentative of production engines, the engine may not be used as a test engine.
(7) Unless waived by the Administrator, complete emission tests are required before and after any engine maintenance which may reasonably be expected to affect emissions.
(f) Engine failure. A manufacturer may not use as a test engine any engine which incurs major mechanical failure necessitating disassembly of the engine. This prohibition does not apply to failures which occur after completion of the service accumulation period.
(g) In lieu of providing or generating emission data under this section for existing technology, the Administrator may allow the manufacturer to demonstrate (on the basis of previous emission tests, development tests, or other testing information) that the engine will conform with the applicable FEL.
(1) Manufacturers may select an FEL for existing technology OB/PWC through:
(i) Model year 2000 based on the function 151 557/P 0.9 where P = average power of an engine family in kW (sales weighted). The power of each configuration is the rated output in kilowatts as determined by SAE J1228. (This procedure has been incorporated by reference. See § 91.6). The certificate of conformity would be conditioned by requirements that the manufacturer submit test data, as determined appropriate by the Administrator under § 91.118(h) by the end of model year 2000; that the FEL is revised and approved by EPA to reflect the test data; that the credits associated with the engine family are recalculated based on the difference between the old FEL and the new FEL; and that the new FEL applies to all engines covered by the certificate of conformity; or
(ii) Model year 2003 based on good engineering judgement.
(2) Upon request by the manufacturer, the Administrator has the discretion to extend the time period set forth in paragraph (h)(1) of this section for a specific engine family up to model year 2005 if the Administrator determines that an engine family will be phased out of U.S. production by model year 2005. As a condition to being granted such an extension, the manufacturer must discontinue U.S. production according to the schedule upon which the Administrator based the extension. Failure to do so by the manufacturer will void the certificate of conformity ab initio.
(i) A manufacturer request under paragraph (h)(2) of this section must be in writing and must apply to a specific engine family. The request must identify the engine family designation, the rationale supporting the FEL choice, the type of information used as a basis for the FEL (e.g., previous emission tests, development tests), the specific source of the information including when the information was generated, the schedule for phasing the engine family out of U.S. production, and any other information the Administrator may require.