40 CFR 92.103 - Test procedures; overview.
(a) This subpart contains procedures for exhaust emission tests of locomotives and locomotive engines. The procedures specified here are intended to measure brake-specific mass emissions of organic compounds (hydrocarbons for locomotives using petroleum diesel fuel), oxides of nitrogen, particulates, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and smoke in a manner representative of a typical operating cycle.
(1) The sampling systems specified in this subpart are intended to collect representative samples for analysis, and minimize losses of all analytes.
(i) For gaseous emissions, a sample of the raw exhaust is collected directly from the exhaust stream and analyzed during each throttle setting.
(ii) Particulates are collected on filters following dilution with ambient air of a separate raw exhaust sample.
(2) Analytical equipment is identical for all fuel types, with the exception of the systems used to measure organics (i.e., hydrocarbons, alcohols, and aldehydes); diesel-fueled and biodiesel-fueled locomotives Parts per million and locomotive engines require a heated, continuous hydrocarbon detector; natural gas-fueled locomotives and locomotive engines require a continuous hydrocarbon detector and a methane detector; alcohol-fueled locomotives and locomotive engines require a heated hydrocarbon detector, alcohol sampling and detection systems, and aldehyde sampling and detection systems. Necessary equipment and specifications appear in §§ 92.105 through 92.111.
(3) Fuel specifications for emission testing are specified in § 92.113. Analytical gases are specified in § 92.112.
(c) The power produced by the engine is measured at each throttle setting.
(d) The fuel flow rate for each throttle setting is measured in accordance with § 92.107.
(e) Locomotives and locomotive engines are tested using the test sequence as detailed in §§ 92.124 and 92.126.
(f) Alternate sampling and/or analytical systems may be used if shown to yield equivalent results, and if approved in advance by the Administrator. Guidelines for determining equivalency are found in Appendix IV of this part.
(g) At the time of the creation of this part, essentially all locomotives and locomotive engines subject to the standards of this part were designed to use diesel fuel. Therefore, the testing provisions of this subpart focus primarily on that fuel. Some provisions for fuels other than diesel are also included. If a manufacturer or remanufacturer of locomotives or locomotive engines, or a user of locomotives, or other party wishes or intends to use a fuel other than diesel in locomotives or locomotive engines, it shall notify the Administrator, who shall specify those changes to the test procedures that are necessary for the testing to be consistent with good engineering practice. The changes made under this paragraph (g) shall be limited to:
(1) Exhaust gas sampling and analysis;
(2) Test fuels; and