40 CFR 92.106 - Equipment for loading the engine.
For purposes of placing the required load on the engine during an emissions test, either the equipment specified in paragraph (a) of this section, or the equipment specified in paragraph (b) of this section may be used.
(a) Locomotive testing.
(1) The equipment required for loading the locomotive engine-alternator/generator assembly electrically, and for measurement of the electrical power output from the alternator/generator consists of the following, either in total or in part: electrical resistance load bank; fans or other means for cooling of the load bank; wattmeter, including phase angle compensation; meter(s) for measurement of the current through the load bank (a calibrated electrical shunt and voltmeter is allowed for current measurement); meter(s) to measure the voltage across the load bank; and electrical cable to connect the alternator/generator to the load bank. Many locomotives are equipped with an internal electrical resistance load bank and fans for cooling of the load bank; when so equipped, the locomotive load bank may be used for purposes of loading the engine during emissions tests.
(2) The combination of instruments (meters) used to measure engine or alternator/generator power output (wattmeter, ammeter, voltmeter) shall have accuracy and precision such that the accuracy of the measured alternator/generator power out is better than:
(i) 2 percent of point at all power settings except idle and dynamic brake; and
(ii) Less accuracy and precision is allowed at idle and dynamic brake, consistent with good engineering practice. Equipment with accuracy or precision worse than 20 percent of point is not allowed.
(3) The efficiency curve for the alternator/generator, shall specify the efficiency at each test point. The manufacturer or remanufacturer shall provide EPA with a detailed description of the procedures used to establish the alternator/generator efficiency.
(b) Engine testing.
(1) For engine testing using a dynamometer, the engine dynamometer system must be capable of controlling engine torque and speed simultaneously under steady speed operation, during accelerations where the rate of change in torque and speed is representative of those changes which occur when the engine is operating in a locomotive. It must also be capable of performing the test sequence described in this subpart. In addition to these general requirements, the engine or dynamometer readout signals for speed and torque shall meet the following accuracy specifications:
(i) Engine speed readout shall be accurate to within ±2 percent of the absolute standard value, as defined in § 92.116 of this part.
(ii) Engine flywheel torque readout shall be accurate to within ±2 percent of the NIST “true” value torque at all power settings above 10 percent of full-scale, and accurate to within ±5 percent of the NIST “true” value torque at power settings at or below 10 percent of full-scale.
(2) For engine testing using a locomotive alternator/generator instead of a dynamometer, the equipment used shall comply with the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section.