40 CFR 92.111 - Smoke measurement system.
(a) Schematic drawing. Figure B111-1 of this section is a schematic drawing of the optical system of the light extinction meter, as follows:View or download PDF
(b) Equipment. The following equipment shall be used in the system.
(1) Adapter. The smokemeter optical unit may be mounted on a fixed or movable frame. The normal unrestricted shape of the exhaust plume shall not be modified by the adaptor, the meter, or any ventilation system used to remove the exhaust from the test site. Distortion due to the gaseous or particulate sample probes, or the exhaust duct is allowed subject to the provisions of § 92.114.
(2) Wind shielding. Tests shall not be conducted under excessively windy conditions. Winds are excessive if they disturb the size, shape, or location of the exhaust plume in the region where exhaust samples are drawn or where the smoke plume is measured. Tests may be conducted if wind shielding is placed adjacent to the exhaust plume to prevent bending, dispersion, or any other distortion of the exhaust plume as it passes through the optical unit.
(3) Smokemeter, (light extinction meter). A continuously recording, full-flow light obscuration meter shall be used.
(i) It is positioned as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, so that a built-in light beam traverses the exhaust smoke plume which issues from the duct. The light beam shall be at right angles to the axis of the plume, and in those cases were the exhaust is not circular at its discharge, the path of the light beam through the plume shall be along the longest axis of the exhaust stack which is not a diagonal of a rectangular exhaust stack.
(ii) The light source shall be an incandescent lamp with a color temperature range of 2800K to 3250K, or a light source with a spectral peak between 550 and 570 nanometers.
(iii) The light output is collimated to a beam with a nominal diameter of 1.125 inches and an angle of divergence within a 6 degree included angle.
(iv) The light detector shall be a photocell or photodiode. If the light source is an incandescent lamp, the detector shall have a spectral response similar to the photopic curve of the human eye (a maximum response in the range of 550 to 570 nanometers, to less than four percent of that maximum response below 430 nanometers and above 680 nanometers).
(v) A collimating tube with apertures equal to the beam diameter is attached to the detector to restrict the viewing angle of the detector to within a 16 degree included angle.
(vi) An amplified signal corresponding to the amount of light blocked is recorded continuously on a remote recorder.
(vii) An air curtain across the light source and detector window assemblies may be used to minimize deposition of smoke particles on those surfaces provided that it does not measurably affect the opacity of the plume.
(viii) The smokemeter consists of two units; an optical unit and a remote control unit.
(ix) Light extinction meters employing substantially identical measurement principles and producing substantially equivalent results, but which employ other electronic and optical techniques may be used only after having been approved in advance by the Administrator.
(4) Recorder. A continuous recorder, with variable chart speed over a minimal range of 1 to 20 cm per minute (or equivalent) and an automatic marker indicating 1-second intervals, continuously records the exhaust gas opacity and throttle position.
(i) The recorder is equipped to indicate each of the throttle notch (test mode) positions.
(ii) The recorder scale for opacity is linear and calibrated to read from 0 to 100 percent opacity full scale.
(iii) The opacity trace has a resolution within one percent opacity.
(iv) The throttle position trace clearly indicates each throttle position.
(5) The recorder used with the smokemeter shall be capable of full-scale deflection in 0.5 second or less. The smokemeter-recorder combination may be damped so that signals with a frequency higher than 10 cycles per second are attenuated. A separate low-pass electronic filter with the following performance characteristics may be installed between the smokemeter and the recorder to achieve the high-frequency attenuation:
(i) Three decibel point: 10 cycles per second.
(ii) Insertion loss: 0 ±0.5 decibel.
(iii) Selectivity: 12 decibels down at 40 cycles per second minimum.
(iv) Attenuation: 27 decibels down at 40 cycles per second minimum.
(6) Automatic data collection equipment may be used, provided it is capable of collecting data equivalent to or better than the data required by paragraphs (b)(4) and (5) of this section.
(1) Assembling equipment for locomotive testing. The optical unit of the smokemeter shall be mounted radially to the exhaust duct so that the measurement will be made at right angles to the axis of the exhaust plume. The distance from the optical centerline to the exhaust outlet shall be minimized; in all cases it shall be less than 10 feet. The maximum allowable distance of unducted space upstream of the optical centerline is 18 inches. The full flow of the exhaust stream shall be centered between the source and detector apertures (or windows and lenses) and on the axis of the light beam.
(2) Assembling equipment for engine testing. The optical unit of the smokemeter shall be mounted radially to the exhaust duct so that the measurement will be made at right angles to the axis of the exhaust plume. The distance from the optical centerline to the exhaust outlet shall be less than 25 feet. The maximum allowable distance of unducted space upstream of the optical centerline is 18 inches. In-line smokemeters are allowed. The full flow of the exhaust stream shall be centered between the source and detector apertures (or windows and lenses) and on the axis of the light beam.
(d) Power supply. Power shall be supplied to the control unit of the smokemeter in time to allow at least 15 minutes for stabilization prior to testing.